Latin america

Revolts & History of Latin America (1800-1914)

  • Slavery in Latin America hits a high

    Slavery in Latin America hits a high
    Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. The majority of slaves were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were 550,000 black slaves in Latin America, approximately 212,000 in Cuba, 88,000 each in Peru and Venezuela, and 70,000 in Colombia. Peoples of African descent have influenced culture of Latin America and the Caribbean because of the large amount of slaves.
  • Haiti declares independence

    Haiti declares independence
    Haiti declares its independence. It becomes the second colony after the USA to become independent. It was also the first black slave revolt to win against the white masters. Jean-Jacques Dessalines becomes its "emperor", but no European or American country recognizes it as an area.
  • British troops seize Bueno Aires, Argentina from Spain

    British troops seize Bueno Aires, Argentina from Spain
    Britain attacked Buenos Aires twice in 1806 and 1807. using the alliance between spain and France as an excuse. Argentinian criollos successfully resist against the invasions of the Río de la Plata. The British were attempting to further weaken Spain but also gain New World colonies to replace the ones it had lost in the American Revolution.
  • Bolivia declares independence from Spain

    Bolivia declares independence from Spain
    The Bolivian war of independence began in 1809 with the establishment of juntas (small groups ruling a country) in Sucre and La Paz. On May 25, 1809, tensions grew when radical criollos, also refusing to recognize the junta because they wanted independence, took to the streets. This revolt was soon put down by the authorities. On July 16, 1809, Pedro Domingo Murillo led another revolt by criollos and mestizos in La Paz and proclaimed an independent state in Upper Peru in the name of Ferdinand VI
  • Ecuador declares independence from Spain

    Ecuador declares independence from Spain
    In the city of Quito on August 10, 1809 that the first call for independence from Spain was made under the leadership of the city's criollos, including Carlos Montúfar, Eugenio Espejo and Bishop Cuero y Caicedo.
  • Alto Perú campaign

    Alto Perú campaign
    The improvised militia was commanded by Antonio González de Balcarce and tried to penetrate the intendencies of the Upper Peru (today Bolivia).
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    Mexican War of Independence Part I

    Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla launched the Mexican War of Independence when he issued the Grito de Dolores in 1810. Hildalgo was later captured and killed by the Spanish. José María Morelos assumed leadership of the army after Father Hidalgo died. In 1815, Morelos was captured by the Spanish and was executed. In 1821, representatives of the Spanish Crown and Agustin de Iturbide signed the Treaty of Cordoba which recognized Mexican independence. The treaty wasn’t ratified by the Spanish Cortes.
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    Mexican War of Independence Part II

    Iturbide cleverly included a special clause in the treaty. The clause implied the fact that a criollo monarch coule be appointed by a Mexican congress if no suitable member of the European royalty would accept the Mexican crown. In 1822 there was a mass demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya (previously commanded by Iturbide) and demanded that Iturbide accept the throne. The congress declared Iturbide emperor of Mexico.
  • Paraguay Campaign

    Paraguay Campaign
    Another militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, made its way up to the Intendency of Paraguay. The first battle was fought in Campichuelo and the Argentines claimed victory. Later, they were defeated in the battles of Paraguarí and Tacuarí. This campaign also ended in failure from the military point of view.
  • Grito de Dolores

    Grito de Dolores
    Beginning of Independence (beginning to about 0:16)
    Grito de Dolores, or the Cry of Dolores, was the battle cry of the Mexican War of Independence by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla who was a Roman Catholic priest from the small town of Dolores. Father Miguel Hidalgo issues his "Cry of Dolores" and begins Mexico's struggle for independence.
    Information on Miguel Hildalgo
  • Chile begins fight for independence

