Irene Miramontes Aboy_G&H_4ºH

  • Period: 1750 BCE to 1880 BCE

    Enclosure Acts

    As the agricultural production increased during the second half of the 18th century because of the new lands ownership structure, changes in cultivation system and introduction of new machines and crops, the British Parliament authorised the Enclosure Acts due to the rise in grain prices:
    - They abolished the open field system (subsistence farming).
    - They accepted enclosed properties (privately owned).
  • Period: May 29, 1453 to

    Modern History

    The Modern History begins when the Turkish Empire conquered Conatantinople in 1453 and it ends in 1789 with the French Revolution.
  • The Flying Shuttle by John Kay

    The Flying Shuttle by John Kay
    During the textile revolutio, into the mechandisation process, John Kay introduced the flying shuttle in 1733 to increase speed production and to make wider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution took place in Great Britain in the middle 18th century. Due to this revolution many other revolutions took place: agricultural and demographic revolution, technological and transport revolution and trade and fincancial revolution.
  • James Watt’s Steam Engine

    James Watt’s Steam Engine
    The Steam Engine was created by James Watt's in 1769.
    It consisted in burning coal and boiled water under high pressure, moving continiously and tranwferred to machinery. This released steam.
  • The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

     The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
    The Wealth of Nations is a work written by Adam Smith in 1776 were he develops his theories about trade, currency, wealth, merchandise in work, salaries, benefits and acumulation of capital. The Wealth of Nations is Adam's most important and famous work.
  • The Power Loom by Edmund Cartwright

    The Power Loom by Edmund Cartwright
    During the textile revolution, into the mechanisation process, spinning machines were introduced. The power loom was one of those that were introduced. It was invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    The National Constituent Assembly (moderate bourgeoisie) negotiated with the king and privileged classes how to established a parliamentary monarchy in France through the abolishment of feudalism by approving the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation and denied woman civil rights.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    The French Revolution has different phases and social groups. The Constitutional Monarchy is the firts phase that begined in 1789 and ended in 1792. It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie and its goals were to abolish the Ancien Régime and established a moderate liberak monarchy, elect a parliament and established a constitution.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    The Estates-General is a legislative and consultive assembly wich had to be convened by the king. It is divided in 3 estates and it has no power.
    In 1789, the privileged demanded that Louis XVI convened the Estates-General so, the 5th of May 1789, he convenes the assembly for fiscal enquiry.
    On the one hand, the privileged demanded a vote per estate, rather than per representative and on the other hand, the 3rd Estate asked anyone in the room to join them, 2 nobles and 149 clergies did it.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution began the 5th of May 1789 with the proclamation of the 3rd Estate as National Assembly and it ended the 9th of November 1799 when Napoleon staged a coup.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    As the 20th of June 1789 Louis XVI closed the door of the Estates-General to the 3rd Estate, the decided to meet in a pavillion in Versailles called Jeu de paume.
    They proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France and the promised to draft a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    During the end of June and first weeks of July, the Assembly's proposals started getting more supporters in Paris and the situation got tense.
    The 14th of July 1789, they stormed the Bastille which was a castle used as state prision. They stole lots of weapons and gunpowder from it.
    The revolution spread to the countryside, triggering the Great Fear against nobles.
    Louis XVI, who was frightened by the situation, accepted the National Assembly and France became a constitutional monarchy.
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    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary History is the historical period between the Declaration of the Independence of the United States or the French Revolution and nowadays.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    From Paris markets, thousands of angry women marched to
    Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    The National Constituent Assembly drew up a Constitution in 1791 based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, through the king reserved the right of veto.
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    Social Republic

    The Social Republic was the second phase of the Revolution. It started because of the betrayal of the king and the military invansion of Prussia and Austria which increased the republican feelings among "common people".
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    Girondin Convention

