In 1859, the liberal monarchy of Piedmont-Sardinia governed by Prime Minister Cavour, started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. At the same time, a popular upsrings led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italiy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king. In 1866, Austria left Venetia, and in 1870, the papal states were annexed by Itlay. The nwely unified state established its capital in Rome.