• Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    The historic period from the discovery of America (1492) to the French Revolution (1789)
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    Enclosure Acts

    Act authorised by the British Parliament due to the rise in grain prices, which abolished the open field system. It enclosed lands privately owned.
    The positive consequences were the concentration of land ownership, the improvement in farming techniques with the rise of
    the production aimed at the market.
    On the other hand, poor farmers couldn’t enclose land, they sold
    their property, became labourers in exchange for a wage and moved to the cities.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

     John Kay’s flying shuttle
    The machine that increased production and created wider fabrics
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    First Industrial Revolution

    During this period mechanisation started and water and steam power began to be used.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Machine that burnt coal to boil water, which turned into steam. It applied pressure to it, making a continuous cycle, and was transferred to the machinery
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith published this book to criticise and deny the mercantilist economic system. He believed it would eventually affect countries' productivity.
  • Invention of the power loom

     Invention of the power loom
    A mechanised device used to knit cloth and tapestry, designed and built by Edmund Cartwright.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    It started with the Estates General meeting and ended with the unification of Germany. Between these two dates, there were the 3 phases of the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic consulate and empire. Then, after Napoleon’s fall, the revolutionary waves in 1830 and 1848 revolutionized everything.
    Finally, the rise of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism caused the nations to be fragmented (Greece and Belgium) and others to be united (Italy and Germany)
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    Meeting in which the Estates-General (the clergy, nobility and common people) were convened by Louis XVI after the financial crisis in France, to approve tax reforms. The Third Estate left the meeting after the privileged classes refused to count votes per head, knowing that this method would be harmful to them, given that the percentage of people that opposed their regulations (not paying taxes) was larger.
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    French revolution

    Revolutionary movement that took place in France between 1789 and 1799, and marked the end of the ancien régime.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    On 20 June 1789, after the members of the French Third Estate were locked out by Louis XIX out of the meeting, they went to the Tennis Court and they took an oath (promised to) never to separate until they established a written constitution for France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    After the assembly of the Third Estate in Versailles, they met in Versailles where the Tennis Court Oath happened and decided to start a revolution. For this purpose, they needed arms and gunpowder so they broke in the Bastille to collect them and also free some prisoners, given that this fortress held political prisoners in it.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    March where thousands of angry women, due to high prices of food in Paris’ markets, marched to Versailles, where they forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    A document created to abolish feudalism and the Ancien Régime, that denied women civil rights like property, legal and fiscal equality or the right to vote.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    They abolished guilds and created a new army force to protect the revolutionaries called the National Guard.
    To fix the financial crisis, they obligated the privileged to pay taxes. Also, they confiscated and sold the properties of the Clergy, and signed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    Form of monarchy in which the king exercises authority in accordance with a constitution. This was the first phase of the French Revolution after Louis XVI was forced to accept the National Assembly. It was led by the Moderate bourgeoisie, whose objectives were to abolish the Ancien Régime and have a parliamentary monarchy, so they established a parliament and a constitution.
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    Social Republic

    The second phase of the Revolution caused by the betrayal of the king and the military invasion of Prussia and Austria, that caused the monarchy to lose most of its followers. It was ruled by the radical bourgeoisie, first the Girondists (1792-1793), and later the Jacobins (1793-1794). Their main goals were to be a republic with a democratic and equal society.
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    Girondin Convention

    The first half of the second phase of the french revolution, the Social Republic, that was ruled by the moderates. The two main events were the National Convention and the execution of the King and Queen.
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    War of the First Coalition

    War declared by the Legislative Assembly to Austria and Prussia, given that Prussia and Holy Roman Empire oathed to help Louis XVI against revolutionaries because they were afraid of the spread of liberalism, It ended for France in September of 1792 when the Austrian and Prussian army reached Paris.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The angry ex-monarchists joined the republicans after the betrayal of the King and stormed the Tuileries Palace where they imprisoned the
    royal family.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The second half of the Social Republic, that was ruled by the radicals. The 1793 constitution was written which included the Committee of Public Safety as the executive power, it included popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and social equality.
    They also executed the neutralisation the enemies by mass levy against absolutists and imposed the Reign of Terror based on the Law of suspects.
    Lastly, the made social laws such as the Law of maximum to satisfy sans-culottes.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    It was one of the main events during the Girondin's convention, which caused counter-revolutionary revolts, royalist plots and absolutist revolutions.
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    Reign of Terror

