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Pedro Parente_G&H_4ºG

  • Period: 1500 to

    modern history

    The historic period from the discovery of America (1492) to the French Revolution (1789)
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    The Age of the revolutions

    It started with the Estates General meeting and ended with the unification of Germany. Then, after Napoleon’s fall, the revolutionary waves in 1830 and 1848 revolutionized everything.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The French economy was in chaos by the late 1780s. The decades of war had drained the treasury, and the country was nearly bankrupt. To raise maoney, Louis XVI decided that the people, including the French aristocrats, should pay more taxes. But the aristocrats blocked Louis XVI's plan. In desperation, Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General to address the economic crisis. In fact, when Louis called the meeting, the Estates General had not gathered in more than 170 years.
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    French Revolution

    During the first half of the 18th century a series of liberal revolution spread acroos Europe, inspired by the 1789 French reolution
    these revolution meant the end of absolutism an the ancient regimen, and the bulding of a new society based on the equality of citicents before the law.
    The new political system was created based on popular sovereignty The right to vote
    liberalism also defended the peoples right to build their own state. the division of the old empires allowed new states to emerge
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    The Tennis Court Oath was a commitment by the Third Estate delegates to create a new constitution. The Third Estate delegates along with some of the members of the clergy and the nobility. On an indoor tennis court they met and pledged to not leave until a new constitution was developed. This event was significant because it involved members of all three estates, and represented the first big act by the Nation Assembly, and was the start of the attempts to create a new government.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    On 14 July 1789, a state prison on the east side of Paris, known as the Bastille, was attacked by an angry and aggressive mob. The prison had become a symbol of the monarchy’s dictatorial rule, and the event became one of the defining moments in the Revolution that followed. This article reporting the events of 14 July was published in an English newspaper called The World, a few days after the event took place.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    This declaration abolished traditional privileges enjoyed by the monarch, the clergy, and the aristocracy, sparked a bloody struggle that eventually led to the creation of a French nation based on new principles. It established France as a secular republic. The 17 articles of the declaration set out these principles and became the basis of the new French constitution. It defined the individual and collective rights of all people.The declaration became the catechism of the Revolution in France.
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    Constitutional monarchy

  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    The March on Versailles, was also known as The Bread March of Women. Although the National Assembly had taken the Tennis Court Oath and the Bastille had fallen at the hands of the crowd, the poor women of Paris still found that there was a considerable bread shortage and the prices were very high. Rumors had been spreading in Paris that the royals were hoarding all the grain. A hungry mob of 7,000 largely working-class women decided to march on the Versailles, taking with them weapons.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The constitution of 1791 is essentially the French making a new set of laws for France. This is also the time where the French people put king and queen into house arrest. This also signified the accomplishment of the Tennis Court Oath. The reason why this is important is that it showed that the republic had power and was able to go against the king. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/1600s-1800s/french-revolution-tutorial/v/french-revolution-part-3-reign-of-terror
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    War of the First Coalition

    War declared by the Legislative Assembly to Austria and Prussia, given that Prussia and Holy Roman Empire oathed to help Louis XVI against revolutionaries because they were afraid of the spread of liberalism, It ended for France in September of 1792 when the Austrian and Prussian army reached Paris.
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    social republic

    The second phase of the Revolution caused by the betrayal of the king and the military invasion of Prussia and Austria, that caused the monarchy to lose most of its followers. It was ruled by the radical bourgeoisie, first the Girondists , and later the Jacobins . Their main goals were to be a republic with a democratic and equal society.
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    Girondin Convention

