La cometa

Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

By Xerath
  • Death of Charles II

    Death of Charles II
    Charles II of Spain died without an heir or children. He was the last Habsburg king of Spain, and he ruled from 1665-1700. His death led to the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). As the Crown of Spain passed according to cognatic primogeniture, it was possible for a female to assume the throne but he could not have any children although he married many wifes.
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    Reing of Philip V of Spain

    He was the first bourbon in Spain, and ruled until he adbicated in favour of his son Louis, Then on 6 September 1724 he went back to the throne.
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    War of the Spanish Succession

    It started with the death of Charles II. He died without heir, so there was a conflict between the Bourbons and the Habsburgs. The Bourbons won the war, and Philip V became king.
    There were 3 Treaties during this war, which were:
    -The Treaty Of Utrecht (1713)
    -The Treaty Of Rasttat (1714)
    -The Treaty Of Baden (1714)
  • Decree of the reing of Valencia and the crown of Aragon

    Philip V promulgated the Decree of Nueva Planta in declaring "abolished and repealed all privileges referenced, privileges, practice and custom hitherto observed in the said kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, being my will that they are reduced to the laws of Castile, and use in practice and form of government that has and has had it, and in their courts without any difference in anything "
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    Decretos de Nueva Planta

    The Decretos de Nueva Planta are a mix of decrees signed by Phillip V after the War of Succesion (between 1707 and 1716) , when his army ocupied the crown of Aragon.
  • Pragmatic Sanctions

    It issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter. This was made because Charles and his wife Elizabeth Christine did not have any children and since Charles was the only male in the House of Habsburg he made this.
  • Decree of Mallorca and Pitiusas

    Abolished the Parliament and the Council of One Hundred.
    Besides the Viceroy was replaced by a captain general, as in the rest of the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon somatenes (armed militias in Catalonia and Aragon) are prohibited.
    Taxing the land urban and rural properties and benefits of labor, trade and industry was established.
    Similarly, the official language of the Court ceased to be Latin and was replaced by the Castilian
  • Decree of Catalonia

    A year and three months after the end of the War of Spanish Succession, by which the new institutions of Spanish inspiration were to replace themselves, the Principality abolished around the capitulation of the city of Barcelona occur on September 12.
  • First Family Compact 1733

    The First Family compact was made on November 7, 1733 by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of the Escorial. France beacked Spain`s rigth to recover possesion in Italy in return for Spain`s support in the War of the Polish succession (1733–1738).
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    Family Compacts

    The Family Compacts is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. The are 3 family compacts:
    -First Family Compact (1733)
    -Second Family Compact (1743)
    -Third Family Compact (1761)
  • Isabella Of Parma

    Isabella Of Parma
    Isabella of Parma was the daugther of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth of Parma. She died at the age of 22.
    She mantained a romantic lesbian affair with Archduchess Maria Christina the sister of her husband they spent many time in the Viennese court writing letters showing their feelings as Maria was very romantic and happy Isabella was very pessimistic .
  • Second Family Compact

    The second Family Compact was made on October 25, 1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. With the support of France in the War of Succession resulted in the instalation of Charle`s younger brother as duke of Parma in 1748.
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (1744-1811) was a Spanish neoclassical author, philosopher and an important figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
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    Francisco Goya

    Francisco Goya was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
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    Reing of Ferdinand VI

    He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa Of Savoy.
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    Seven Years War

    It was a global conflict known in America as the French and Indian War. Officially begins when England declares war on France. However, fighting between England and France had been going on in North America for years.
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    Reing of Charles III

    He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife Elisabeth Farnese.
  • Third Family Compact

    The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris.
  • Treaty of Saint Petersburg

    The Treaty of Saint Petesburg was signed on 5 May 1762. It ended with the fighting in the Seven Years War between Prussia and Russia. The treaty followed the accession of Tsar Peter III.
  • Treaty of Hamburg

    The Treaty of Hamburg was signed in the Free City of Hamburg between Sweden and Prussia during the Pomeranian War, a theater of the Seven Years' War.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Also known as the Peace of Paris, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years War.
  • Treaty of Hubertusburg

    Treaty of Hubertusburg
    The Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed on 15 February 1763 at Hubertusburg by Prussia, and Austria together with the Treaty of Paris. It marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years War.
  • Esquirlache Riots