    Chile begins fight for independence
    Count Toro Zambrano was a criollo (born in the colonies) as opposed to a peninsular( born in Spain) and was a particularly odd choice when appointed. Immediately after his appointment, the juntistas began to lobby him in order to obtain the formation of a junta. There was pressure on the Governor to define himself and after vacillating for some time over which party to follow, Toro Zambrano finally agreed to hold an open Cabildo (city hall) meeting in Santiago to discuss the issue: 9/18/1810.
  • Conflict between Chile and Spain

    Conflict between Chile and Spain
    The Chilean War of Independence was a conflict between pro-independence criollos who wanted political and economic independence from Spain and royalist criollos, who supported the continued allegiance to and permanence within the Spanish Empire of the Kingdom of Chile. It began in 1810 and extended approximately until 1821.
  • The Battle of Suipacha

    The Battle of Suipacha
    The militia of Argentina first engaged in combat with the Spanish army in the Battle of Suipacha. It was between the Spanish colonial army and the Republican forces sent by the Primera Junta from Buenos Aires. At the time Bolivia was known as Upper Peru (Alto Perú). It was the first decisive defeat of the Royalists by Republican forces.
  • Uruguay lauches revolt against Spain

    Uruguay lauches revolt against Spain
    José Gervasio Artigas , soon to become Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against Spain.
  • Paraguay declares independence

    Paraguay declares independence
    Paraguay declared its independence after overthrowing the local Spanish administration on May 14, 1811.
  • Paraguay gains independence

    Paraguay gains independence
    After a plan devised by various pro-independence nationalists including Fulgencio Yegros and José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Paraguay gains independence.
  • Venezuela declares independence

    Venezuela declares independence
    Francisco de Miranda, a long-term Venezuelan expatriate, and Simón Bolívar, a young, Criollo aristocrat lead a movement. The congress led by Miranda and Bolívar declares the independence of Venezuela.
  • Second Alto Perú campaign

    Second Alto Perú campaign
    Facing the invasion of a loyalist army led by General Pío de Tristán, Manuel Belgrano, then commander of the Northern Army, turned to scorched-earth tactics. He ordered the evacuation of the people and the burning of anything else left behind, to prevent enemy forces from getting supplies or taking prisoners in the city of San Salvador de Jujuy. This is known as the Jujuy Exodus.
  • First phase of Venezuela's revolutionary war ends- Spanish defeats Venezuelans

    First phase of Venezuela's revolutionary war ends- Spanish defeats Venezuelans
    In 1812, Spanish forces led by General Domingo Monteverde defeated the Venezuelan revolutionary army, led by Francisco de Miranda, which surrendered at La Victoria. Simón Bolívar flees to New Granada.
    [short documentary on Simon Bolivar]
  • Bolívar's forces invaded Venezuela from New Granada

    Bolívar's forces invaded Venezuela from New Granada
    Bolívar's forces defeated Domingo Monteverde's Spanish army in a series of battles, taking Caracas on August 6, 1813 and besieging Monteverde at Puerto Cabello in September 1813.
    More information on Simón Bolívar
  • Spanish forces lose series of battles then capture Caracas and Aragua

    Spanish forces lose series of battles then capture Caracas and Aragua
    In 1814, heavily reinforced Spanish forces in Venezuela lost a series of battles to Bolívar's forces but then decisively defeated Bolivar at La Puerta on June 15, took Caracas on July 16, and again defeated his army at Aragua on August 18, at a cost of 2,000 Spanish casualties out of 10,000 soldiers as well as most of the 3,000 in the rebel army. Bolívar and other leaders then returned to New Granada.
  • Argentina get's full independence

    Argentina get's full independence
    An assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán and declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution. When they met in Tucuman, they declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America. The three Litoral provinces of Santa Fé, Entre Ríos and Corrientes were expelled from the Congress, along with Banda Oriental, present-day Uruguay. Also, several provinces from the Alto Perú were represented that would later become part of present-day Bolivia.
  • Independence is official for Chile

    Independence is official for Chile
    A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12, 1818. It was formally recognized by Spain in 1840 when full diplomatic relations were established.
  • Battle of Bogotá seals Colombia's independence

