Antique map spain

Spain in the 18th and 19th century

  • Charles II death

    Charles II death
    Charles II died in 1700 in Madrid, Spain. Before his dead, he became hypersensitive, strange and started to deteriorate. He suffered a nervous breakdown, caused by the pressure put on him to try to pull Spain out of the economic trouble it was going through, after this moment he retired. After that he lived a simple life. He had 38 years when he died and the causes of his death are unknown.
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    Philip V rule

    Philip V was the duke of Anjou. He was known as the “Animoso”. He was born in Versailles the 19th of December 1683. He inherited the Spanish throne in 1700 after the death of his great-uncle Charles II, the last from the Hapsburgs, so he became the first Bourbon that ruled in Spain. This caused the war of the Spanish Succession that ended with the treaties of Utrecht. He brought the renovation of the culture, which promoted the creation of the National Library, etc. He died the 9th of July 1746.
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    War of the Spanish Succession

    The war of the Spanish succession was a dynastic conflict that started after the death without descendant of the king Charles II of Spain. The throne of Spain belonged to Philipp V of Bourbon, grandson of the French king Louis XIV, but because of the fear of many European powers to a dynastic union between France and Spain, they started to supported the archduke Carlos of Austria in his pretensions to the Spanish throne. The conflict was transformed into an international fierce war.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The treaties of Utrecht were a series of treaties between France and other European powers signed in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. France concluded treaties of peace at Utrecht with Britain, the Dutch republic, Prussia, Portugal, and Savoy. One of the things France recognized to Britain was cede Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, the Hudson Bay territory, and the island of St. Kitts. However, the peace treaties involving Spain took longer to arrange.
  • New foundation laws

    New foundation laws
    The New foundation laws were a group of decrees promulgated by the King Philip V of Bourbon. Thanks to this, laws and institutions of the Kingdom of Valencia, reign of Aragon, the principality of Cataluña and the reign of Mallorca were abolished. All these were part of the Crown of Aragon and they opted for the Archduke Charles, ending this way the structure of the Hispanic monarchy of the Austrias.
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    Ferdinand VI rule

    Ferdinand VI was the son of the first marriage of Philip V, which he followed after his death. He was born in Villaviciosa of Odon in 1712 and died in Madrid in 1759. He started to reign in 1746. His reign was based in preserving the peace and the saving obtained and invert it in internal politics. He signed agreements with Portugal and England and solved the problems of Italy with a marriage between his sister and the heir to the throne of Savoy.
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    Charles III

    Charles III was the King of Spain from 10th of August 1759 to the 14th of December 1788. He was the son of Philip V and he inherited the throne after the death of his two brothers, Luis I and Ferdinand VI. During his reign he tried to modernize the society without breaking the social, politic and basic economic, which produced, the riot of Esquilache. He also tried to recover the Spanish influence in Italy and tried to with France to stop the expansion of England in America.
  • The three family compacts

    The three family compacts were three treaties between the French and Spanish Bourbons against England. The first was the treaty of “El Escorial” in 1733. It was continued and extended in the second one in 1743. The third one was the most important and it was created in 1761. It was made by Charles III with the intention of recovering Gibraltar and Minorca.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The treaty of Paris was signed the 10th of February 1763, concluding the Franco-British conflicts of the Seven Years War. It was signed by Hanoveron and Great Britain in one side and France and Spain. This treaty represents the victory of Great Britain and the Reign of Prussia. For France it supposed the loss of most of his property in America and Asia. It also marked the end of a phase of European conflict in North America and created the basis of the modern country of Canada.
  • Esquilache riot

    Esquilache riot
    The Esquilache Riot occurred in March 1766, under the reign of Charles III. What caused the riot was the increasing of dissatisfaction in Madrid thanks to the increase of the price of the bread and other daily products. But the real cause was the restraint to certain clothes promulgated by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan favored by Charles III.
  • Jesuits expelled by Bpurbons