    It occured during the rule of Charles III of Spain, it was caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread. Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister, created the riots.
  • Jesuits expelled from Spain

    The jesuits were expelled from Spain in 1767 by the bourbon who ruled at that time, Charles III of Spain. The jesuits were the members of the "Society of Jesus", which was a Christian male religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church. San Ignacio de Loyola created this congregation.
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    Royal Tapestry

    They are a mix of paintings made by Goya for the "Real Fabrica de Tapices de Santa Barbara".
  • "Perros y útiles de caza" by Goya

    "Perros y útiles de caza" by Goya
    "Perros útiles y de caza", also known as "Perros en traílla" is a painting done by Goya during 1775. Today it is owned by The Prado Museum.
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    Jose Moñino 1st Count of Floridablanca

    He was a Spanish statesman and he was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV.
  • El Parasol

    El Parasol
    It measures 104x152 cm and it is owned by the Prado museum.
    It is one of a cartoon series of oil on linen paintings made by the painter Francisco Goya
  • Tomás de Zumalacárregui

    Tomás de Zumalacárregui
    Tomás de Zumalacárregui, who was known as "Tío Tomás", was a Basque Carlist general during the first Carlist War (1833-1840).
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    Reing of Charles IV

    Charles was the second son of Charles III and his wife Maria Amalia of Saxony.
  • Painter of Charles III

    Painter of Charles III
    Francisco Goya was the painter of the spanish king Charles III by the year 1789. The image shows a picture of Charles III painted by Francisco Goya between 1786 and 1788.
  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    He was the Prime Minister of Spain between 1792 and 1797, and between 1801 and 1808. He recieved many titles including the one of Prince of Peace. He used corruption to mantain the power. He was blamed due to the disaster againts Britain.
  • Goya becamed deaf

    Goya becamed deaf
    Right before he finished the portrait of Sebastian Martinez, a successful and one of his best works, since Goya's illness left him deaf he was forced to now work on small paintings such as his witchcraft paintings and cabinet pictures.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    He was imprisoned and condemned to the guillotine, his death is known as the start of the French revolution.
    His wife Marie Antoniete was guillotined on 1793.
  • War of the Pyrenees

    War of the Pyrenees
    In the war of the Pyrenees participated France against the kingdoms ok Spain and Portugal. It started in March 1793 and ended in July in 1795, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
  • "Caprichos" by Goya

    "Caprichos"  by Goya
    Are a set of 80 aquatint prints created by Francisco Goya. The prints were an artistic experiment: a medium for Goya's condemnation of the universal follies and foolishness in the Spanish society in which he lived
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    Built during the XVIII and XIX centuries. It was built to ease the wheat grain transport from Castile to the northern harbours and to other markets from there.It passes through the provinces of Burgos, Palencia and Valladolid in the province of Castile and Leon ,
  • The family of Chales IV

    The family of Chales IV
    The family of Charles IV is a very famous painting, painted by Francisco Goya. He painted it between the years 1800-1801. Today, this painting is owned by the Prado Museum, in Madrid.
  • Battle of Traflagar

    Battle of Traflagar
    It was a naval war fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies. France and Spain lost this battle againt the powerful army of Great Britain.
  • Napoleonic Troops in Spain

    (Sometimes 2 May 1808) When the French troops turned on Spain trying to control the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Treaty of Fontaineblue

    Treaty of Fontaineblue
    It was a treaty between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France. The treaty proposed the division of the Kingdom of Portugal and all Portuguese dominions between the signatories.
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    Reing of Ferdinand VII

    When his father's abdication was extorted in March 1808, he ascended the throne but turned again to Napoleon in the hope that the emperor would support him.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The eldest surviving son of Charles IV, King of Spain, and of his wife Maria Luisa of Parma. He ruled Twice.
  • Levantamiento del 2 de Mayo

    Levantamiento del 2 de Mayo
    The "Levantamiento del 2 de Mayo" was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, which led to repression by the French Imperial forces.
  • Independence War

    Independence War
    It was inside the Peninsular War, a conflict between France and Spain against Britain.The war started when French and Spanish armies occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain its ally until then.The war on the peninsula lasted until the defeat of Napoleon in 1814.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Were a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain, which were Charles IV and Ferdinand VII. Napoleon's designation of his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Spain was resisted by the Spanish people and that led to the Peninsular War.
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    Reing of Joseph Bonaparte

