French rev 640x351

Noa Campos_G&H_4ºF

  • Period: 1453 to

    Modern History

    The Modern History was the third of the historical periods, which could have started in 1453, with the fall of Constantinople, and could have ended in 1799, with the end of the French Revolution. In this period, the values of modernity stood out, such as progress
    or reason.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were a series of British laws, which led to a concentration of land ownership, replacing the open-field system due to the rise in grain prices.
    It benefited the big landowners, who produced more and helped improving farming techniques too. On the other side, poor farmers couldn't enclose land, for that reason, they had to sell their property. Then, they were forced to became labourers in exchange for a low wage, so a big part of them were forced to move to cities.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    It was a machine which led to the beggining of the mechanisation process, invented by John Kay in 1733. It increased the speed of production and made possible to weave weider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    Very important historical period that started durind the 18th century in Great Britain. In it the mechanisation process started, the political system changed and the population grew. Then, coal became the main source of energy, the expansion of transport was extensive and a colonial empire created a large market(providing raw materials and exporting manufactured goods).
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    It was one of the driving forces of the Industrial Revolution, invented in 1769 in Great Britain by James Watt, who was asked to repair one steam engine and he ended up building a much more efficient. This machines use the power of steam to generate continuous movement, transferring it to machinery. To work, they use materials like coal or water. This kind of machines were mostly used in the textile industry, to increase speed and productivity; but were also used in agriculture or minery.
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    Adam Smith was an economist, and was one of the liberal British authors of the Manchester School; who estabilished the economic liberalism, a doctrine based on private ownership. He wrote his main oeuvre "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. It is considered the first work in the economy amide. This book defends the free trade politics and criticise and deny the mercantilist economic system.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    It was a textile machine invented by Edmund Cartwright, whick worked with the same system of the John Kay's flying shuttle, but more advanced. The power loom dramatically increased fabric production, making yarn into cloth. It lowered its cost too.
  • "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"

    "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"
    It was a document, which was approved by the National Constituent Assembly and had as a purpose abolish feudalism. This declaration, recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all the cityzens in law and taxation.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    Is the first phase of the Revolution, and the objective was to make France a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy. The National Constituent Assembly (which had the legistalite power) had to abolish feudalism by approving the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and approve the first French constitution, which include the Census suffrage. New liberalist laws were implanted, and the National Guard was created.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a period that started in 1789, due to the Enlignthenment ideas and the American Revolution, the aspitarions of the Third State and an Economic and Social crisis. The revolution started with the Storming of the Bastille, and is composed of 3 periods: Constitutional Monarchy (1789.1792), Social Republic (divided in Girondin and Jacobin Conventions), (1792-1794) and Conservative Republic (1794-1799). It ended due to a coup (18th of Brumaire) organised by Napoleon in 1799.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General was a legislative and consultive assembly which was convened by the king and had no power. It was divided in the three different estates, nobility, clergy and the Thid Estate.
    They met in Versailles in May 1789 to approve the tax reform, caused by the financial crisis. There, privileged estates demand a vote per estate, instead of per representative and they also demanded greater representation; as a result, the Third Estate decided to leave the meeting.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    As they were expelled from Parliament, The representatives of the Third Estate met in a pavilion (Jeu de Paume) and proclaimed the National Assembly.They wanted to show that the Third Estate was the majority of the population and they pledged to draft a constitution that reflected the will of this majority of French people.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris supported what the Assembly proposed and they stormed the Bastille, that had been a castle used as a state prission, therefore it contained many weapons and gunpowder (that for them was essential). This rvolution spread out of the city, where noble's houses were burnt. This caused Louis XVI to panic and accept the National Assembly, in 1789. This meant that France became a constitutional monarchy and the end of the Ancien Régime.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    A huge group of angry and armed woman, who came from Paris' markets, marched to Versailles, where the royal family lived. They protested due to high prices of food, and demanted de king to abolish manorialism. This actions forced the king to abandon Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    It was drawn up by the National Constituent Assembly, and it was based on the separation of powers, national sovereignity and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto.
    It introduced census suffrage too, giving the vote to people with a certain level of wealth.
  • Storm of Tulieries Palace

