Sara Rodríguez_G&H_4ºC

Timeline created by Sara Rodríguez Rodríguez_G&...
In History
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    In 1733 John Kay invented a machine which revolutionized a lot the textile industry. This machine permitted that the machinery could weave wider pieces of tissues. It was an improvement because with this shuttles the productivity increased. This increasing of the manufactured goods was necessary to supply the demand of the population caused by its growth.
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    First Industrial Revolution (c. 1750 – 1880)

    The Industrial Revolution it's a process that is happening, for example, nowadays with the cyber physical system revolution. The first industrial revolution was placed in Britin between the 18th and the 19th century. This revolution was very important because it changes more things than only the system of production. It changes also the society and the economy, in conclusion how the people live.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    This engine was revolutionary because it permits to create energy from the boiled water heated by burning coal. It allows in the industry to raise the productivity and the quantity of the goods produced. It also helped in the agriculture, mines, mills and transport. This machine functions with a system of pistons that goes up and down and then this circular motion is converted into a reciprocating motion.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    This book was written by Adam Smith and developed the doctrine of the capitalism and the economic liberalism. This doctrine was established by the number of authors of the Manchester School. This book talks about what can nations do to build its wealth. In this piece the author also writtes about economic theories, division of labour, the trade, the coin, the salaries, the benefits and accumulation of the capital.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    In 1785 the inventor Edmund Cartwright created the power loom a machine that could make tissues faster than a human. This machine also permitted the decrease of the cost. It permits the industrialization of weaving and used water power. But this machine wasn't completely automatic because the machine must to be stopped to dress the warp. Later this idea was modified to make it truly automatic.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    This declaration was approved under the constitutional monarchy to abolish the feudalism. This text recognised the rights and individual freedoms and equality of all the citizens in law and taxation in August 1789.
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    Contemporary History
    The Contemporary History is a period between the Franche Revolution and nowadays.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution goes from 1789 when the National Assembly made France a constitutional monarchy to 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte ended the Directory with a coup d'état.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    This constitutional monarchy under the legislative power of the National Constituent Assembly and the govern of the king Louis XVI, solve the financial crisis, drew up a constitution and approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. It ended in 1792 when the common people stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family caused by the betrayal of the king and the military invasion.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    It was a legislative and advice assembly or body where the representatives of the third state advice the king about a problem. This assembly must be convened by the king and in 1789 the king Louis XVI convened it for the fiscal enquiry. They were going to vote that the privilege classes must pay taxes. The Third State and some people from the other states left the assembly because the wanted a vote per representatives.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    After the Third Estate representatives leave the meeting of the Estates-General because they didn't get the vote per representative they went to a pavilion in Versailles (a tennis court also called Jeu de Paume). They promised to not leave the pavilion before they draft a constitution based and for the majority of the French people.
  • Storm of Bastille

    Storm of Bastille
    On July 14 the supporters of the Assembly's proposals, the people of Paris, stormed the Bastille. The Bastille was a castle used as a state prison by the kings of France. It has only 7 prisoners, but it kept a lot of weapons and gundpower. The Bastille was a symbol of the monarchist power and the stormed of it began of the spread of the revolution in the countryside.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    The 5 October 1789 women forced the king to leave Versailles and went to the Tuileries Palace. They were angry because the rise of the prices of food and manorialism. They were equipped with weapons and tools.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The first French constitution was in 1799. This constitution was based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality. The census suffrage was also introduced. This means that only men with wealth can vote.
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    Social Republic

    It was a period caused by the revolt of the sans-culottes that in 1792 stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. It was declared a Republic which is divided in the Girondin Convention and the Jacobin Convention. The Social Republic goes from 1792- 1794.
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    Girondin Convention

    It was one of the periods of the Social Repuclic (1792-1794) which is controlled by the moderate bourgeoisie at this time. They elected a new assembly called the National Convention by universal male suffrage and they also executed the king and the queen. The absolutist organised plots and there were counter-revolutionary revolts. The others countries of Europe organised and absolutist coalition.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The 20th April 1792 the Legislative Assembly declares the was to Austria and Prussia. Austria and Prussia wanted to restore the absolutism in France to stop the spread of liberal ideas in Europe.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    On 10 August 1792 the sans-culottes (common people) stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family because they betrayed by the king who wanted to scape from Paris. The king wanted to scape because the Austrian army invaded France, and after the arresting of the king, they reached Paris in 1792. This event is a key event because this day a republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.
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    Jacobin Convention

