Liberty leading the people

Aroa Gómez_G&H_4ºG

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    It was a machine for automatic weaving. It increased speed production and made wider fabrics.
  • Period: to

    First Industrial Revolution

    It was parallel (demographic, agricultural, technological, of transport and financial) revolutions driven by innovation that started in Great Britain in the 18th Century.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    It was a machine invented by James Watt where, with burning coal that boiled water, the steam of the water moved the machinery with pressure.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    It was a book about market economics in wich Adam talks about how capitalism works like an invisible hand, it doesn't need the goverment to manipulate the economy.
  • Invention of the power loom

    It was invented by Catwright in 1785.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General met in may in Versailles, with the representatives of the nobility, clergy and third estate. Privileged classes refused to allow third estate representation, so third estate left.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Men and of the Citizen

    Thanks to this declaration, feudalism was abolished, but denied women civil rights.
  • Period: to

    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the first phase of the French revolution. The National Constituent Assembly formed by
    moderate bourgeoisie, negotiated with the king and privileged classes how to establish a parliamentary monarchy in France. They abolished feudalism with the Declaration of Rights of the Man and the Citizen, and they approved the first french constitution. It ended with the storm of Tulleries palace.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French revolution had three phases: the constitutional monarchy, driven by the moderate bourgeoisie, wich goals where end with the Ancien Regime and establish a constitution; the social republic, wich was droven by the radical bourgeoisie, first the girondins and after the jacobins, and their goals were universal male suffrage and establish social laws; last, the conservative republic, driven by the moderate bourgeoisie, whose goal was the moderate liberalism.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    After third estate representatives left, they met in a pavilion in Versailes and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly, and they pledged to have a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    In 14th of july, people stormed the Bastille. The revolution spread to the countrysideand noble's homes were burnt (The Great Fear)
  • Women's March on Versailles

    From Paris' markets, angry women (because of the price of food) marched to Versailles and forced the king to abandon Versailles and move to Tulleries Palace in Paris.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary history

  • First French Constitution

  • War of the First Coalition

    First, in august of 1791, absolute monarchies afraid of liberalism, declared their intention to fight against French Revolution. In april of 1792, the Legislative Assemly declares the war to Austria and Prussia, and in september they reach Paris.
  • Period: to

    Girondin convention

    A new assembly elected by universal male suffrage was created (National Convention). In january of 1793 Louis XVI was executed, and in october, Marie Antoinette died, wich led to royalists plots, the absolut coalition in Europe and revolutionary revolts.
  • Period: to

    Social Republic

    It was the second fase of the revolution, that began with the storm of the Tulleries Palace and the imprision of the royal family, that was povoqued by the increase of the republican feeling among people, by the betrayal of the king and the military invassion of Prussia and Austria. It has two fases: the first, ruled by the girondists (moderate bourgeoisie), goes from 1792 to 1793; qnd the second, ruled by the jacobins (radical bourgeoisie), goes from 1793 to 1794.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The common people (sans-culotte) stormed the Tuileries Palace, imprisioning the royal family. This marked the end of the constitutional monarchy and the beginning of the social republic.
  • Period: to

    Jacobin Convention

    It was the second fase of the social republic. During this time, the constitution of 1793 was created, and new social laws to satisfy sans-culotte appeared. Also, in this fase they neutralisated their enemies, they tried to stop the absolute monarchies and stop the revolts and plots (Reign of Terror).
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    It was a part of the social republic, leaded by Robespierre, where counter-revolutionary revolutions and plots were stopped by executing people under te Law of Suspects (different ideas to the french revolution).
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    In january of 1793, the king was executed and Marie Antoinette was prisioned. This led to the formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaries, the counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and to royalist plots by privileged classes
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    In this time, the moderate bourgeoisie took over the power. They cancelled Jacobin laws and created the constitution of 1795, were they implanted the census suffrage and the Directory (executive power). However, this period was unnestable due to the opposition of aristocracy and common people. Finally, Napoleon organised a coup (Coup of 18th of Brumaire), ending with the french revolution.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    In middle of the crisis in the conservative republic, Napoleon organised the Coup of 18th of Brumaire, supported by most of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. This marked the end of the French Revloution and the start of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Period: to

