Spain in the 18th and 19th centuries

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    Charles II

    Charles II was the last king of the Hapsburg dynasty. He was called "el Hechizado" because it is said that, he had some physical and mental problems. This might be the reason why he died without a heir.
    The reign of Charles II was distraught by a crisis in the country due to the unexperienced men that ruled the country until he had 18 years old.
    Charles II died at the age of 39. He left on his testament that the next king of Spain had to be Philip Anjou. (http://www.cervantesvirtual.com)
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    War of Spanish Succession (http://www.historiasiglo20.org/HE/8a.htm)

    It began after the death of Charles II who said that the next king of Spain had to be Philip Anjou who was crowned as Philip V. The war could have been avoided but some spanish regions did not like this and preferred the Archduke Charles of Austria as king. Not only spanish regions but also other european countries that feared a union between Spain and France.
    After twelve years of war, the latter became King of Spain with the condition that Spain and France never unify (Treaty of Utrech).
  • New Foundation Decrees I

    New Foundation Decrees I
    Valencia and Aragón
    The New Foundation Decrees consisted of abolishing the fueros, firstly of Valencia and Aragon, beacuse of three reasons.
    1st: As a desire of unifying Castilla
    2nd: Having abolute power over these regions
    3rd: As a punishment for rebelling against Philip V during the Battle of Almansa.
    Now as their fueros (traditional rights were removed Valencia and Aragon were subject to the laws of Castilla. (http://www.uax.es/publicacion/los-decretos-de-nueva-planta.pdf)
    Unit 4 photocopy
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrech put an end to the War of Spanish Succession.
    This treaty ruled that Philip Anjou would be the king of Spain without joining it with France. It also made Spain give its italian territories to Austria and Savoy and Menorca and Gibraltar to England. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Enlightenment in Spain

    The Enlightenment in Spain was really influenced by the french Enlighment. Here many cultural places were built, most of them by Charles III.
    In Spain, the enlighteneds were mainly men from the nobility and the bourgeoisie and they were interested in:
    - Economic and educative reforms
    - Critize some social aspects of the country.
    - New liberal politics (but without revolutionary ideas). (http://www.historiasiglo20.org/HE/8f.htm)
  • Peace of Rastatt

    The Peace of Rastatt is closely connected with the Treaty of Utrech.
    In the latter treaty most of the countries involved in the Spanish War of Succession achieved peace between them except for Austria, who refuesed to sign it.
    In the peace of Rastatt the Austrian emperor finally recognized the new order. (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • New Foundation Decrees II

    New Foundation Decrees II
    In Cataluña something similiar happened as in Valencia and Aragon some years later.
    Their fueros were finally abolished because of the same reasons as the formers. Catalans were also under castillian laws and they had to accept the suppression of their language (although in legal and comercial fields was allowed).
    This is one of the reasons for the existent nacionalism in Cataluña. (http://www.uax.es/publicacion/los-decretos-de-nueva-planta.pdf)
    (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • The First Family Compact

    The First Family Compact
    In the First Family Compact France and Spain allied themselfs. Spain amied to get back its former territories in Italy and Philip V, finally achieved Naples and Sicily. Isabel de Farnesio also got what she wanted: having his son Charles as king of those kingdoms.
    France backed Spain on this in return for their help in the War of Polish Succession. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Family Compacts (introduction)

    The Family Compacts were three alliances between France and Spain in which Spain backed French interests.
    They were made because both countries feared the British power.
    They were named as "Family compacts" because during that time both countries were ruled by Bourbons. (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • The Second Family Compact

    The Second Family Compact
    After France's involvement in the Austrian War of Succession, Philip, who was Charles younger brother, became the duke of Parma and Piacenza (1748) (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was a spanish writer, politician, jurist and enlightened.
    In 1778 he was named "Alcalde de Casa y Corte" by the king. During this time he was really active. He writes poems analyses monuments and keeps in touch with the negotiations of the "Banco de San Carlos".
    After this point his life decline. He is obligated to go to Asturias after trying to help a friend that was imprisioned and some years after he is imprisioned himself. (museos.gijon.es)
  • The Royal Botanic Garden

    The Royal Botanic Garden
    The Royal Botanic Garden was originally built by Ferdinand VI near what nowadays is known as "Puerta de Hierro". Then in 1774, during the Enlightenment, Charles III moved it to the "Paseo del Prado" where it is still today and in 1781 was officially reinagurated. During these years the more than 2000 plants were reorganised and the fence that surrounds the Garden was built as well as three stepped terraces. (http://www.rjb.csic.es/jardinbotanico/jardin/index.php?Cab=4&len=es&Pag=670)
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    Charles III