    It was one of the period in which is divided the Social Republid. In it the Jaconbins, radical bourgeoisie ruled. They wrote a constitution, which recognised the popular sovereignty and the social equality. There was universal male suffrage and the executive power was the Committee of Public Safety leaded by Robespierre. Some of the ideas of this govern were the mass levy, the Reign of Terro and the Law of the Suspect. There were also social laws (Law of the Maximum). It ended in a coup in 1794.
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    Reign of Terror

    It was a period imposed by the Jacobins, especially by the Committe of Public Safety who ruled France in it. It was imposed because they want to stop the conspirators against the govern. For this objective they spend the freedoms an this person that were against the govern were imprisoned or executes by the guillotine. This fact is called the Law of Suspects. For this reason a lot of members of the moderate bourgeoisie dies or leaves to the exile.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In the second phase of the revolution, concretely in the phase of the Girondins the king Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antonaitte were convicted of treason and executed.
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    Conservative Republic

    It was a phase of the French Revolution, when the moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution. The laws of the Directory were cancelled and the exiles can return. There was a new Constitution (1795) and the census suffrage was restored. The executive power was the Directory. But due to the opposition of the sans. -Culottes and the nobles (for different reasons) this republic finished when Napoleon did a coup in 1799.
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    The Consulate

    It was a phase after the coup of Napoleon, which was supported for a large part of the bourgeoisie. His idea was to implement the more moderate ideas of the Revolution. It was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule when the political instability was ended, the revolutionary ideas were consolidated and the economy was promoted. There was a Constitution (1800), a civil code and the state was organised in departments. The exiles had to accept the govern and signed an agreement with Church.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    It was a coup organised by the general Napoleon Bonaparte and which ended the Directory in 1799. It was caused by the instability of the Directory who faced opposition from the aristocracy and the common people (for different motives). Napoleon was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian govern.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    In this constitution Napoleon Bonaparte established a new political system in which there weren't separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were limited and public opinion was censured.
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    Enclosure Acts (

    The enclosure acts were some laws that approved the Britain parliament. This was caused by the rise of prices of the grain. Before these laws the peasants shared the pastures, but with this rising of prices a lot of peasants who have enough money wanted lands to become private. This event causes the concentration of the land ownership. It was very sad for the poor landowners who can't enclose their lands so they were forced to go to the city. Finally the big landowners improved their benefits.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1804 the Pope crowned Napoleon as emperor after he began his conquest of Europe in 1803
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    When Napoleon began his conquest of Europe, he was crowned emperor by the Pope. He defeated most of the Europen monarchies thanks to his large army and the use of new military tactics. After the victory in Austerlits in 1806 the French troops seemed unstoppable and after the invasion of Spain the Napoleonic Empire reaches its zenith.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    In this treaty Spain permitted to France to pass through to Invade Portugal. But the french army would stay more time than the spected.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808 Napoleon invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, his brother was crowned as king.
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    War of Independence

    This war was caused by the inefficient govern of Ferdinand VII and his father Charles IV. The king was persuaded to give the crown to Napoleon who gave it later to Joseph Bonaparte. So Spain was governed by a foreign king and the patriots didn't permit this fact. They developed a system of administration with the local Juntas and then with the Central Supreme Juntas who drafted the first Constitution in 1812. In it, they defend a lot of rights like press, property..
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    After the abdication of Charles IV to Ferdinand VII, Napoleon would persuade them to give the Sapinich crown to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, Joseph I with the support of the afrancesados proclaimed the Statue of Bayonne in which he wrote measures to abolish the Ancien Régime.
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    Luddite movement