    The Girondins (more moderate bourgeoisie) controlled the Republic. A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The Legislative Assembly, which was formed after the first Constitution was approved, declared war to Austria and Prussia, this was the begining of the War of the First Coalition.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed Tuileries and prisioned the royal family on 10th of August 1792. A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed. As a response, monarchies in Europe formed and absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the privileged classes organised royalist plots.
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    Reign of Terror

    To stop conspirators the Reign of Terror was imposed. The courts ordered executions by guillotine or the impriosioned of people who were opposed to the government under Law of Suspects.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins were the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie.
    It was enacted a new Constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and the right to social equality.
    The executive power was led by a Comettee of Public Safety leaded by Robespierre.
    A mass levy was organised to increase army force.
    To satisfy the demans of sans-culottes a series of social laws were introduced.
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    Conservative Republic

    The Conservative Republic was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie and its goal was to moderate liberalism.
    On July 1794 a coup ended the dictatorial Jacobin government and the 28th of July 1794 Robespierre and 21 of its supporters were executed.
    In 1795 a new Constitution was approved.
    The 9th of September 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coupn of 18th Brumaire and this was the end of the French Revolution.
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    The Consulate

    In 1799, General Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup d’état.
    He was proclaimed consul so the Consulate began in 1799 and finished in 1804.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The 9th of November 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte organised
    a coup called Coup of 18th Brumaire which was supported by a large part of thebourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. This was the end of the French Revolution.
  • Constitution of 1800

    The Constitution of 1800 wanted to finish with the separation of powers and the declaration of rights, there were very limited liberties and public opinion was censured and the states were organized in departments which ere run by prefects.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and he was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    The Napoleonic Empire takes place between 1804-1815.
    Napoleon started his conquest along Europe in 1803, he was crowned emperor in 1804.
    He had a large army and new military tactics so in 1806 he reached the victory over Austria and Prussia and in 1808 over Spain.
    The Empire reched its zenith in 1811. France had the control of almost all Europe.
    The Empire finished in 1815 when Napoleon lost the battle of Waterloo and abdicated and was also sent to exiled to
    Saint Helena.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau allowed the French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal (ally of the British).
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne, by which Napoleon persuaded the Bourbons to give the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph.
  • Invansion of Spain. Joseph Bonaparte crowned king.

    Invansion of Spain. Joseph Bonaparte crowned king.
    Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, was crowned king when Napoleon conquered Spain in 1808.
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    War of Independence

    The 2nd May 1808, popular uprising against the French began in Madrid and spread across the country. This was the begining of the War of Independence. The supporters of Joseph I (afrancesados) fought against the majority of the population (patriots) and the British troops that join in August of the same year.
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    Luddite movement

    The Luddite movement was a movement headed by English first workers to protest in the early 19th century. They destroyed the machinery as a respons for low wages and unemployement.
  • Spanish Constitution 1812

