220px alegoría de la primera república española, por tomás padró

Pablo Barriuso_G&H_4ºF

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    It starts with the discovery of America by Cristobal Colón and it ends with the start of the Frenvh Revolution.
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    Enclosure Acts

    Serie of laws enacted in England since 1727, this laws established a lot of changes as the enclosed propierties. Other benefits of this laws was the concentration of land ownership, a rise of production due to the improvement in farming techniques so as a consecuence of this rise, they start to sell part of them harvest. It also were some negative points, poor farmers couldn’t enclose land so they were forced to sold their property so they had two options, work for a wage or moved to the cities.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    This invention helped to work easily and faster in a loom, as a consecuence of this invention, the fabric production increase.
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    First Industrial Revolution

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    The industrial revolution was a serie of changes that began in England by the 1750 and it expanded across Europe during the 17th century.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    The invention of the James Watt's steam engine was the most important one in the industrial revolution, it had a lot of applications: industrial machinery, agriculture, mills, mines, transport...
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  • Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations
    In this book Acam Smith talks about the capitalism and the invisible hand that according to him will regulate the economic activities, saying so that it's not necessary that the governments intervene in the market.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    If the production increase with the invention of the flying shuttle, with the appearance of the power loom, it multiply a lot more the production withe same number of workers.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It was approved in the 1789. It recognised the the rights and the equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    First period of the revolution in wich the constitution was approved.
    It have two parts: Constituent Assembly ( with events like the Storming of the Bastille and the Declaration of the rights of Man and the Citzen) and the Legislative Assembly (with events like the creation of the constitution and the Storming of the Tuileries palace)
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    Contemporary History

    It starts with the French Revolution and continues today.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The meeting took place in Versailles, In it were representatives of the nobility, clergy and Third Estate. The clergy and the nobility wants to vote one vote per estate and no one per representative, so the third state decided to leave the meeting.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The representatives of the Third Estate met at the Jeu de Paume, an indoor tennis court. In it they proclaimed themselves the National Assembly.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Paris citizens supported the National Assembly ideas and they decided to storm the Bastille, a symbol of the feudalism. The revolution starts in Paris but it spreads to the countryside, there the citizens burnt nobles homes.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    In the 5 of October of 1789 a groupe of women equipped whith rudimentary arms as weapons. They went to Versailles and forced the king to abandon the palace.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    It was based in the separation of powers, national sovergnity an equality. They have the census sufrage system.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    War between the Louis XVI allies (absolute Europen monarchies) and the French liberal part and allies.
    The French govern declares the war to Austria and Prussia the 20th of April of 1792, in septembre of the same year the Austrian and Prussian armies reach Paris.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    On the 10th of August of 1792 the sans-culottes stormed Tuileries Place and imprisoned the royal family. This fact marks the end of the Constitutional Monarchy and the begining of the Social Republic.
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    Social Republic

    It starts the 10th August 1972 when Tuileries Palace is attacked and the royal family imprisoned.
    It has two parts the Girondin Convention and the Jacobin Convention.
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    The Gerindin Convention

    A new govern is instaured in France, dircted by the Gerundines, the more moderate bourgeisie. They created a new convention: National Convention, new assembly elected by universal male suffrage. After the execution of the king and the queen, were some movements against the government such as:
    The formation an absolutist coalition to fight against the liberalism, counter-revolucionary revolts in countryside and royalist plots.
    This phase finished in june of 1793 when Jacobins take the power.
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    Regin of Terror

    A new period in which freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government. There were lots of executions under the Law of suspects.
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    The Jacobin Convention

    In the month of June of 1793n a new government was instaured in France, the Jacobin Convention, the Jacobins were the most radical sector of bourgeoisie. A new constitution was drawn up, it reconized popular sovereignity and social equality.
    Executive power was lied by the Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety.
    They introduced the mass levy to increase army, The Reign of Terror and social laws to satisfy sans-culottes as the Law of the Maximum, compulsory education..
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In the 21th of January of the 1793, the king Louis XVI was execute, and his wife was executed the 16th of October of the same year.
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    Conservative Republic