    A period of the French Revolution when they were Counter-revolutionary revolts and plots. They were also executions
    under the Law of suspects.
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    Conservative Republic

    The third and last phase of the French Revolution, where the moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the 1975 constitution which included census suffrage and the Directory as the executive power, which caused the end of this period because of the discontent of the aristocracy and the common people.
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    The autocratic and authoritarian rule, with Napoleon as governor, that had as objective the consolidation of some of the revolutionary principles and economic recovery through a government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie. During this period, they wrote the 1800 constitution based on a new political system, economic reforms and some other reforms such as the civil code for all citizens, the Concordat with the church, the creation of Lycées. They also allowed the exiles to return.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The coup organised by Napoleon Bonaparte in a context of crisis after the unstable situation in the Directory due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people, that was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie which was the begging of Napoleon's started and authoritarian rule.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    Constitution of the new system where liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured. Also, states were organised in departments, run by prefects.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope, one year after starting his conquest of Europe, which led to the Napoleonic Empire (1804-1815)
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    Napoleonic Empire

    In 1804, after being crowned emperor by the Pope, Napoleon kept conquering Europe with the help of his large army.
    After Austerlitz in 1806, the Napoleonic army became unstoppable. In 1808, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was proclaimed the new king.
    In 1811, the empire reached its zenith but after the failure of the invasion of Russia in 1808 and the revolts against Joseph in 1812, everything started going downfall till the Battle of Waterloo that marked its end in 1815.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty which allowed the French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Spain was invaded by the Napoleonic troops and Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother was named its king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon met with Manuel Godoy and persuaded the
    Bourbons to give the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph.
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    War of Independence

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    Luddite movement

    The protests were started in England by the workers. Because of their anger, they started destroying machinery. They believed that machinery was responsible for low wages and unemployment.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    It was the first Spanish constitution also called La Pepa. It established the separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights. The ideology was progressive and the official religion was Catholism.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The French signed this treaty in the which they announced withdraw from Spain and returned the crown to Ferdinand VII
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    A manifiesto written by the absolutist representatives of the Cortes in which they requested an absolute monarchy.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII returned after the French troops withdrew from Spain and re-established an absolutist monarchy. However, the spread of liberal ideas made it difficult. This caused 3 phases:
    - The six years of absolutism
    - The liberal Triennium
    - The Ominous Decade
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The battle between the Napoleonic army versus Great Britain and Prussia. Napoleon's side lost and that marked the end of his empire.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Congress where the powers (Britain, Prussia, France, Russia and Austria) met. It was organised by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich, who proposed stopping the spread of liberal ideas and the restoring of absolutism.
    Then, with the Holy Alliance Treaty in 1815, the absolute monarchs (Russia, Prussia, Austria) promised to unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Restoration of absolutism