    The Luddite movement was a movement against industrialisation leaded by the artisans in England in the 19th century. They believe that their great problem was the machines so they destroy them. This way they wanted to avoid the low wages and the unemployment. A popular theory said that their name came from Ned Ludd a man who broke two looms in 1779.This character is compared with a figure of a legend like Robin Hood because both lived in the Sherwood Forest.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    This constitution was drafted by Central Supreme Juntas reunited in the Cortes of Cadiz in 1812. In this constitution, they defend the national sovereignty, the universal male suffrage and a lot of rights like press, property, inviolability of the home... This constitution was followed by a series of reforms against the Ancien Régime. The problems of the War of the Independence didn't allow the sucess of this constitution.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    This treaty was signed by France who left the country in December 1813. They returned the crown to Ferdinand VII. This treaty was because the British commanded by Wellington defeated the French army in the Battle of Salamanca.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was an agreement signed by the returned king Ferdinand VII and the absolutist representation of the Cortes. With this document the king could repeal the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms to abolish the Ancien Régime , the absolute monarchies and create a liberal system.This text was signed the 12th April of 1814 and the propose was leaded by Bernardo Mozo de Rosales.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand VII is divided in phases by the alternation of absolutist and liberalism. In the first phase Ferdinand signed the Manifiesto de los Persas and repealed the Constitution of1812. In it there were pronuciamentos and one of them was driven by Rafael del Diego. In the second phase the Liberal Triennium the liberals led the power and created the National Militia. It finished with the Holly Alliance. The Ominous Decade finished his reign with a crisis and the Pragmatic Sanction.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty                                               
    The congress was a meeting of Russia, Prussia, France, Britain and Austria. It was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich and its objectives were restored the absolutism and stop the spread of liberal ideas. Their principles were the legitimacy of absolute monarchy by the power of love, the denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and the right of intervention. The Holy Alliance Treaty stipulated that monarchs that signed it were united against the liberal revolution.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    After the failure of his invasion of Rusia and the revolts in Spain, where governed his brother the decline of the Napoleonic Empire started. Finally, in 1815 the Britain and Prussian armies defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Napoleon abdicated and was sent to Santa Helena.
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    The Restoration of Absolutism

    After the absolutist powers of Europe defeated Napoleon, they met at the Congress of Vienna organised by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich and to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism. They reshaped the European map without considering the people and their nationalities. The Napoleonic Empire was divided up among the victors. This Restoration had the follow principles: the legitimacy of the absolute monarch, the denial of national sovereignty and balance of power.
  • Pronunciamiento of Coronel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Coronel Rafael del Diego
    After three not successful pronuciamentos there was one that it was. It was lead by the Coronel Rafael del Diego and it took place in San Juan (Sevilla), the first of January 1820. This pronuciamento started a new phase in the reign of Ferdinand VII called the Liberal Triennium. In this era Ferdinand VII was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War Independance

    This war was caused by the independence movements. Greek had been part of the Ottoman Empire, but they had to pay high taxes, they didn't have political power and they have also a different religion and culture from the rest of the Ottoman Empire. In 1822 they declared the independence and in 1830 they gained their independence thanks to the help of French and Britain.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    To take again the control of Spain after the pronuciamento led by Coronel Rafael del Diego, Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holly Alliance Treaty. This coalition of European monarchs send the Hundred Thousand Sons od Saint Louis. They restored the absolutism ledaded by the Duke of Angoulême.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Before 1824 the workers' associations were prohibited in England, but there were many illegal organisations like the relief societies. In 1824 the Combination Acts were abolished ,so the first official trade unions were created. An example of them is the Union of Spinners and other the Grand National Consolidated Trade Unions that unified the trade unions of different type of workers. They defend many rights of workers like regulating child labour or the wages.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    It was an engine inspired by the steam machine of James Watts and it was used in transport to move more people in less time and with lower cost. It has a steam engine that generates a continuous motion of the wheels. This machine can function thanks to burning combustible material like coal. Then, thanks to a piston the train can move it. Before the invention of it the coach was moved by horses, but it took more time to go to the places.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    It was a revolutionary wave caused by the Congress of Viena because it didn't respect the liberal principles and the nationalist aspiration of the people. This revolution was supported by the people and they stopped the restoration of absolutism. They began in France with the old king Charles X and in Poland under the rule of the Russian Empire.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    This revolution was caused by the Congress of Vienna, which didn't respect the liberal and nationalist aspirations of the people, so this fact was the reason of the ending of absolutism. Absolutism was replaced by the liberal political systems governed by a Constitution. For example the absolutist king Charles X was replaced by the constitutional king Louis Philippe I.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Netherlands that infected the Kingdom of Holland (protestants and absolutist) with Belgium (catholic and liberal). This union was a disaster, so Belgium declared the independent between 1830 and 1839 with the corresponding war. In 1839 it was the recognition of its independence. The country was ruled by the liberal monarchy of Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    It started in the Basque Country and fought the liberals leade by General Espartero and the carlist leaded by the commander Zamalacárregui. The carlist were defeated and the peace was signed in 1839 in Convetion of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The reign of Isabella II started in 1833 when she was three years old but until she was therteen years old she wasn't proclaimed queen ahd there was numerous regent like her mother Maria Christina and the General Espartero. Her rreigns id divided in five parts: The regency of Maria Christina, the regency of General Espartero, the Moderate Decade, the Liberal Biennium and the system in crisis.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    After 10 were the trade unions were allowed, a trade union were different types of workers were unified was created. This association defended many essential rights of the workers like right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve the wages and to regulate child labour. This organisation was one of the attempts to create a national general union. It hadn't got a lot of support outside London. Its successor was the National Association of United Trades for the Protection of Labour.
  • Constitution of 1837