    Jesuits expelled by Bpurbons
    The expulsion of the Jesuits by Charles III was the result of an anti-Jesuit wave that occurred in Europe in the XVIII and which had as principal incident the exile of Portugal in 1759 and the abolition of the company of Jesus of France in 1764, the expatriation of the Jesuits in Spain, Parma and Naples in 1767 and the extinction of the order in 1773. In Spain they were accused of serve to Rome against the real privileges, get on the theory of the regicide, etc.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress the 4th July 1776. Between 1760 and 1770, the North American Colonist were having trouble with the British policies regarding taxation and frontier policy. The Declaration summarized the colonist’s motivations for seeking independence. As they declared themselves an independent nation, now they were able to confirm an official alliance with the Government of France and obtain their assistance in the war against Great Britain
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    Charles IV rule

    He was born in Naples in 1748 and was son of Charles III. He took the throne when his father died in 1788. As he haven’t got so much interest to reign so his wife Maria Luisa of Parma and his lover Manuel Godoy started to reign. His reign was marked by the French revolution of 1789 and caused a repression to avoid that the same occurred here. He joined at first with the European powers against France but as they were defeated he joined with France. He died the 20 of January 1819.
  • Storming of Bastille

    Storming of Bastille
    The storming of Bastille was an event that occurred the 14th of July 1789. It supposed the beginning of the French Revolution and the decline of the old regime. The Bastille was a medieval fortress transformed into a prison. At that moment it was a symbol of the monarch arbitrariness in which many prisoners were sent there without a trial.
  • War of the Pyrenees

    War of the Pyrenees
    The war of the Pyrenees was also called the war of the “Rosellón” and the war of the Convention. It was a conflict that confronted the monarchy of Carlos IV of Spain and the First French Republic between 1793 and 1795. This war was limited only in the north part of Spain (Catalonia, Aragon and the Basque Country). The war ended in 1975 when they signed the Peace of Basilea.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was executed the morning of the 21st January 1793 in the Revolution square in Paris. After the French revolution, Louis XVI was convicted to death as he was considered as the maximum responsible of the actual situation of the country.
  • Treaty of San Ildenfonso

    Treaty of San Ildenfonso
    The treaty of San Ildefonso was signed between Spain and France the 19 of August 1796 and was a military alliance which had as priority the military cooperation of the two countries against England which was the main power of the First Coalition.
  • First consul

    First consul
    The first consul is a title received by Napoleon Bonaparte. In this title, Napoleon and other two consuls applied the executive power. It was approved during the regime of the Consulate between 1799 and 1804 and stablished by the constitution in the Year VIII.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    The battle of Trafalgar was a naval battle which took place the 21st October 1805 in the time frame of the third initiate coalition. It was a battle that confronted the English vessels against a Franco-Spanish alliance in the cape of Trafalgar, Cadiz. It ended with the victory of England but their admiral died.
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular lasted from 1807 to 1814. It was a military conflict between Napoleon’s empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. In Spain it was called the war of the Independence.
  • Treaty of Fountainebleau

    Treaty of Fountainebleau
    The treaty of Fontainebleau was a treaty signed in 27 of October 1807 between France and Spain, in which both of the powers accepted the invasion of Portugal – alliance of England – and permitted the cross of the French troops in the French territory.
  • Abdication of Bayonne

    Abdication of Bayonne
    The abdication of Bayonne took place the 5th of May 1808 in the castle of Marracq, in the French city of Bayonne. It takes the name for the successive abdications of Ferdinand VII and Charles IV to the Spanish throne in favor of José Bonaparte in 1808. After that. He transferred those rights to his brother José Bonaparte, who reign with the name of Jose I.
  • First Consitution

    The first constitution was promulgated in Spain, known as the Constitution of Cadiz or of 1812. It was signed in the Cortes Generales of Spain, and reunited in Cadiz the 19th of March 1812. Officially it was only in force during two years and during small periods of time later.
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    Ferdinand VII - First Period