    The 4 great powers met at the Congress of Vienna with France after the defeat of Napoleon, which was organised by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism.
    The principles of the restoration were the legitimacy of absolute monarchs, the denial of national sovereignty, the balance of power and right of intervention.
    The consequences of it were the Holy Alliance Treaty (1815) and the reshaping of the European map.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    After all of the failed liberal pronunciamientos, Rafael was successful and forced the king to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. This led to a constitutional monarchy
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries and the Greeks had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state administration jobs and felt dominated by people with a different religion and culture.
    In 1822, Greeks declared independence, which wasn't recognized by the Turks
    Then in 1827, Greek won thanks to the French and British military, and finally, in 1830, they were recognized independent.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    As we learned before, the Holy Alliance had the power to intervene in any liberal revolutions in Europe. Therefore, when they saw the liberal pronunciamientos in Spain, they sent troops to defend absolutism in Spain. One of these troops were the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis led by Duke of Angoulême and restored absolutism.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Set of laws prohibiting workers right to organize in associations to fight for higher wages or controlling their workplace conditions.
    It was abolished when unions of workers from the same field came together and repealed them.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    This creation allowed more passengers and goods to travel in less time with a lower cost.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    They were caused by the disrespect of the Congress of Vienna to the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of
    some Europeans. They started in France and later spread to places like the Netherlands.
    In some places, they succeeded and absolutism was replaced by
    liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power, like in France. In other places, they went back to the absolutism, like in Poland.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    After the Congress of Vienna, the kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist) and Belgium (catholic and liberal) united.
    Because of their obvious differences, between 1830 and 1839 there was an armed conflict after Belgium’s declaration of
    independence, which was finally recognised in 1839 as a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    War between the Carlists and the Isabelinos that started in the Basque Country lead by Zumalacárregui but he was defeated by the liberals, who were ruled by General Espartero.
    They signed peace at the Convention of Vergara, where they agreed to the maintenance of the fueros.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    After his father died, her reign began with lots of opposition from Carlists who didn't accept her. This caused it to be an unstable system with different phases.
    As Isabella was too young to make decisions the first two phases were the regency of her mother and then Espartero.
    Then after his damaging to Spain, she was declared of age and the Modered Decade Began. Even though she was now in charge, she was very influenced by the people in power that changed from time to time,which led to the end
  • Zollverein

    A custom union created by Prussia that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    Also called the Great Trade Union Union was a union project created to bring together different types of workers. It defended the right of workers to associate between themselves, as well as the improvement of wages and the regulation of child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    This progressive constitution gave the country:
    National sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers, two new chambers (the Congress of Deputies and the Senate)
    And also granted many rights and individual liberties to the citizens
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    This moderate constitution had
    highly restricted suffrage,
    restricted civil liberties,
    sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown,
    and the reorganisation of State and municipal administration, except for Basque Country and Navarre that had their dereitos forais
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Countries under the control of empires wanted to pursue the idea of nationalism and the creation of new liberal governments.
    It caused the rise of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism.
    In the Austrian empire, nationalistic uprisings based on liberal principles appeared in different places. And in France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic.
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    French Second Republic

    Republic caused by the revolutionary waves of 1830, that adopted democratic measures such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, the abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

     Invention of the Bessemer converter
    A machine or process that converted iron into steel Henry Bessemer
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    Italian Unification process

    In the Congress of Vienna, Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia.
    To start the unification process, in 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy, and a popular uprising led by Garibaldi appeared in central and southern Italy, which abolish absolutist monarchies.
    Then, in 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king.
    In 1866, Austria left Venetia and finally, in 1870, the Papal States were annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    It was divided into 36 states (the German Confederation) where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    In 1834, Prussia created the Zollverein, a customs union.
    Then in 1861, Wilhelm I was proclaimed king and Otto von Bismarck chancellor in Prussia, which benefited them.
    Later, 3 wars happened in Austria, Denmark and France, until finally, in 1871, Wilhelm I was proclaimed as Kaiser of the Second German
    Empire or Reich.
  • First International

    First International
    It was an organisation based on the initiative of Marx, which was created to unite different socialist, communist and anarchist groups It Also promoted trade unions that were based on the working class and its social class struggle.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    It mainly is a description of how the capitalist system works and how it will end up destroying itself. He explains how the bourgeoise rises in power, but the proletariat rises as well, so at one point the proletariat will be unstoppable and seize power.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Victor Emmanuel II's son was chosen to take the throne and was supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
    He had a strong opposition so one year later he abdicated.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    After Amadeo of Savoy abdicated, the Cortes voted to form a republic. But, even though most of the deputies were monarchist, the federal republicans were won by the federal republicans.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    In 1874, General Martínez Campos proclaimed Isabella's II son king of Spain. As the child was too young to reign, her mother was her regent until the was legally able to reign.
    During his reign, the Canovist system, which was bipartisan, was adopted and the constitution of 1876 was approved.
  • Second International

    Second International
    It was an organization created by various Markis, socialist and labour parties who worked together and coordinated to achieve international socialism.
    It established some symbols of the labour movement such as the anthem “The Internationale” (here's the Russian version of it ) or the International Workers’ Day that takes place every year on the 1st of May.
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    Contemporary history

    Historic period from 1945 to the present