    Constitution of 1837
    During the government of Juan Álvarez Mendizábal a new constitution to abolish the Ancien Régime was drafted. This constitution implemented a lot of rights and individual freedoms, it established two chambers, the separation of powers and the national sovereignty with census suffrage. But this constitution didn't live much longer due to the enfrentation of moderates and progressive.
  • Zollverein

    Prussia created a customs union. It was the first event of the unification of Germany from 1861 to 1871.
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    This moderate constitution was drafted in 1845 by the Cortes leaded by the General Narváez. In this constitution, we can see highly restricted suffrage, limited civil liberties and the sovereignty was shared between the Crown and the Cortes. Only Navarre and the Basque Country could maintain their statutory laws. This constitution was followed with some more changes like the penal code, the national education system. They also established the relationship with the Church.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848                                                                          
    They are also called "the Spring of Nations" and under the idea of nationalism they wanted nations free from the control of absolutist empires and new liberal governs. There was this nationalist uprising in the Austrian Empire, in Hungary, in Bohemia, northern Italy, in the German Confederation and in France. In France this uprising proclaimed the Second Republic. In the Austrian Empire due to the lots of nationalities in this empire the chancellor Matternich was forced to resign.
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    French Second Republic (1848 – 1852)

    In the period of the Spring of Nations a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic. In this republic the governing adopted democratic measures like universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    Henry Bessemer and Alexander Lyman Holley invented in 1856 the Bessemer converter. As its own name says, this machine convert the iron ore with coal into steel. The steel was better to build machinery, tools, buildings and public works. In this process the impurities were removed by oxidation from the iron. The steel finished the process melted and then it is formed by the drop hammer and the laminator.
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    Italian Unification process

    In the Italian Unifications the territories annexed by Austria in the Congressnof Vienna like Lombardy are going to be annexed by the Kingdom of Piedmont in 1859 with the liberal monarchy of Savoy. Also a popular uprising leaded by Garibaldi act in central and southern Italy for independence. In 1861 Victor Manuel of Savoy was proclaimed king and in 1866 Austria left Venetia.After the Papal States were annexed in 1870 the unified state established its capital in Roma.
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    German Unification process

    German was infected when Prussia created a custom of unions called Zollverein in 1834. Then its parliament offered the crown to the king of Prussia who refused it. In 1861 Wilhelm I became king if Prussia and he and his chancellor Otto von Bismarck declared the war in Denmark, Austria and France in different years. Prussia was victorious, so they infected Germany and Wilhelm I, was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire.
  • First International

    First International
    The First International was an initiative of Karl Marx that is also called the International Workingmen's Association. This organisation was created to join marxist, anarchist and trade unions. It was founded in St. Martin's Hall, London and its first congress was in Geneva in 1866. The problem of these associations was the ideological differences, so they split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Karl Marx with Friedrich Enges was one of the principal authors of the theory of Marxism. The objective of it was to destroy capitalism because was the principal problem of the exploitation of workers. This revoultion would have two phases: in the frist one there was a dictatorshi of the proletariat and in the second one there was a comminist society. It also promoted the workers' participation in piolitical life. This book called Das Kapita was published in 1867.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    After the Constitution of 1869 which established a parliamentary monarchy Spaind needed a monarch. The provisional government chooses Amadeo of Savoy, who belonged to a liberal monarchy who had unified Italy. Amadeo of Savoy was supported by progressives, union it and democrats, but his main supporter, General Prim was assassinated. The monarchy, which didn't start well it isn't going to end well. Amadeo of Savoy abdicated after many problems, specially the island of Cuba.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    With the abdication of Savoy the Cortes voted to form a a republic, perhaps almost all of the deputies were monarchist. There were two reactions to this proclamation, the lower classes were happy and they wait for new social reforms and the moarchist who didn't support this form of government.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    The reign of Alfonso XII started when General Martínez Campos proclaimed Alfonso XII the king of Spain. With thi event started also the implementation of the Canovist System by Cánovas del Castillo. This system wanted to pacificate Spain and it was based on the alternation in power of the the two main parties, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. This system was supported by the Constitution of 1876 who permitted this alternation. The system was thanks to the caciquismo and the fraud.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was the second attempt to create an union by Marx, but this time only with socialist parties. The principal difference between this and the first is that the second hadn't got a General Council. Because of it the parties were independent in its states.Its principal action was the creation of symbols to the labour movement. Some of these symbols were the anthem "The Internationale" and the 1 May holiday (International Workers' Day).