    Charles III was the king of Naples while his half-brother, Ferdinand VI was ruling in Spain. Ferdinand VI died without heir so Charles III inherited the country leaving Naples to his son Ferdinand IV (of Naples).
    As king Charles III introduced many new things. He cut back the power of the Inquisition, he inhabited isolated areas of Spain like Sierra Morena and he also gave Madrid another look by building "el Jardín Botánico", "la Puerta de Alcalá" or "el Museo del Prado".
  • The Third Family Compact

    The Third Family Compact
    After the Seven Years War, and Britain supporting Prussia and France supporting Austria in their conflicts for German lands, the tension between France and Britain was undeniable.
    In the Third Family Compact Spain, helped France against Great Britain because of the fear that a British victory would increase the pressure on spanish-american territory.
    When these conflicts finished, territories in North America were rearranged at the Treaty of Paris. (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    After the Seven Years War, north-american territories were redistributed in the following way:
    -France lost Quebec and gave Louisiana to Spain-
    -Spain lost Florida but received Lousiana from its Bourbon ally.
    -Britain gained Quebec, Florida, Havana and Manila. (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Esquilache Riots began because of the increasingly displeasure of the citizens of Madrid due to the measures imposed by the minister Esquilache which were a rose in the price of bread and other first-need items.
    The trigger of the riots was the prohibition of long capes and wide-brimmed hats in an attempt of modernising Spain, but also because those capes ease hiding weapons and the hats could also help someone hide their face behind it.
    OnMarch 24th rebels wanted the king to accept demands.
  • Demands of the Esquilache Riot

    Demands of the Esquilache Riot
    1st: Esquilache and his family had to leave Spain.
    2nd: The spanish government had to me made up of spanish ministers.
    3rd: The price of basic products had to be lowered
    4th: Long capes and wide-brimmed hats had to be permitted.
    5th: The King himself had to appear publicly accepting the demands. Bibliography of this event and the previous one:
  • Jesuits are expelled from Spain

    Jesuits are expelled from Spain
    Jesuits were expelled from Spain as a social reform; in order to eliminate their power in education.
    Jesuits were thought to be obstacles on limiting the privilges of the Church and also instigators of the citizens of Madrid, not to accept the new economic reforms. (Photocopies of Unit 4)
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    José Moñino Redondo, also known as Conde de Floridablanca started his political carreer as ambassador in Rome. There he suplied the "Compañias de Jesús" and as a reward Charles III made him Count.
    In 1777 he became Prime Minister of the King. He stayed in this position for 11 years.
    In 1792 he is ceased and later he would be imprisioned. He spent 13 years dedicated to pray in his cell of the Franciscans. (http://www.regmurcia.com/servlet/s.Sl?sit=c,373,m,1207&r=ReP-1841-DETALLE_REPORTAJESPADRE)
  • Puerta de Alcalá

    Puerta de Alcalá
    The "Puerta de Alcalá" was built as one of the projects of beautification of Madrid of the king Charles III.
    It was built near the Retiro park on the road that goes to the city of Alcalá. (https://www.esmadrid.com/informacion-turistica/puerta-de-alcala)
  • Museo del Prado

    Museo del Prado
    The proyect of building the "Museo del Prado" was passed in 1786 by the king Charles III who was a promoter of science. This museum was originally built under the name of "Museo de las Ciencias".
    The idea was of the "Conde de Floridablanca", as part of the "Real Gabinete de Historia Natural" in order to popularise the enlightenment.
    The museum was finally opened on November 19th 1819
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    Charles IV

    The reign of Charles IV was distraught by wars. He was involved many wars with France by his side. (His favourite Manuel Godoy made many decisions related with foreign politics). So many wars worsen the situation of crisis of Spain.
    After the Aranjuez Riots, his son Ferdinand VII ocupied the throne. Charles IV asked for help to Napoleon and what he did was to put his brother Joseph I as king and not either of them. (http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/c/carlos_iv.htm)
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In 1791, Louis XVI and his family tried to escape to Austria looking for help in order to stop the revolutions that were taking place in France. But he was captured.
    Louis XVI spend was finally guillotined after spending two years in prision.
    After this events, Spain feared that its branch of the Bourbon house could be as well in danger. (http://luisvia.org/?p=734)
    (Unit 1 photocopies)
    (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    War of the Pyrenees

    This war was between France and Spain after the latter signed an alliance with Britain. Spain claimed that they were protecting their traditional values against the revolutionary France so the Church declared this war as a crusade.
    Despite this, Spain was not able to defend from France's army and they entered in Cataluña.
    Spain and France signed a peace treaty in which Spain ceded France half of the Caribbean island of Santo Domingo (Haiti). (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    This was a secret treaty between Spain and France in which the latter would give the duke of Parma, Ferdinand I a new territory in which he could be king. A month later Spain would provide France with six war ships and finally Spain would give Lousiana back to France. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tratado_de_San_Ildefonso_(1800))
  • Napoleon is crowned as emperor