    Storm of Tulieries Palace
    Common people (sans-culottes) invade the Tuileries Palace, impresioning the royal family. They did it because they were fed up of all the betrayals by the king and the military invasions. This caused the declaration of a republic and the second phase of the French Revolution began.
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    War of the First Coalition

    It was the first attempt to stop the French Revolution by the european monarchies. This set of wars began because of the invasion of Austria and Prussia in French territory, this made that the Legislative Assembly declared the war to this countries.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the revolution, and started because of the Storming of Tuileries Palace. This happened because people was fed up with king's betrayals and military invasions, so they stormed the palace to impresione the royal family.
    This phase was ruled by the Girondin Convention (1792-93) and the Jacobin Convention (1793-94).
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    Girondin Convention

    It was the first part of the Social Republic, and Girondins were the more moderate bourgeoisie. A new assembly called the National Convention was created, and elected by male suffrage. How the king dead in 1793, Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France; which had internal problems, as the broke out of the counter-revolutionary revolts ot the royalists plots organised by the former privileged classes.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    He and his wife were executed in 1793 because they were convicted of treason. This caused the formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against France; they were counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots by the privileged classes
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    Jacobin Convention

    1793: republican constitution, that defended universal male suffrage and social equality. Executive power was led by a Committee of Public Safety, lead by Robespierre.
    A mass levy to reject invasions was organised, which meant an increase of army. To stop counter-revolutionary revolts, they approved the Regin of Terror, and the Law of Suspects was approved, which prohibited freedom.
    Laws were approved to satisfy sans-culottes (Law of the Maximum...).
    It ended with the death of Robespierre.
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    Regin of Terror

    It was a period of violence during the Jacobin Convention, in which the opponents of the Jacobins were executed to stop conspirations and counter-revolutionary revolts and plots. This period was lead by Robespierre, person who marked the end of this period because of his death.
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    Conservative Republic

    The last part of the Revolution was lead by the moderate bourgeoisie, cancelling Jacobin laws and encouraging the return of exiles. In 1795 a new Constitution was approved, restoring census suffrage and giving the executive power to the Directory. This collegial government was very unstable due to the oposition of aristocracy and common people. In this context of crisis Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire, starting an authoritarian rule. Was the end of the French Revolution.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    In 1799, the social contest was of crisis and war against the absolutists powers, Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire, which was supported by a big part of the
    bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule. This meant the end of the French Revolution.
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    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary History is the fourth of the historical periods, and it starts in 1789, with the beggining of the French Revolution. It reaches the present.
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    The Consulate

    In 1799 Napoleon was name consul, and started a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule, called Consulate. Napoleon wanted to finish with political instability, consolidate revolutionary principles or promote economy recovery. In 1800's constitution, liberties were very limited and it lacked of a separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Some schools were created to educate civil servants, and Napoleon allowed exiles to return if they signed the concordat.
  • Constitution of 1800

    The Constitution of 1800 was a new political system that was approved during the Consulate. It didn't include a separation of powers or a declaration of rights; in this constitution, liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured.
    The state was organised in departments, which were ruled by perfects.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1803 he started conquesting Europe, so in 1804, Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began conquesting Europe in 1803, and was crowned emperor in 1804. Thanks to his large army and his new military techniques, he defested the most european monarchies. His troops seemed unstoppable after the victory in Austerlitz in 1806; in 1808, Spain was invaded by France, and Joseph Bonaparte became king.
    In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire reached his zenith, controlling the most part of Europe.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    In 1808, France invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother) became king. This fact gave rise to many uprisings against the Emperor in Spain.
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    War of Independence

