Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

  • Charle's II death

    Charle's II death
    Toward the end of his life Charles' fragile health deteriorated and he became increasingly hypersensitive and strange. He officially retired when he had a nervous breakdown caused by the amount of pressure put on him to try to pull Spain out of the economic trouble it was going through. He died in Madrid on 1 November 1700, The physician who practiced his autopsy stated that his body was corroded, rotten and gangrenous.
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    King Philip V

    King Philip V was the first that reigned in Spain as a Bourbon. He was the grandson of Louis XIV. He also was fighting against the Gran Alliance with the help of France. This is the first part of his reign.
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    The War of Spanish Succession

    After the death of Charles II, this carried out the alliance of England and Emperor Leopold I, who declared the War of Spanish Sucession.The Gran Alliance (Dutch Army, English Army and the Austrian Habsburg Army) and Two Crowns (Spanish Army and French Army) were fighting to the territoy gained by Spain. Finally, The Two Crowns won the war.
  • New Foundation Laws (Decretos de Nueva Planta)

    New Foundation Laws (Decretos de Nueva Planta)
    New Foundation Laws are a set of decrees issued by King Philip V of Bourbon, who won the War of Spanish Succession, by which were abolished the laws and institutions of the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Mallorca, all members of the Crown of Aragon who had opted for the Archduke Charles, putting an end to the composite structure of the Spanish monarchy of the Habsburgs.
  • The Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. The treaties were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and of his grandson.They marked the end of French ambitions of hegemony in Europe expressed in the wars of Louis XIV, and preserved the European system based on the balance of power.
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    King Louis I

    Louis I reigned only seven months and it was one the reigns that lasted very early. Louis was the son of Philip V and Philip would reign again.
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    King Philip V again

    In the second part of the reign of Philip he helped in some wars, for example, the war of Austrian Sucession. During this period Spain had economic problems.
  • The First Family Compact

    The First Family Compact
    The first of these was made on November 7, 1733 by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of the Escorial. They helped each other in the wars of the War of the Spanish Succession and the War of the Polish Succession. Philip V with this war wanted to gain some territories of Italy that were lost. he gained the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily.
  • The Second Family Compact

    The second Family Compact was made on October 25, 1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
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    Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI was the son of Philip V. Fernindand continued in the War of Austrian Succession. He made "Unica Contribución",which was a single tax to Arangonese lines. He named José de Carvajal as he own chief foreign secretary to temper Ensenada's power
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    King Charles III

    He was the fifth son of Philip V, He conquered the kingdoms of naples and Sicily. He intended to rescue the empire from decay weaking the church and the monasteries promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernizing agriculture and avoiding wars.
  • The Third Family Compact

    The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. The agreement involved Spain's allies Naples and Tuscany. When Spain became involved, the British occupied the Philippines and Cuba.
  • Teaty of Paris

    Teaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. Great Britain and France returned much of the territory that they had each captured during the war, but Britain gained much of France's possessions in North America.
  • Esquilache riot

    Esquilache riot
    The Esquilache Riots occurred in March 1766 during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused by the increase of the bread's costs and other basic foods. With this the spaniars suffer a changed in their apparel that was from the Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The Second Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia, established a five-member drafting committee to write the document. Thomas Jefferson dealt with the first draft for the committee to work on. Then the 56 delegates debated the final wording until July 4, when Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence. The formal copy was signed in August, and John Hancock, president of Congress.
  • Jesuits expelled by Bourbons

    Jesuits expelled by Bourbons
    Jesuits were expelled because it was ordered by King Carlos III on charges of having been the original of popular uprisings last year, known by the name of Riot of Esquilache. Six years after the Spanish monarch succeeded Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuit order.
  • The Treaty of San Idelfonso

    The Treaty of San Idelfonso
    The First Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 1 October 1777 between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. The agreement mainly settled territorial disputes in the Río de la Plata region. Based on the terms of the agreement, Spain ceded territories in Brazil to Portugal in return for maintaining control over the Banda Oriental
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    King Charles IV

    He was the son of Charles III. He fighted against republicans in France. He made an alliance with Portugal to defend against France. But in 1795, Spain and France made an alliance to fight against British. When there were riots against his throne Napoleon took advantage of it and forced Charles to abdicate and he put his son Joseph I.
  • Storming of Bastille

    Storming of Bastille
    The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained just seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of the abuse of the monarchy: its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. His execution made him the first victim of the Reign of Terror.
  • War of Pyrenees