    Napoleon is crowned as emperor
    At the end of 1804 Napoleon took the crown from the hands of the Pope and crowned himself as emperor. In the revolutionary times that France was undergoing, this action was something hopeful. The new emperor showed that he had mush more power than the Church. (http://www.keats-shelley-house.org/en/romanticism/timeline-1804)
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar was battle put up between a franco-spanish navy and Britain. In the begining, Spain was supposed to be neutral, but a british attack to a ship with civils made them ally with France.
    France aim passed from invading Britain to protecting their italian territories after a series of bad decisions of the Admiral Villeneuve.
    His 33 ships were not enough against Captain Nelson's strategies and in 6 hours, the battle was over in Britain's favour. (www.nationalgeographic.com)
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War was a conflict between France and Britain in order to take control of the Peninsula
    This war overlaps with the "Spanish War of Independence".
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Napoleon wanted to stop the comercing power of Britain so he settled a continental block against them, but Portugal refused to accept it.
    For this reason Napoleon decided to invade them but he needed spanish support so, he made Spain sign a treaty in the city of Fontainebleau that said that would had to allow french troops in spanish territory in order to invade Portugal.
    After this invation the portuguese royal family fled to Brazil. (http://www.colombiaaprende.edu.com)
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    After taking control of Lisbon, Napoleon Bonaparte made both, Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicate their rights to the throne and he put his brother Joseph (later nicknamed as "Pepe Botella") in the spanish throne.
    The spanish peoples didn't like this change so they rebelled against the new king.
    During this war there were two governments in Spain:
    - Joseph I with his Bayonne Constitution.
    - A Central Council in Cádiz, representing Ferdinand VII. (Unit 4 Photocopies)
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    War of Spanish Independence

    The War of Spanish Independence began with uprisings in Madrid because of the popular discomfort that appeared after Napoleon put his brother, Joseph I as King of Spain. This first uprising was put down by the napoleonic troops but this rebellion spread all over the country.
    The spanish guerrilla was helped by the british army (Peninsular War) and finally a completly weakend Napoleon gave the crown back to Ferdinand VII. (http://www.historiasiglo20.org/HE/9a-2.htm)
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    Joseph I

    Joseph I was Napoleon's brother. He became king of Spain right after the abdications of Bayonne. During his five-years reign he ruled with the Bayonne Constitution.
    Although he tried to get the acceptance of the peoples organizing parties and making popular laws, he never got it. Joseph I started to be known as "Pepe Botella" or "Plazuelas". He even tried to abdicate but his brother instead of leting him do so, he made him the Supreme Commander of the spanish army in 1811. Cervantesvirtual.com
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    The First Spanish Constitution was popularly known as "La Pepa". This constitution promoted:
    - Constitutional monarchy.
    - National sovereignty.
    - Censitary suffrage (only men could vote).
    - Separation of powers (educational, legislative and judicial).
    - The end of the Inquisition.
    The First Spanish Constitution eliminated in 1814 by the just restored king Ferdinand VII. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Ferdinand VII abolished the Constitution

    Ferdinand VII came back as king (after Napoleon's brother) in 1814. At first he promised to uphold the "Constitution of 1812" but he did not. Apart from throwing out the constitution he also shot, imprisioned or exiled the Liberal leaders.
    This caused an unhappiness within the people and the army and it led to "Riego's Pronunciamiento". (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    Riego's Pronunciamiento
    A pronunciamiento is something similar to a coup d' êtat, but Riego never wanted to be king.
    In 1820, Colonel del Riego led the army to force the king Ferdinand VII restore the Constitution (1812).
    Riego's Pronunciamiento was succesful and the Constitution was restored. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Ferdinand VII as Constitutional Monarch

    Ferdinand VII spent just 3 years as constitutional monarch.
    As he did not want to accept the First Constitution, he asked for help to the Holy Alliance. As the countries memebers of this alliance wanted to stop any liberal revolution, they accepted to send some french troops to Spain. Not many resistance was opposed by the spanish peasantry, so in 1823 absolutism was restored again. (Unit 4 photocopies).
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    Ferdinand VII: Década ominosa

    This decade was branded as dreadful because it began with an incredibly violent absolut reaction.
    During this 3rd period of reign, Ferdinand VII made a new Army. In the fiscal field everything remained as in the Ancient Regim. People were very divided and they were aslo undergoing economical struggles.
    At the end of the decade, Ferdinand VII passed the Pragmatic Sanction, so his daughter Isabella could be Queen. https://historiayviajes.wordpress.com/espana/1808-2/10-la-decada-ominosa-1823-1833
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis (www.zumalakarregimuseoa.eus/es)