    Battle of Bogotá seals Colombia's independence
    In June and July 1819 Bolívar's forces crossed the Andes from the Venezuelan Llanos into New Granada. At the Battle of Boyacá on August 7, his army of 3,000 defeated a Spanish and colonial force of 2,500. On August 10, 1820, Bolívar's forces took Bogotá. Upon his return to Venezuela, he became the first president of the Gran Colombia.
  • Gran Colombia is created

    Gran Colombia is created
    Gran Colombia is born, with Bolivar as president. It consists of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
  • Guayaquil, Ecuador revolts

    Guayaquil, Ecuador revolts
    On October 9th, the port-city of Guayaquil proclaimed its independence after a brief and almost bloodless revolt against the local garrison. The news of the proclamation of independence of Guayaquil spread rapidly to other cities and several towns followed the example in quick succession.
  • Portoviejo, Ecuador declares independence

    Portoviejo, Ecuador declares independence
    Portoviejo declared its independence on October 18, 1820
  • Cuenca, Ecuador declares independence

    Cuenca, Ecuador  declares independence
    Cuenca, the economic center of the southern highlands, delcares independence on November 3, 1820.
  • Success for Ecuador at Camino Real

    Success for Ecuador at Camino Real
    The Division for the Protection of Quito was under command of Colonel Luis Urdaneta. He commanded and advance out of the coastal plain towards the highlands. On November 7th, they were ready to begin the march up the Andes mountains. The first clash with a Royalist force was on November 9th at Camino Real and was a success. This victory opened the way into the inter-Andean highlands, and the capture of Guaranda soon followed.
  • Latacunga, Ecuador and Riobamba, Ecuador proclaim independence

    Latacunga, Ecuador and Riobamba, Ecuador proclaim independence
    After the victory at Camino Real and the capture of Guaranda, news of the patriot army’s victory and success had the desired effect which was towns proclaiming their independence. Latacunga and Riobamba declared independence on November 11th.
  • Ambato, Ecuador declares independence

    Ambato, Ecuador declares independence
    As a quick follow-up to the succession of Latacunga and Riobamba, Ambato, Ecuador secedes only one day later on November 12th.
  • Spanish army retakes Cuenca

    Spanish army retakes Cuenca
    The Spanish army continued its advance south, towards Cuenca, retaking all major towns along the way. On December 20, 1820, after the defenders of the city were defeated at the Battle of Verdeloma, Cuenca was retaken by the Royalist army.
  • Bolívar returns to Venezuela

    Bolívar returns to Venezuela
    Bolívar successfully invaded New Granada, and returned to Venezuela in April 1821.
  • Venezuelan forces defeat Spanish and gain independence

    Venezuelan forces defeat Spanish and gain independence
    At Carabobo Bolívar's forces decisively defeated Spanish and colonial forces, winning Venezuelan independence.
  • Peru declares independence

    Peru  declares independence
    The proclamation of independence of Peru was made by José de San Martin. (Jose de San Martin & Peru- 8:40 to end) & Jose de San Martin & Peru part two- beginning to 6:30-
  • The Second Battle of Huachi

    The Second Battle of Huachi
    Aymerich, a Royalist, headed to block further progess and, at the Secong Battle, annihilated Sucre's infantry. The patriot forces lost many men and some were captured, including General Mires. As Second Huachi had also taken a heavy toll on the Royalists, Aymerich decided against exploiting his victory with an advance on the coastal plains.
  • Armistice ends Sucre's attempt to liberate Quito

    Armistice ends Sucre's attempt to liberate Quito
    A 90-day armistice was signed at Babahoyo, putting an end to Sucre's first attempt to liberate Quito.
  • Brazil declares independence

    Brazil declares independence
    Pedro I, son of Portuguese King John, declares Brazil independent and becomes the nation's emperor
  • Haiti invades the Dominican Republic