    He was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte who made him king of Spain. His father was Carlo Bonaparte and his mother was Letizia Ramolino.
  • Spanish Constitution (1812)

    Spanish Constitution (1812)
    Established in Cadiz by the Cortes Generales during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press
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    2nd Reing of Ferdinand VII

    The 6 of May 1808 Ferdinand VII stopped being King of Spain. From that year until 1813 Spain was ruled by Joseph I. Then Ferdinand VII returned to be King of Spain in that year.
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    Absolutist period, Ferdinand VII

    He was named the "whish" due to the expectation of people for his get back. After some years dealing with the constitution Ferdinand decided to ask for help to abolish constitution and to get back to Absolute Monarchy so France send the French army (also know as Hundred Thousand sons os Sanit Louis) to help him.
  • "Judith y Holofernes" by Goya

    "Judith y Holofernes" by Goya
    "Judith y Holofernes" is one of the fourteen "black paintings" of Goya. It was painted between the years 1819-1823.
  • "Duelo a Garrotazos" by Francisco Goya

    "Duelo a Garrotazos" by Francisco Goya
    "Duelo a Garrotazos" is one of the Goya's paintings which it is included in his collection called "Black Paintings". He painted it between 1820 and 1823. "Black Paintings" is composed of fourteen paintings that Francisco Goya painted in his last years of life.
  • Riego's pronunciamiento

    Riego's pronunciamiento
    Rafael del Riego leads a large part of the Spanish army, demanding a liberal constitution. King Ferdinand VII agrees, but secretly asks for aid from the Congress system which, in the Congress of Verona of 1822, agreed to have France send 100,000, which promptly defeat Regio's forces and reinstall an absolute monarchy.
  • Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power.
  • The First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War
    It was a civil war in Spain where people fought between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy.
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    Reing of Isabella II

    She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists. Her father was Ferdinand VII and her mother was Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies.
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    Regency for Isabella II

    The first pretender was Ferdinand's brother, Carlos, the count of Molina. Carlos and his descendants supporters were known as Carlists, and the fight over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century. After the Carlist war, the regent, Maria Christina, resigned to make way for Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. Espartero, remained regent for only two years.
  • Second Carlist War

    Second Carlist War
    It is also known as the War of the Matiners. Was a short civil war fought in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera against the forces of the government of Isabella II.
  • Juan de Zavala

    Juan de Zavala
    Juan de Zavala was the prime minister of Spain from 6 June 1855 to 14 July 1856. After fighting in the First Carlist War, the Marquess served as Prime Minister of Spain.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution (19 September - 27 September 1868) , known in Spain as "La Gloriosa", resulted in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. The leaders of the revolution recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king
  • Francisco Serrano

    Francisco Serrano
    Francisco Serrano was the last president of the First Spanish Republic from 18 June 1869 to 27 September 1870.
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    Reing of Amadeo I

    He was abdicated and elected by Cortes Generales.He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy.
  • Death of Juan Prim

    Death of Juan Prim
    He was a Spanish general and statesman.When he was leaving the chamber of the Cortes on 28 December, and was shot by an unknown assassin and died two days later.
  • Third Carlist War

    Third Carlist War
    It was the last Carlist War in Spain, during this conflict Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain.
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    First Spanish Republic

    It was the political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation and the begining of the Bourbon Restoration.
  • Estanislao Figueras

    Estanislao Figueras
    Estanislao Figueras was the first president of the First Spanish Republic from 12 February to 11 June 1873.
  • Francisco Pi Y Margall

    Francisco Pi Y Margall
    Francisco Pi Y Margall was the second president of the First Spanish Republic from 11 June 1873 to 18 July 1873.
  • Nicolás Salmerón Alonso

    Nicolás Salmerón Alonso
    Nicolás Salmerón Alonso was the third president of the First Spanish Republic from 18 July 1873 to 7 September 1873.
  • Emilio Castelar y Ripoll

    Emilio Castelar y Ripoll
    Emilio Castelar y Ripoll was the fourth president of the First Spanish Republic from 7 September 1873 to 4 January 1874.
  • Restoration of the monarchy

    The Restoration was the name given to the period that began after the First Spanish Republic which ended with the restoration of the monarchy under Alfonso XII after a coup d'état by Martinez Campos, and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.