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis (www.zumalakarregimuseoa.eus/es)
    After Napoleon's empire the countries agreed in the Congress of Vienna to restore absolutism all over Europe so Spain couldn't be an exception.
    The Cien mil Hijos de San Luis was a french army sent by "the Congress of Verona" in order to restore the absolute power of Ferdinand VII.
    They did not have many troubles, because most of the liberal revolutions yield the way to them. Just a few cities in the Basque Country opposed resistance.
    In 1823 Ferdinand VII was again an absolute monarch
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    Ferdinand VII passed a Pragmatic Sanction in 1830. This law bars the previous "Salic Law" which says that a woman cannot be the heir of the throne.
    Ferdinand VII did this because he had only had daughters and he did not want is brother to be king.
    In this way Isabella, Ferdinands daughter, became the Queen of Spain in 1833. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Isabella II

    As she was thirteen when she assumed the "reigns of government", her mother and General Espartero ruled as regents. When she became over age Isabella II was preferred by the liberals because they feared that Ferdinand's brother could abolish the Constitution too. She was a constitutional monarch.
    In 1868 she was overthrown after the Glorious Revolution and in 1870 she abdicated officially. (Unit 4 photocopies).
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    First Carlist War

    It began after the death of Ferdinand VII and it was the first attempt of Don Carlos to became king.
    The First Carlist War, started in the Northern part of Spain (Basque country and Navarra). From there Charles and his supporters began their way to the south. The General Espartero went towards them.
    Some rebels signed the Treaty of Vergara because of their tiredness. The First Carlist War finished. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R4TvNwGvwZw)
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    The Carlist Wars (Introduction)

    The Carlist Wars started right after the death of Ferdinand VII. The aim of these wars was to overthrown Isabella II and to put Don Carlos (Ferdinand's brother) as king.
    Liberal people accepted the Pragmatic Sanction and, therefore, Isabella II while conservative and reactionary people wanted Don Carlos to be king. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Second Carlist War

    The Second Carlist War consisted in some Basque attempts of getting new pieces of land. They were succesful in this but this time Charles didn't sign anything. The war ended because of a military defeat which meant the abolition of the fueros of the Basque country. (http://www.zumalakarregimuseoa.eus/es/museo/exposicion-permanente/contenidos/2.guerra-carlista)
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    The "Canal de Castilla" was an economic reform built as a way of comunication, transport and easier irrigation. It also helped to reduce the isolation to which the castillian and leonese plateau was suppress.
    Previously cereals and other agrarian products couldn't be transported, but know with this canal, these products were able to arrive easily to the rest of Spain.
    With the "Canal de Castilla" the economy of Spain got better. (Unit 4 photocopies)
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    This revolution made Isabella II abdicate. This started the "Sexenio Revolucionario" that ended with the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty. (http://enciclopedia.us.es/index.php/Revoluci%C3%B3n_de_septiembre_de_1868)
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    Cuban War

    The Cuban War (known as "Guerra Grande" in cuba) was a war between Spain and the cuban supporters of indepence. It was the first of a series of four wars for cuban independence.
    The Cuban War finished with the Treaty of Zanjón. This treaty did not say anything about the independence of Cuba or the abolition of slavery.
    Cuba achieved the independence after the war of 1898. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerra_de_los_Diez_A%C3%B1os)
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Spain was not prepared for a republic so after Isabella's abdication we needed to find a new a new king.
    This new king was Amadeus of Savoy. His reign was quite short. After two years he abdicated because neither the republicans, nor the Carlist, nor Alfonso's supporters (the legitimate heir of Isabella II) wanted him to be king. (Unit 4 photocopies)
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    Third Carlist War

    The Third Carlist war was between the supporters of Don Carlos and the government of Amadeus I, the First Republic and Alfonso XII.
    This civil war was developed in the País Vasco, Navarra and Cataluña. The restoration of the fueros (abolished with the New Foundation Decrees) influenced in the strengh of the uprising in Cataluña.
    There were also some little uprisings in Andalucía, Valencia and Aragón but they did not have much importance.
    In spite of these, Alfonso XII won. (www.wikipedia.org)
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    First Republic

    After the abdication of Amadeus of Savoy, Spain didn't have other option than to settle the First Republic. It only lasted one year because there were many problems:
    - Demands for regional autonomy (Andalucía, Levante and Cataluña).
    - Divsion of republicans.
    - The Third Carlist War.
    In 1874 the monarchy was restored with Alfonso XII. He reigned under a liberal constitution. (Unit 4 photocopies).