    Haiti invades the Dominican Republic
    A short video on Haitian occupation of the Dominican Republic in 1822 to 1844.
  • Battle of Pichincha

    Battle of Pichincha
    The Ecuadorian War of Independence ended with the defeat of the Spanish forces at the Battle of Pichincha on May 24, 1822. It brought about the independence of the entire Presidencia de Quito.
  • Slavery is abolished in Chile

    Slavery is abolished in Chile
  • Battle of Ayacucho & Bolivia gains independence

    Battle of Ayacucho & Bolivia gains independence
    On December 9, 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho took place. A combined Colombian-Peruvian army of 7,000 people under the command of Sucre defeated José de La Serna's Spanish army of 10,000 people. The republicans suffered more than 1,000 casualties, but the Spanish suffered more than 2,000 casualties and more than 2,000 people were captured, among them La Serna. The Spanish surrender came the next day.
  • Bolivia declares independence

    Bolivia declares independence
    General Pedro Antonio de Olañeta refused to accept the restoration of the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812. Because of this, Olañeta was supported by conservative Criollos. Olañeta wouldn’t join Bolivar or Sucre. They were defeated in the Battle of Ayacucho but Olañeta didn’t surrender. He continued that war until Sucre defeated him, which happened on April 1, 1825. That battle ended Spanish rule in Upper Peru. A constitutional congress declared Bolivia an independent republic on August 6.
  • Costa Rica begins to export coffee

    Costa Rica begins to export coffee
  • Uruguay declares independence

    Uruguay declares independence
    Uruguay declares independence on August 25, 1825 (after numerous prior revolts) and joins a regional federation with the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina.
  • The Treaty of Montevideo

    The Treaty of Montevideo
    Treaty of Montevideo, fostered by the United Kingdom, gave birth to Uruguay as an independent state.
  • Peru invades Bolivia & Colombia declares war on Peru

    Peru invades Bolivia & Colombia declares war on Peru
    Peru invades Bolivia and Columbia which starts the Gran Colombia-Peru War of 1828 and 1829. It was the first international conflict fought by the Republic of Peru, which had gained its independence from Spain in 1821, and Gran Colombia, which was made up of the modern-day countries Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
  • Venezuela leaves "Gran Colombia"

    Venezuela leaves "Gran Colombia"
    Venezuela was part of Gran Colombia until 1830, when a rebellion led by José Antonio Páez allowed the proclamation of a new Republic of Venezuela. Páez became Venezuela's first president.
  • Ecuador leaves "Gran Colombia"

    Ecuador leaves "Gran Colombia"
    Ecuador secedes from Gran Colombia before Bolívar's death.
  • Bolívar dies preparing to go into exile & Sucre is assassinated

    Bolívar dies preparing to go into exile & Sucre is assassinated
    Before his death, Bolívar makes Antonio José de Sucre his successor. Early in 1830 Bolívar asks Sucre to preside over a congress in Bogotá, in a final attempt to hold Gran Colombia together. The Congress failed and Sucre left to ride home to Quito. He is assassinated on his journey home. (picture made in1950. It depicts the Father of Venezuela fighting for independence from Spain)
  • Slavery is abolished in Guyana

    Slavery is abolished in Guyana
    Slavery was abolished in select parts of British Guyana but remained in full force in other regions until 1834. Freed slaves fleed into the interior of the region. Following the abolition of slavery throughout Guyana, the British imported massive amounts of East Indian workers.
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    War of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation Part I

    Bolivia's dictator, Andrés Santa Cruz, conquered Peru in 1835. Santa Cruz then divided Peru into a northern and a southern part, which were then joined to Bolivia. Santa Cruz assumed the office of "protector" of the confederation. He had previously proved himself an able administrator in Bolivia so influential Peruvians welcomed his rule. He established the Peru-Bolivia Confederation in 1836.
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    War of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation Part II