    The first period receives the name of the “Sexenio Absolutista” and it lasted from 1814 to 1820. In it, Ferdinand VII, repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the liberal reforms and the agricultural and economic crisis grew.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus of Savoy was the first Spanish King between the years 1817 and 1873. His reign was characterize with a great politic inestability as the war of the independence of Cuba and The Carlist wars.
  • Riego's pronunciamiento

    Riego's pronunciamiento
    Riego’s uprising was a military “coup d’état”, carried out by the major Rafael de Riego the 1st of January 1820 in Cabezas de San Juan, Seville. It raised up between the officials of the troops destined to fight against the American revolt, due to the existence of a big discomfort in the army in 1819 because of the exclusion of the government liberals, united to the affiliation of Riego to the freemasonry, which contributed to its posterior success. After the retransmission of a proclamation the
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    Ferdinand VII - 2nd period

    The second period was the “Trilenio Liberal” and it lasted from 1820 to 1823. In it, the Constitution of 1812 is again established. During this period the conflict of the “Cien mil hijos de San Luis” ocurred.
  • Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis (Holly Alliance)

    Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis (Holly Alliance)
    The “Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis” (Holly Alliance) was a French army commanded by the duke of Angulema which objective was to overthrow the constitutional authorities after the uprising of the major Riego in 1820 and place Ferdinand VII in the throne. After three years, Ferdinand VII finally was placed as the new monarch, marked again as the sign of absolutism of the country.
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    Ferdinand VII - third period

    The third and last period was the Absolutist Decade, it lasted from 1823 to 1833. It approves the Pragmatic Sanction, the economic crisis grows even more and it erupted in the war of the “Agraviados” in 1827 in Catalonia.
  • Pragmatic sanction

    The pragmatic sanction was a law promulgated by Ferdinand VII in 1830 which repealed the “Salica Law”, permitting women to inherit the throne. This caused a deep crisis between people supportive of Charles (the king’s brother) and the princess Isabel, discharging into the Carlist wars.
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    The Carlist Wars

    The Carlist war were an armed conflict that occurred in Spain between 1833 and 1839. It confronted the people in favor of the infant Carlos María Isidro of Bourbon, the people in favor of an absolutist regime and the “Isabelinos”, defending Isabel II and the regent of Maria Cristina de Bourbon.
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    Regency of Maria Cristina

    The regency of Maria Cristina of Bourbon forms the first period of the minority of age of Isabel II of Spain, from the 29th of September of 1833 to the 17th of October to 1840. The mother of Isabel II assumed the pertinent work of the Crown and had to face up the first Carlist War. Her regency was characterized by the predominance of the liberal governments which supported her daughter. After the revolution of 1840, she is moved away from the regency and she is exiled.
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    Isabel II reign

    Isabel II of Spain was the queen of Spain between 29 of September 1833 and the 30th of September 1868, after the death of his father Ferdinand VII and the approval of the Pragmatic Sanction in 1789. Her reign was characterized by the Carlist Wars and the predominance of the liberal governments. When she was thirteen, she started to reign by herself after some regencies.
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    Regency of Espartero

    The regency of Espartero was during the last period of the minority of age of Isabel II of Spain, from the 17th of October 1840 to the 23rd of July 1843, after the revolution of 1840. Its government was characterized by the confiscation of the church goods and the cut of the vasque-navarre regional code of laws.
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    Spanish Glorious revolutions

    The Spanish Glorious revolutions were a revolt which began the 19th of September 1868 with liberal parties whose objective was to overthrow Isabel II and the moderated parties that were weakened after the deaths of O’Donell and Narvaez. It ended the 27th of September 1868.
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    First Republic

    The first Spanish republic was the politic regime valid in Spain since the 11 of February 1873 until the 29 of December of 1874. It was characterized with a great politic instability. During the first eleven months four presidents took place. The 3 of January of 1874, there was a coup d’etat by the General of Pavia putting in the power the General Serrano as a dictator. Finally, the first republic ended after the uprising of the general Arsenio Martinez Campos.