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ETA Orginazation

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  • PNV

    PNV
    • Idealogy of Basque Nationalism and Christian Democracy
    • Wanted restoration of self government and defend the Basque race, AUTONOMY
    • Relatively peaceful group with peaceful demonstrations
  • Guernica

    Guernica
    German bombers sent by Hitlers army destroy the Basque city of Guernica to assist Franco's Nationalist army take over the last of the Basque Republican ruled regions.
  • End Civil War

    End Civil War
    Spanish Civil War comes to an end as Francisco Francos Nationalist movement gains power.
  • Period: to

    The Franco Dictatorship

    Franco began his drive to consolidate Spain as a Monolithic nation state passing harsh laws against minorities, primarily Basques, aimed at wiping out their cultures and languages.
  • Period: to

    The Political History of ETA

  • ETA group is formed

    ETA group is formed
    -Left wing nationalist students break away from the non-violent PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Political Party)) to form the ETA -Students believed that the PNV was failing to resist the rule of General Francisco Franco's right winged dictatorship and fight for an independent homeland.
  • First Killing By ETA

    First Killing By ETA
    After following the PNV and remaining peaceful for less than a decade the new ETA kills its first victim, police chief Meliton Manzanas in the Basque city of San Sebastian.
  • Luis Carrero

    Luis Carrero
    Franco's Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco killed when his car passes over explosives planted by ETA in Madrid.
  • End of Franco Dictatorship

    End of Franco Dictatorship
    Francisco Franco's dictatorship comes to an end as he passes away from illness
  • Spanish Constitution

    Spanish Constitution
    Spanish Constitution autonomy to regions of Spain.The plan conducted by the Basque president Juan José Ibarretxe to reform the status of the Basque Country in the Spanish state was rejected by the Spanish Courts, on the grounds that it amounted to an implicit reform of the Constitution.
  • ETA gets bloody

    ETA gets bloody
    ETA's bloodiest year, nearly 100 killed, despite Spain's recent return to democracy.
  • Rise of GAL (antiterrorist liberations group) and the "dirty war"

    Rise of GAL (antiterrorist liberations group) and the "dirty war"
    -The continued killings spark a new political group, GAL, to lash out at the ETA -GAL operated in the Basque country, mainly on the French side -GAL targeted ETA members and supporters
  • The Basque People React to Violence

    The Basque People React to Violence
    -They began holding silent demonstartions the day after any killing, whether it be by the ETA or GAL
  • Last killing by GAL

    Last killing by GAL
    -Assassination of Juan Carlos García Goena -There were no connections found between García and ETA but mercenaries arrested for the kill claim the order came from GAL
  • GAL disbands

    GAL disbands
    -the French government adopted a harsher attitude towards Basque refugees, denying political refugee status to new applicants, and facilitating extraditions requested by Spanish judges -ETA is weakend, believing that the existance of GAL was helping to preserve the image of an authoritarian state at war with the Basque people
  • Ajuria-Enea Pact is Signed

     Ajuria-Enea Pact is Signed
    -all Basque political parties except ETA-affiliated Herri Batasuna signed the pact with the intent of ending ETA's violence
  • ETA Signs "Ceasefire"

    ETA Signs "Ceasefire"
    -ETA announced a 60-day "ceasefire" -Negotiations known as the Mesa de Argel took place between the ETA representative Eugenio Etxebeste, and the then PSOE government of Spain but no successful conclusion was reached -During the "ceasefire" Spain and French governments started shipping ETA prisoners over seas or to far ends of either Spain and France as a way to desperse the members -ETA eventually resumed violent tactics
  • Leaders of ETA Arrested

    Leaders of ETA Arrested
    -ETA's three top leaders , "military" leader Francisco Mujika Garmendia, political leader José Luis Alvarez Santacristina and logistical leader José María Arregi Erostarbe, often referred to collectively as the "cúpula" of ETA or as the Artapalo collective, were arrested -These arrest led to changes in ETA's leadership and direction -ETA adopted even more radical positions by some of its youngest memebers
  • ETA Peace Proposal

    ETA Peace Proposal
    -The Democratic Alternative offered the cessation of all armed ETA activity if the Spanish-government would recognize the Basque people as having sovereignty over Basque territory, the right to self-determination and that it freed all ETA members in prison -Spain ultimately rejected the peace offer
  • Election

    Election
    The Popular Party defeats the Socialist Party (PSOE) in the general election, and Jose Marie Aznar becomes prime minister.
  • Truce

    Truce
    Eta announces its first indefinite ceasefire. A former interior minister, Jose Barrionuevo, is jailed for ten years for his part in the Gal operation
  • Demonstration

    Demonstration
    Former Socialist health minister Ernest Lluch shot dead in Barcelona. Nearly a million demonstrate.
  • "Legitimate targets"

    "Legitimate targets"
    Eta announces that visitors to Spain are "legitimate targets".
  • Socialist Government

    Socialist Government
    ETA calls for dialogue with Spain's incoming socialist government but pledges to maintain its armed campaign.
  • ETA Appeal

    ETA Appeal
    New socialist Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero appeals to ETA to give up the fight after the arrest of its suspected leader, Mikel Albisu Iriarte, alias "Mikel Antza".
  • Parlament Rejected

    Parlament Rejected
    Spain's parliament rejects Basque premier Juan Jose Ibarretxe's plan for virtual Basque independence.
  • Peace Talks

    Peace Talks
    Parliament gives Spain's government permission to open peace talks with ETA if it lays down its arms
  • Cease Fire

    Cease Fire
  • Car Bomb

    Car Bomb
    Car bomb explodes at Madrid's airport killing two Ecuadorians and forcing Zapatero to break off peace process.
    Hundreds of thousands of Spaniards march through major cities for peace, two weeks after the car bomb.
  • Peace Talks

    Peace Talks
    Arnaldo Otegi, leader of the ETA-linked Batasuna party says that ETA will not demand major concessions from Spain to restart abandoned peace talks.
    -- Zapatero dismisses the offer and says ETA and its supporters had to convince Spain they had given up violence.
  • Basque arrests

    Basque arrests
    ETA says it is ready to make new commitments to the troubled peace process if Spain stops its "attacks" in the Basque region where police have been arresting ETA suspects.
  • End Cease Fire

    End Cease Fire
    ETA says it will end its 15-month-old ceasefire, blaming lack of progress in talks with the Spanish government.
  • Shooting

    Shooting
    ETA suspects shoot and kill a Spanish Guardia Civil policeman working on an undercover operation in France -- ETA's first victim since it abandoned a ceasefire in June.
  • Unilateral Surrender

    Unilateral Surrender
    Zapatero rules out any chance of peace talks with ETA and says its only option is unilateral surrender
  • Press on

    Press on
    ETA claims responsibility for 10 bombings and says it will press its campaign for Basque rights
  • 50th Anniversary

    50th Anniversary
    ETA vows to keep fighting as it marks its 50th anniversary.
  • Latest

    Latest
    Spain's police have arrested 36 members of a banned youth group with alleged links to ETA, in the latest strike against the weakened Basque separatist movement
  • Burning Bus

    Burning Bus
    Radical separatists burned a bus and set fire to an underground station in Spain's Basque region overnight