    The confederation was seen as a threat to Chile and Argentina. Argentina aided the governor of Tucumán when that governor decided to go to war against Santa Cruz's confederation. Chile and Argentina declared war on the confederation. The northern Argentine forces were in alliance with Chile and Peruvian nationalist rebels. Chilean forces in the Battle of Yungay defeated Cruz in January 1839. This resulted in the breakup of the confederation and Santa Cruz went into exile in Ecuador.
  • Texas declares its independence from Mexico

    Texas declares its independence from Mexico
    The State of Texas declares its independence from Mexico and begins a war against the central government. Santa Anna is defeated by the Texans.
  • Mexico enacts a new constitution

    Mexico enacts a new constitution
    From this new constitution, Mexico became a centralist regime in which power was concentrated in the president and his immediate subordinates. The states of the former federal republic became military districts administered by regional caudillos appointed by the president. Property qualifications were decreed for congressional officeholders and voters.
  • Latin America's first railroad is built in Cuba

    Latin America's first railroad is built in Cuba
    Latin America's first railroad is built in Cuba
  • Chile defeats Peru and Bolivia

    Chile defeats Peru and Bolivia
    This forces the disintegration of the union between Peru and Bolivia. It ends the career of Bolivia's dictator Santa Cruz and allows Agustin Gamarra to seize power in Peru.
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    U.S- Mexican War

    The Mexican War breaks out between the U.S and Mexico because of Mexican anger at the United States' annexation of Texas in 1845 and also from a dispute over whether Texas ended at the Nueces River, which was Mexican claim, or the Rio Grande, which was U.S. claim. The U.S. won the war in 1848 and the U.S gained a large amount of Mexican territory which mainly extended westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Brazil imports 60,000 African slaves in just one year

    Brazil imports 60,000 African slaves in just one year
    In 1848, the Brazilian slave trade was growing rapidly. At this point, numbers could reach as much as 60,000 slaves per year.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes northern half of Mexico to the U.S.

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes northern half of Mexico to the U.S.
    This treaty ended the Mexican War. It was signed at Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, a northern part of Mexico City. The treaty drew the boundary between the U.S and Mexico at the Rio Grande and the Gila River. The U.S paid $15,000,000 for more than 525,000 square miles of land. This now includes Arizona, California, western Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. Mexico agreed to settle the more than $3,000,000 in claims made by U.S. citizens against Mexico.
  • Colombia abolishes slavery

    Colombia abolishes slavery
    General José Hilario López was elected as president in 1849 for Colombia. Capitalism began to replace the old structure. Around 1851 the López administration instituted a so-called agrarian reform program and abolished slavery.
  • Cattle products account for 78% of Argentina's exports

    Cattle products account for 78% of Argentina's exports
  • Mexico's new constitution

    Mexico's new constitution
    Mexico proclaims a new liberal and anticlerical, opposed to the influence and activities of the clergy or the church in secular or public affairs, constitution. It was largely drawn by Benito Juarez.
  • Colombia/ Nueva Grenada adopts the name Granadine Confederation

    Colombia/ Nueva Grenada adopts the name Granadine Confederation
    The Granadine Confederation was stablished in 1858 as a result of a constitutional change; it replaced the Republic of New Granada. It was made of present-day nations of Colombia and Panama. It was replaced by the United States of Colombia after another constitutional change in 1863.
  • Benito Juarez restores order in Mexico

    Benito Juarez restores order in Mexico
    In 1859, Juárez declared the confiscation of church properties. In spite of the conservatives’ initial military advantage, the liberals got support of regionalist forces. They had U.S. help under some terms of the controversial and never approved McLane-Ocampo treaty. This changed everything; the liberals recaptured Mexico City in January 1861. Juárez was finally elected president in March for another four-year term, under the Constitution of 1857.
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    Franco-Mexican War