    It started with a popular revolt which began in Madrid and spread rapidly across the country. It has 3 phases:
    - popular resistance (1808)
    -French offensive (1808-1812)
    -Anglo-Spanish victories (1812-1814)
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    Luditte movement

    It was a movement which started in Great Britain in the early 19th century. Textile workers protested against industrialisation, defending the violent destruction of machinery, because they thought that it was the responsible of low wages and unemployement.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Treaty
    It was the meeting of the powers that defeated Napoleon, with the Austrian Chancellor Metternich as organizer. The objectives were to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe. This congress stabilished the principles of the Restoration, as the legitimacy of absolute monarchs, the denial of national sovereignty, the balance of power or the right of intervention.
    The Holly Alliance Tricky was signed for absolute monarchs to join against any attempt of liberal revolution.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Napoleon was starting to fail, and the Battle of Waterloo was the key point of his failure. In 1815 the imperial armies were finally defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. This meant the abdication of Napoleon, and was send to exile to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821
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    The restoration of absolutism

    The powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna, pretending to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe. The four great powers reshaped the European map to their advantage, without considering people's opinion.
    France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire was divided up among the victors.
    This meant to the stabilization of the ideological principles of the Restoration.
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    Greek war of Independence

    The Greeks were not comfortable being governed by the Ottoman Empire, because they had a different culture and religion, in addition they had to pay taxes and were excluded from the state administration jobs.
    In 1822, Greeks declared the independence, not regognised by the Turks.
    In 1827, Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire thanks to the help of France and Great Britain's armys.
    In 1830 the independence was recognised.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    It was a set of laws which prohibited worker's associations, where they fought for higher salaries, for example.
    It was abolished because the unions of workers from the same field joined and fired them. This fact led to the creation of the first official trade unions.
  • Stephenson's steam locomotive

    Stephenson's steam locomotive
    Thanks to the steam engine, rail became the first mode of transport to be powered by inanimate tractive force. One of the mechanisms that this transport used was the steam locomotive, which was patented by Stephenson in 1829. It used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    During this Revolutions, there were two emerging forces: liberalism and absolutism, which promoted the revolutions and ended with the restoration of absolutism. This one was replaced by liberal systems, governed by a constitution and lead by the bourgeoisie.
    In France, Charles X (absolutist) was overthrone and replaced by Louis Philippe I (constitutional).
    The kingdom of the Netherlands was divided, and the South became Belgium.
    They were some revolts in Poland (1831) , under the rule of Russia.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In the Congress of Vienna (1815) the Kingdom of the Netherlands was divided into the Kingdom of Holland and the Kingdom of Belgium.
    1830-39: Armed conflict after the declaration of independence.
    1839: Recognision of independence by the Netherlands.
    This country became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I, thanks to the spread of liberal ideas.
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    The Age of the revolutions (1830-1848)

    This revolutions served to end the restoration of absolutism (1815) and new forces were created, like liberalism and absolutism. They served too to seek independent nations, free from the control of absolutist emperors (as in Vienna or in the Germanic Confederation); the Second Republic of France was created too. The consolidation of democratic reforms, importance of workers, popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and extension of collective rights were other consequences.
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    First Carlist War

    It began in the Basque Country, where the Carlists were defeated by the Liberal Army of Espartero.
    Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara in 1839.
    Despite this, there were many Carlist uprisings in Catalonia between 1846 and 1848 (Revolt of the Matiners). This was because Carlists still having popular support and their own line of succession.
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    Regin of Isabella II

    In the first two phases, Isabella II was not of age. Government-> Maria Christina (supported moderates but had to change to support liberals; who abolished Ancien Régime and drafted a Constitution in 1837) and of Espartero. Then in the Moderate Decade Isabella was on age and Spain was lead again by the Moderate Liberal Party (Constitution of 1845). In the Progressive Biennium (Const. of 1855 --> not approved, and economic reforms). System in decline (Liberal Union+new political parties)
  • Zollverein