    Moderate bourgeoisie took back the control. They canceled the Jacobin laws and the exilies of the Reign of Terror were invided to return. They drawn up other constitution in which the executive power was granted to a collegial government, the Directory and the census sufrage was restored.
    The Directory was very unstable due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people.
    Napoleon will take advantage of this unstable moment to organised a coup the 18th of Brumaire.
  • Coup of 18th Burmaire

    Coup of 18th Burmaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte, a well known soldiery, took advantege of the unstable moment in politics and organised a coup calls the coup of 18th Brumaire.
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    The Consulate

    Before the Napoleonic coup d'etat starts the Consulate, the first part of the Napoleon's power.
    It was an autocratic and authoritarian rule, with objetives like: avoid the political inestability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolucionary principles and represent the interest of bourgeoisie to recover French economy.
    They introduce changes as a new constitution, economic reforms and reforms for the cirtycens as the creation of a civil code and the lycées.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    The Napoleonic constitution was signed the 4 Nivoso VIII (24th December, 1799). In it the separation of powers was avoid and it don't include a declaration of rights, in adition, liberties and public oppinion were restricted.
  • Napoleon crowned emperror

    Napoleon crowned emperror
    The Pope Pio VII crowned Napoleon emperor the 18th May 1804, starting the Napoleonic Empire.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    The 18th May 1804, the Pope crowned Napoleon emperor. Thanks to the enormus army and the new tactics Napoleon was able to defeat most European monarchies. In 1808, the French army invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte become the king. By the 1811 the empire reaches it zenith, it occupied from Germany to Spain, but in the 1815 the French army was deftead in the Battle of Waterloo, been the end of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Treaty that allowed French troops to pass trough Spain to invade Portugal.
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    War of independence

    This war started as result of the Treaty of Fontainebleau in1808 with the Mutiny of Aranjuez and the next day the popular uprising against French began in Madrid and spreadacross the country.
    After the Abdications of Bayonne, some liberals accepted Joseph I (afrancesados) and his Statute, that introduced measures to abolish Ancien Régime but the majority of the population (patriots) composed their own government and fought against the invasion.
  • Incasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Incasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    The 6th August 1808, the French army invaded Spain, Joseph Bonaparte become the king (Joseph I)
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    Ludite movement

    It was movement which propouse was to retourn to the production of the years before the appearance of the machines. The first protests were in England, where the workers of a factory broke some of the machines.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    One of the pronunciamiento, led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla, was sucssesful and the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    It was the first Spanish consitution, and it's also know as La Pepa.
    It recognised the separation of powers, universal male suffrage and the individual freedoms and rights.
    It aslo approved some reforms to abolish the Ancien Régime.
    The war did not allow its implementation.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops leave Spain.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    With this manifiesto, they re-established the absolutist monarchy in Spain.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    It started with six years of absolutism (1814-20) Manifiesto de
    los Persas marks the beginning of the regin, which ended as a result of the Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego in 1920.
    Liberal Triennium (1820-23) which ended with the intervention of the Holy Alliance (Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis).
    Ominous Decade (1823-33) this is the last part, which ended with the death of Ferdinand VII.
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    The Restauation of Absolutism

    During 1814 and 1815, in the Congres of Vienna, the European powers defeated Napoleon. This congres was organised by Metternich to avoid the sperading of the liberal ideas and to restaure the absolutism.
    The ideas of the restauration was the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national sovereignity.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In the 1815, the French army, was defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. After this Napoleon abdicated and was sent to the island of Sint Helena, he died there in the 1821.
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Greeks decided to fight against the Ottoman empire because of that they had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs, were dominated by people that was very diferent from them.
    In the 1822., the Greeks declared their independence, but it was not recognized
    by the Turks, then in the 1827, the Greeks won thanks to French and British military intervention. Finaly, in the 1830, the Ottoman Empire, recognized their independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Alliance defend the absolutism in Spain. In 1823 the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis were sended to Spain to restore the absolutism, commanded by Duke of Angoulême.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Meeting organized by the Austrian chancellor (Metternich) with the objetive of stop the spread of liberal ideas and restaure the absolutism. To stop the spread of this ideas, thei created the Holy Alliance, created by Russia, Prussia and Austria. They also change the borders of some European countries.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    The steam locomotive, allowed to transport more mercancy and passengers in less time and with a minior cost.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    This movement starts in France by changin Charles X for Louis Philippe I (Citizen King) starting a constitutional monarchy.
    The poland revolt wasn't satisfactory, they wanted to change the autocratic Russian rule, but it was harshly suppressed (1831).
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    The Age of the Revolutions