    The Franco-Mexican War started when the Second French Empire, supported by the British and Spanish, invaded Mexico. The war followed President Benito Juarez’s suspension of interest payments to foreign countries. The suspension upset Mexico’s major creditors: Spain, France and the British. Napoleon III of France led the operation. France, the UK, and Spain signed the Treaty of London to unite their efforts to receive payments from Mexico. The war resulted in the Second Mexican Empire.
  • Mexican Reforms

    Mexican Reforms
    In 1860 liberals begin to make gains in the civil war, and on the first day of 1861 their army enters Mexico City. The conservative leaders flee into exile. Juárez becomes president, but his nation is bankrupt. To overcome the crisis, he suspends interest payments on Mexico's massive foreign debt for two years. By doing this, he plays into the hands of the European supporters of the conservative faction. Britain, France and Spain send a joint force to Mexico to protect their investments.
  • British, French & Spanish troops attack Mexico

    British, French & Spanish troops attack Mexico
    British, French and Spanish troops attack Mexico over a financial dispute. Britain and Spain soon withdraw.
  • Ecuadorian-Colombian War

    Ecuadorian-Colombian War
    This war was between the United States of Colombia (today Colombia and Panama) and the Republic of Ecuador. Upon independence from Spain, they had coexisted as part of Greater Colombia. Occasional border disputes as well as occasional attempts to recreate Greater Colombia caused tensions which led to war. At the end of 1863, they agreed to an armistice. The Treaty of Pinsaqui, signed December 30, had the two sides agreed to a return to the pre-war status quo. War ends with a Columbian victory.
  • Paraguay surrenders to Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Paraguay surrenders to Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay
    Paraguay surrenders to Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay after having lost more than 50% of its population (300,000 people) in the war. Almost all lost were men and Paraguay's dictator Lopez commits suicide.
  • El Salvador and Guatemala defeat Honduras in a brief war

    El Salvador and Guatemala defeat Honduras in a brief war
    On March 25, 1872, Honduran President Medina severed diplomatic relations with El Salvador. El Salvador and Guatemala declared war on Honduras. The force under General Miguel Espinosa defeated the Hondurans at Sabana Grande and occupied Tegucigalpa on May 9. Troops commanded by President Gonzalez drove Honduran troops commanded by President Medina out of Gracias. Salvadorian troops defeated Medina at Santa Cruz on July 12 and also at Santa Barbara on the 28. Medina was soon taken as a prisoner.
  • The railway between Mexico City and Veracruz is inaugurated

    The railway between Mexico City and Veracruz is inaugurated
  • Brazil provides about half of the coffee traded in the world

    Brazil provides about half of the coffee traded in the world
    Brazil's production and export of coffee was increasing before 1875 but in 1875 they account for about a half of world coffee production that year when just fifty years before Brazil only accounted for 1/5th.
  • Chile supplies approximately 40% of the copper traded in the world

    Chile supplies approximately 40% of the copper traded in the world
    Chile became the first producer of copper in the world in 1876 with approximately 40% (data varies from 38% to 42%) of world production.
  • Gold boom in Guyana

    Gold boom in Guyana
    In 1879 gold was discovered in Guyana. This increased British expansion toward the Orinoco delta and resulted in the Venezuela Boundary Dispute.
  • Chile fights a border war against Peru and Bolivia

    Chile fights a border war against Peru and Bolivia
    Chile fights a border war against Peru and Bolivia, also know as the War of the Pacific.
  • 90% of Mexicans are illiterate

    90% of Mexicans are illiterate
  • A railway is inaugurated between Mexico City and El Paso

    A railway is inaugurated between Mexico City and El Paso
  • The Partido Democratico is founded in Chile

    The Partido Democratico is founded in Chile
    The Partido Democratico was a political party founded in Chile in November 1887 which represented the interests of workers. In 1941 it merged with the Democratic Party.
  • Princess Isabel abolishes slavery in Brazil

    Princess Isabel abolishes slavery in Brazil
    Slavery in Brazil was legally ended throughout the nation on May 13th by the “Lei Aurea” (“Golden Law”) of 1888. It was a legal act of Princess Isabel of Brazil. Brazil was the last nation in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery.
  • A financial crisis hits Argentina

    A financial crisis hits Argentina
  • Abdication of Pedro II in Brazil; Brazil proclaimed a republic.