    The first half of the second phase of the french revolution, the Social Republic, that was ruled by the moderates. The two main events were the National Convention and the execution of the King and Queen.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Conflict between King Louis XVI of France and the country's new revolutionary Legislative Assembly increased through the spring and summer of 1792 as Louis vetoed radical measures voted upon by the Assembly. On August 10th, the National Guard of the Paris Commune and fédérés from Marseille and Brittany stormed the King's residence in the Tuileries Palace in Paris, which was defended by the Swiss Guards.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The second half of the Social Republic, that was ruled by the radicals. The 1793 constitution was written which included the Committee of Public Safety as the executive power, it included popular sovereignty and social equality.
    They also executed the neutralisation the enemies by mass levy against absolutists and imposed the Reign of Terror based on the Law of suspects.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The convention puts Louis XVI on trial for treason, and unanimously pronounce him gilty. As the revolution grew in France the elite of other kingdoms and nations watched with fear while preparing to stop homegrown revolution inspired by the French.
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    Reign of Terror

    After the king's execution, the national convention made the committee of public safety. They protected against foreign attacks and rebellions. It had 12 members one of which Maximillien Robespierre. It became the de facto executive government in France from September 5th,1793 - July 28, 1794. During that time they killed and arrested many people, it was called the reign of terror. It ended when Robespierre was executed.
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    Conservative Republic

    The third and last phase of the French Revolution, where the moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the 1975 constitution which included census suffrage and the Directory as the executive power, which caused the end of this period because of the discontent of the aristocracy and the common people.
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    During this period, they wrote the 1800 constitution based on a new political system, economic reforms and some other reforms such as the civil code for all citizens, the Concordat with the church, the creation of Lycées. They also allowed the exiles to return.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    After Robespierre's death, the national convention made a new constitution called the constitution of the year three on Aug 22, 1795. It had a directory that had a 5-year mandate. It was involved in many issues and became reliant on the military. The directors were replaced by Napoleon Bonaparte and two others I don't have enough room to say. This time is regarded as when the revolution ended. It's important because this was considered when the revolution ended and a gateway to Napoleon's rule.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    Constitution of the new system where liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napolean had gained much power now to seize the title Emperor of the French. Napoleon held plebiscites to vote for in favor of his strong leadership. He promised to bring "order and stablilty." He invited the pope to Notre Dame cathedral in Paris for his coronation. Napoleon take the crown from the pope and places it on his head. He shows he wants to be the most powerful in Europe. He knew people supported him on his rise to power.
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    Napoleonic Empire

    In 1804, after being crowned emperor by the Pope, Napoleon kept conquering Europe with the help of his large army.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Spain was invaded by the Napoleonic troops and Joseph Bonaparte, was named its king.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Although representatives from all the states which had participated in the wars were invited, the principal negotiations were conducted by the "Big Four," Britain, Russia, France, and Austria. The congress met to reconstruct the map of Europe and develop a balance of power that would prevent another massive take-over by one country. Objective resulted in the redrawing of the continent's political map, and undo changes made by Napoleon in Europe. Napoleon is replaced with Louis XVIII, a Bourbon.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    This battle took place in Belgium near the town of Waterloo. The United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, and Prussia organized their armies to defeat a French army under the control of Napoleon, when Napoleon wanted to be emperor again. This defeat ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French and exiled him again, this time to an island called, St. Helena.
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    Restoration of absolutism

    The consequences of it were the Holy Alliance Treaty and the reshaping of the European map.
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution , was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830. The war led to the formation of modern Greece. Greece came under Ottoman rule in the 15th century, in the decades before and after the fall of Constantinople. During the following centuries, there were sporadic but unsuccessful Greek uprisings against Ottoman rule.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    In some places, they succeeded and absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power, like in France.
  • Zollverein

    A custom union created by Prussia that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    In the Austrian empire, nationalistic uprisings based on liberal principles appeared in different places.
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    French Second Republic

    Republic caused by the revolutionary waves of 1830, that adopted democratic measures such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, the abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
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    Italian Unification process

    in 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king.In 1866, Austria left Venetia and finally, in 1870, the Papal States were annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    It was divided into 36 states where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    In 1834, Prussia created the Zollverein, a customs union.
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    Contemporany history

    Historic period from 1945 to the present