    As a cause of the reshaped of frontiers of the Congres of Vienna, some European peoples starts the nationalism movements. In the cases that the citizens won, they changed their gobernment for a liberal political system goberned by a constitution in which the bourgeisie held the power.
    This movement starts in France.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In the 1815, in the Congress of Vienna, created the Kingdom of the Netherlands, composed of the Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist) and Belgium (catholic and liberal)
    By the 1830, it starts the armed conflict, after Belgium’s declaration of independence, that lasted to the 1839. In that year, they recognited the independence and starts a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    It began in the Basque Country and it was lead by the commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    This regin started with the regency of Maria Christina (1833 - 40).
    Regency of Espartero, it begins when they kick Maria Christina out of the country. (1840 - 43)
    The Moderate Decade , it begins when they kick Espartero out of the country. (1843 – 54)
    The Progressive Biennium (1854 - 1856)
    The system in decline (1856 – 68)
  • Zollverein

    It was a union created to avoy the customs inside of the German Confederation, helping then to then to the development of the internal trade, because of that before the creation of the zollverein, they had to pay customs taxes to pass from one state to other with products.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    It was a trade union in which they was representation of all sectors, it was a resoult of the feeling of bilongin to a class. It has three main purpouses: defend the right of associatio, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    it was a progressive consitution in which were reconished: the national sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers, two chambers (Congress and the Senate) and whch granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • The Constitution of 1845

    The Constitution of 1845
    It was a moderate constitution, which was based in a restricted suffrage, restrinction of civil liberties, the sharedom of sovereignty between the Cortes and the Crown and the reorganisation of State and municipal administration(only the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    One of the revolts in this period was in the Austrian Empire. Vienna revolt was based on the liberal principles, the chancellor Metternich forced to resign. They also were some nationalistic uprisings in
    Hungary, Bohemia, northern Italy and the German Confederation.
    In this period, it was other change in political system in France, by proclaiming the Second Republic. They adopted democratic measures as universal suffrage, abolition of death penalty, certain rights for workers...
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    French Second Republic

    It was proclaimed in the 1848 and it adopted democratic measures (universal suffrage, press freedom,abolition of death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of Bessemer converter

    Invention of Bessemer converter
    This invention allowed to work easiky whith the metals.
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    Italian Unificacion process

    Before that, the state was divided into several states and in the Congress of Vienna, Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia.
    In the 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal
    monarchy of Savoy with the Primer Minister Cavour, started the unification. Then in the 186, Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed was proclaimed king of Italy. By the 1866, Austria left Venetia and in the 1870, were created the Papal states and Rome became
    the capital
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    German Unification Process

    36 states, were part of the German Confederation, and Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    In the 1834, Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein) and in the 1848, they created the 1st freely elected parliament. They offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, he refused it. By the1861, they created new political figures in Prussia: King
    Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor, in 1871, was the Proclamation of the Second German Empire with Wilhelm I as Kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    First International of Workingmen’s association was created by Marx in 1864 but due to the ideological differences between Marxists, Anarchists and trade unions, it was forced to be dissolved in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Amadeo of Savoy abdicated and the Cortes form a republic (most of the deputies were monarchist).
    Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans
    prepared a programme of social and economic reforms.
    In this year they also drafted a constitution with federal principles and with separation of the legislative power between central government and federal republics.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    General Martínez Campos proclaimed Isabella’s II son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain in 1875.
    In his second regin's year, they drafted a new constitution.
  • Second International

    Second International
    the second international was founded by a groupe of Marxists in 1889 to coordinate the socialist parties. This time, the association stablished some symbols of the labour movement such as an anthem (“The Internationale”) and the International Workers’ Day.