    The Zollverein is a customs union promoted by Prussia in 1834. It abolished tariffs among the members of the German Confederation, except Austria. The objective of this was to facilitate trade between states and promote industrial development.
  • Grand Nacional Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand Nacional Consolidated Trades Union
    It was a union of workers created in 1834, which brought together different types of workers (class consciousness) and was the substitute of workers' associations. The first tasks that were carried out were to deffend the right of association, to reduce the working day,to improve wages and to regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    This Constitution was drafted in 1837 by the progressives. It recognised the national sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers and two chambers (Congress of Deputies and Senate). It also granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    This Constitution was adopted by the new Cortes, and was moderate. There, suffrage was very restricted, civil liberties were limited and Cortes and Crown shared the sovereignty. It was also a reorganisation in state and municipal administration, where only the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statuory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the control of an empire, or were fragmented into states. The revolutions started because of the rise of liberalism and expansion of nationalism, which meant the pursuit of independent nations.
    The revolt of Vienna was based on liberal principles, and the chancellor had to resign.
    Other nationalistic uprisings (German Conf., Hungary...)
    In France the Second Republic was proclaimed.
    This revolutions represented democratic ideals and the political importance of workers.
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    French Second Republic

    In France, popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic (1848-1852). It adopted some democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of death penalty and certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The invention of the Bessemer converter in 1856 made possible to manufacture steel (a new material which was made by carbon and iron). This machine introduced raw materials and applied heat to them, so that the mixture (steel) came out liquid. Then it was put into molds and different shapes were made. Steel was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    Italy was divided in several states by the C. of Vienna, but in 1859 Piedmont started an unification process. The king was Victor Manuel II of Savoy, and the Prime Minister, Cavour.
    1859: War on Austria, annexion of Lombardy and a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies.
    1861: Victor Manuel II of Savoy became king.
    1866: Austria left Venetia
    1870: Papal states were annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    This unification process was led by Prussia, the king was Wilhem I and the Prime Minister, Ottovon Bismarck.
    1834: Prussia created a customs union called Zollverein.
    1848: King of Prussia refused the crown of Germany.
    1861: New political figures in Prussia.
    -Wars in Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870).
    1871: Proclamation of the 2nd German Empire.
  • First International

    First International
    It was an international organisation founded in 1864 thanks to the initiative of Karl Marx. It consisted in the union of marxists, anarchists and trade unions. In 1876 it split due to the ideollogical differences between them.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Das Kapital is a book written by Karl Marx in 1867. In it, the writer explains how does the capitalist system works and how the bourgeoisie and the proletariat reach the power. The last one became unstoppable at one point.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy
    This man, who was Victor Emmanuel II's son, was chosen to take the throne. He was supported by progressives, unionists and democrats, but he also had two opponents: moderates and some representatives of the Church who remainded loyal to the Bourbons. With many problems involved, including the second Carlist war and another in Cuba, Amadeo I abdicated and left the country.
  • Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic

    Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic
    After the abdication of Amadeo I, the Cortes voted to form a republic. Most of the deputies were monarchist, but lower social classes were happy with the result. Republicans also prepared a programme of social and economic reforms.
    Than, the 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans; its Cortes drafted a federal Constitution, with federal principles and where the legislative powers were divided between the central government and the federal republics. It NEVER took effect.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    He was Isabella II's son, and started the Bourbon restoration. This monarchy adopted the Canovist system, where political parties alternated in power, promesing political and social stability. This aim was solved by the 1876's Constitution, which was conservative.
    Inside this system, the bipartisanship was born, and it meant the creation of 2 political parties to alternate in power, using a system called turno pacifico.
    Caciquismo and nationalism were born.
    1898's crisis end with this period.
  • Second International

    Second International
    Organisation created in 1889 by the Marxists to cordinate the socialists parties of the time. It estabilished some symbols of the labour movement, like the anthem "The Internationale" and the 1 May holiday (Internarional Workers' Day).