    War of Pyrenees
    War of Pyrenees was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal from March 1793 to July 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars.First, the Committee of Public Safety decreed that all French royalist prisoners be executed. Second, French generals who lost battles were sent to prison or the guillotine with alarming frequency.
  • Napoleon First Consul

    Napoleon First Consul
    Bonaparte, First Consul Bonapart first consoul is an 1804 portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. The painting is now in the collection of the Curtius Museum in Liège. Posing the hand inside the waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and stable leadership.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

     Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle was the most decisive naval victory of the war
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    France once again in declaring war on England. Ten months later Spanish naval power was utterly destroyed in the Battle of Trafalgar. After this in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau, in which Spain and France agreed to the partition of Portugal.
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    Ferdinand VII: First period

    After Charles IV abdicated, he received the power but Napoleon who was interested in the peninsula, forced Ferdinand to abdicate. Ferdinad had to do it because there were troops of Napoleon that were going to defeat Portugal. Although Naoleon wanted all the Peninsula.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Spanish War of Independence, which must not be confused with the Peninsular War.
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation.
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    King Joseph I

    King Joseph I was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. When he arrived at the throne he suffered the beginning of the Peninsular War. During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition. King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after the main French forces were defeated by the British at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.
  • First Constitution

    First Constitution
    On 19 March 1812, Spain’s first constitution was drawn up in Cadiz, enshrining the rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy.
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    Ferdinand VII: Second Period

    Ferdinand merely restored the absolute mornarchy as if nothing had happened since 1808, fixing the financial problems arising from the continued existence of tax privileges and the failure of traditional tax system. Unable to react with the constant independence of the American colonies. But the ideas of the Constitution of 1812 there were not forgotten. So, revolutionaries forced the king to accept the restoration of the 1812 Constitution.
  • Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis (Holy Alliances)

    Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis (Holy Alliances)
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis (known in France as "the issuing of Spain") was a French contingent Spanish volunteers who fought in Spain in 1823 in defense of the old regime by advocating Fernando VII of Spain, ending Realistic War and the Liberal Triennium.
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    Ferdinand VII: Third Period

    With the "Cien mil hijos de San Luis" he could restored the absolute monarchy and with this defeat all liberalism ideas. Fernando promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction finally approved by "Las Cortes" in 1789, which abolished the Salic Law, returning to the traditional Castilian inheritance law that allowed women to inherit the throne. And the first Carlist war was proclaimed before he died.
  • Rieg´s pronunciamento

    Rieg´s pronunciamento
    The liberal revolution that occurred in Spain in 1820 after a rather turbulent decade was the beginning of the Revolutions of 1823. After the War of Spanish Independence, the Liberals called for the return of Ferdinand VII, called "t El Deseado" so that this to sign the Constitution of 1812. However, the monarch had another idea in mind and rejected the constitution devised by the Cortes of Cadiz, restoring her figure on absolute power.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    The Pragmatic Sanction of 1830 (Spanish: Pragmática Sanción), issued March 29, 1830 by King Ferdinand VII of Spain, ratified a Decree of 1789 by Charles IV of Spain, which had replaced the semi-Salic system established by Philip V of Spain with the mixed succession system that predated the Bourbon monarchy (see also Carlism).
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    First Carlist Civil War

    The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1839, fought between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy. It was fought between supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, and those of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón (or Carlos V). The Carlists supported return to an absolute monarchy.
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    Queen Isabella II

    Isabella II was queen regnant of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. Isabella directly reigned from 1843 to 1868, a period of palace intrigues, barracks conspiracies, and military pronunciamientos to further the ends of the political parties. Independence revolts in Cuba and Puerto Rico; and some progress in public works, especially railways.
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    Second Carlist Civil WAr

    The Second Carlist War was a short civil war fought primarily in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera against the forces of the government of Isabella II. The uprising began in September 1846 and continued until May 1849, spreading to Galicia. Theoretically, the war was fought to facilitate the marriage of Isabella II with the Carlist pretender, Carlos de Borbón, which was supported by the moderate party and by the Carlists.
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    Spanish Glorious

    The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders in 1875 proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus of Savoy was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
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    Third Carlist Civil War

    The Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain, the most important ones being La Seu d'Urgell and Estella in Navarre. Isabella II had abdicated the throne, and Amadeo I, a younger son of the King of Italy who had been proclaimed King of Spain in 1870.
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    First Spanish Republic

    The First Spanish Republic was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I. The next day, 11 February the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals, republicans and democrats.
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    Regency of María Cristina II of Spain

    was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, and the vacancy of the throne between her husband's death and her son's birth.