    Spanish Constitution 1812
    In 1812, the Cortes draft the first Spanish Constitution (La Pepa). With the Constitution they established the separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The War of Independence ended with the Treaty of Valençay when Ferdinand VII became king again and the Spanish troops withdrew from Spain.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    The Manifiesto de los Persas was signed in 1814 by the absolutist
    representatives of the Cortes, who requested an absolute monarchy.
    With the support of this Manifiesto, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms of the Cádiz Cortes.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    The organiser of the Congress of Vienna was the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. It took place between 1814-1815. Its main objectives were to spread the liberal ideas and to restore absolutism.
    The principals of the restoration were: the legitimacy of absolute monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and right of intervention.
    As a consequence, the Holy Alliance Treaty took place in 1815. There was a change of borders and political powers in Europe.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand VII has 3 phases:
    Six years of Absolutism (1814-1820)
    Liberal Triennium (1820-1823)
    Ominous Decade (1823-1230)
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815, in the Battle of Waterloo, the imperial armies were defeated by Prussia and Great Britain.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    In 1820, one of the pronunciamentos led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla, was successful so the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greeks had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state
    administration jobs and they were dominated by people with different
    religion and culture.
    In 1822, Greeks declared their independence but it wasn't recognised by the Turks.
    In 1827, Greeks had the victory thanks to French and British military
    In 1830, Greek Independence was recognized.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Alliance to sent troops to
    defend the absolutism in Spain and in1823 the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored absolutism.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    The Abolishment of the Combination Acts was a law created in 1824 that allowed the creation of syndicates.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    During the technological revolution new forms of transport were introduced. Into rail, the steam locomotive, invented by George Stephenson in 1829, was introduced.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some Europeans so two main opposition forces appeared: Liberalism and Nationalism.
    The movement began in France and insurrections
    spread through Europe.
    Absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by
    a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power. They went back to absolutism.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The 1830 and1848 revolutions finished with the absolutism that began in 1815.
    The 1848 revolutions also represented democratic ideals and the political importance of workers.
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    Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was catholic and liberal.catholic and liberal
    Between 1830 and 1839 there was and conflict after Belgium's declaration of independence.
    In 1839: Belium Independence was recognised and it began a liberal
    monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War began in the Basque Country in 1833. It was lead by the experienced commander Zumalacarregui, who was defeated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Finally, peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara. This war ended in 1839.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

     Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union was a new social movement that took place in 1834 that brought together different types of workers to defend the right of association, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • Constitution 1837

    Constitution 1837
    In 1837 a Progressive Constitution was signed. It was based in national sovereignty with census suffrafe, separation of powers, two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate and it granted many rights and individual liberties.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    Thanks to Ferdninad VII, who approved the Pragmatic Sanction which lead his daughter Isabella II reign, she became queen in 1843, at the age of 13 after General Espartero was forced to exile.
    A new crisis in Espartero's government caused Isabella to hand the government over O'Donnel, who was the leader of the Liberal Union, in 1868.
  • Constitution

    In 1845 a Moderate Constitution was approved. It was based in highly restricted suffrage, civil liberties were restricted, sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown and the reorganisation of State and municipal administration. It had other measures as the creation of Penal Code or the Guardia Civil, centralisation of taxes...
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People were under the rules of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy).
    As a result, liberalism rised and nationalism expanded there was also a pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
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    French Second Republic

    The Second Republic of France took place between 1848 and 1852.
    It adopted democratic measures such as the universal male suffrage, the abolition of death penalty, certain rights for workers and press freedom.
  • The Bessemer Converter

    The Bessemer Converter
    The textile and iron industries were the dominant forces during the industrialisation. Into the industry new techniques were introduced. Into steel, in 1856 the Blessemer Converter was introduced.
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    Italian Unification

    In 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont, which was ruled by the liberal
    monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification.
    They declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy.
    In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of
    In 1866, Austria left Venetia.
    In 1870, the Papal states were annexed and Rome became
    the capital.
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    German Unification

    In 1834, Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein).
    In 1848, the 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it.
    In 1861, new political figures in Prussia appeared: King
    Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor.
    In 1871, took place the proclamation of the Second German
    Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    The First International of International Workingmen’s
    Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864. Their aim was to join different groups of anarchists, communists and socialist labour unions.
  • Das Kapital (Karl Marx)

    Das Kapital (Karl Marx)
    The Das Kapital was a book written in 1867 where Marx exposes his theory.
  • Monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy

    Monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy
    Amadeo I was chosen to take the throne in 1870. He was supported by unionists, progressives and democrats.
    A few days before its arrival, his main supporter, General Prim, was assassinated, so a strong oposition was created.
    He abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    In 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans. Then, a Constitution was draft on the same year. The Republic lasted until 1874.
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    Reing of Alfonso XII

    The Bourbon Restorarion took place when General Martinez Campos proclaimed Isabella's son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain, in 1874. His reign lasted until 1902.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to
    coordinate the various socialist parties. Symbols of the labour movement such as Anthem “The Internationale” or International Workers’ Day were established.