    Abdication of Pedro II in Brazil; Brazil proclaimed a republic.
    The second emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II, was removed in 1889, and a republic was proclaimed. It was called the United States of Brazil.
  • Costa Rica holds its first free elections

    Costa Rica holds its first free elections
  • The production of nitrate in Chile has tripled in ten years

    The production of nitrate in Chile has tripled in ten years
  • José Martí launches war for Cuban Independence and is killed.

    José Martí launches war for Cuban Independence and is killed.
    Marti was a key figure in the planning and execution of the Cuban War of Independence, as well as the designer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. In 1895, Marti, Maceo and Gomez launched an invasion of Cuba. Marti was shot and killed. An unfinished letter to a friend spoke of him risking his life to stop the US taking control of Cuba.
  • Spanish-Cuban-American War

    Spanish-Cuban-American War
    Cuban gains independence from Spain; United States takes control of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Phillippines. This ends Spanish rule in America.
  • Panama separated from Colombia

    Panama separated from Colombia
    The separation occurs when Panama establishes the Republic of Panama from the Republic of Colombia's Department of Panama.
  • Vaccine Revolt in Brazil

    Vaccine Revolt in Brazil
    The Vaccine Revolt was a short period of civil disorder that occurred in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1904. Dr. Oswaldo Cruz convinced the Congress to approve the Mandatory Vaccination Law (October 31, 1904), which permitted sanitary brigade workers to enter homes to apply the smallpox vaccine by force to get rid of smallpox. The population was confused and disoriented. After the government resumed control, the vaccination process was restarted, resulting in smallpox eventually being eradicated.
  • Argentina exports more wheat than meat

    Argentina exports more wheat than meat
  • The collapse of coffee prices cause an economic crisis in Brazil

    The collapse of coffee prices cause an economic crisis in Brazil
    In 1906, Brazil produced a record coffee crop. At this time, Brazil wasn’t the only country selling coffee. An economic crisis emerged and the coffee alliance wanted the government to come to its rescue. The government took steps to regulate the production and sale of coffee. The Convention of Taubate was signed on February 26, 1906 to control the marketing of coffee. Throughout 1908 to 1912, harvest were small and permitted the government to slowly sell its coffee to liquidate its investment.
  • Costa Rica is the world's biggest exporter of coffee

    Costa Rica is the world's biggest exporter of coffee
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    The Mexican Revolution

    The Mexican Revolution started with an uprising led by Francisco I Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt to a multi-sided civil war. The war basically ended with the Mexican Constitution of 1917 but warfare continued into 1920s.
    Student Project on outcome of Mexican Revolution (0:30- 1:56) & Pictures!
  • Universal male suffrage in Argentina

    Universal male suffrage in Argentina
    The passage of the Saenz Pena Law established universal male suffrage but specifically denied women the right to vote in national elections.
  • Luis Emilio Recabarren-Serrano founds the "Partido Obrero Socialista"

    Luis Emilio Recabarren-Serrano founds the "Partido Obrero Socialista"
    Luis Emilio Recabarren-Serrano founds the "Partido Obrero Socialista" otherwise known as POS. It later becomes renamed the Communist Party
  • The beginning of World War I

    The beginning of World War I
    At the beginning of World War I, most republics of Latin America declared neutrality. Wars disrupt trade and regular international financial transactions and this was the case for several of these countries: Brazil lost a British loan opportunity, Chilean industries were hard hit and unemployment rose, Bolivia had to borrow from an American bank to ride out the rupture of trade and all of Central America experienced trade losses.