    The Consulate

    A new constitution was made, with separation of Powers, limited liberties and new territory organisation. There were economic reforms in the finance sector, a commercial code was established and the Bank of France was established. Other reforms such as a civil code, a concordate and new public schools were made.
  • Constitution of 1800

    It stablished a new political system. There was no separation of powers or declaration of rights. There were few liberties and the public opinión was censored. The states were organised in departments.
  • Enclosure Acts

    Enclosure Acts
    It was a new agricultural system introduced in Britain in the second half of the 18th century. In this system, land was privately owned and fences were put, unlike in the open field system.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1803, Napoleon started to conquer Europe, and in 1804 he was already crowned emperor.
  • Period: to

    The Napoleonic Empire

    It began in 1804, when Napoleón was crowned emperor by the pope. He defeated most of Europe monarchies, invaded Spain and controlled almost all Europe. But in 1815, he was defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia, and obligated to abdicate and sent to Santa Helena.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king.

    In 1808, Napoleón conquered Spain and Joseph Bonaparte was made king. But later, an anti-french feeling and nacionalist feelings among people made the emergence of resistant movements against the french and Joseph Bonaparte.
  • Period: to

    Luddite movement

    It was a movement of the 19th century made by workers. It was the first workers' protest in England, and they violently destructed the machinery because they though the machines were the responsables of the low wages and the unemployment.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    The congress of Viena was organised by Prussia, Austria, Russia, Great Britain and France. There, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed the Holly Alliance Treaty, for wich absolute monarchies would unite against liberal revolutions.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815, Napoleon was defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia, wich marked the end of the Napoleonic empire, because after, Napoleon was exiliated and forced to abdicate.
  • Period: to

    The Restoration of absolutism

    It was decided in the Congress of Viena. Its objectives were to stop the spread of liberalist ideas and to restor absolutism. Its principles were the legitimacy of absolute monarchs, the denial of national sovereignity, the balance of power and the Right of Intervention.
  • Period: to

    Greek War of Independence

    The greeks were discontented with the turks because they had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration Jobs and they didn't have the same culture or religión. In 1822, the greeks declared the Independence, but not the turks. In 1827, Greece won over the Ottoman Empire thanks to Britain and France. Finally, in 1830, they recognised Greece's independence.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Unions of workers from the same field, appear after the repeal of laws prohibiting worker’s associations in 1824 in England.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    It was one of the first locomotives ever, that worked with the steam machine.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    When the Congress of Viena didn't respect the liberal principles or the nationalism, insurrections spread all over Europe. In some countries like France, were successful, and absolutism was replaced by liberal political system, but in others like Poland, it was unsuccessful, and they went back to absolutism.
  • Period: to

    The Age of the revolutions

    There were two revolutions against the Restoration, one in 1830 and another in 1848. The first one was because the Congress of Viena didn't respect liberal principles and nationalists aspirations. The other one was because people opposed to live under an empire or a state was fragmented.This revolutions ended with absolutism.
  • Period: to

    The Belgian Revolution

    The belgians were not happy with being a part of the Netherlands because they were protestants and absolutists, while the belgians were catholics and liberals. Between 1830 and 1839, there was an armed conflict because Belgium declared their Independence, and finally in 1839, their Independence was recognised.
  • Period: to

    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War was led by the basque commander Zumalacárregui, and he lost against the liberals and Espartero, and they signed peace in the Convention of Vergara.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Isabella II

    The first phase was the regency of Maria Cristina and finished when moderates took the power. The next phase was the regency of Espartero, who was very authoritarian so Isabella was declared queen in 1843. The next is the moderate decade, ended by a progressive military revolt. The progressive biennium started with the Vicálvaro pronunciamiento and Isabella gave the power to Espartero. Isabella gave the power to the liberal union because of a crisis and since then, the system started to decline.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    It was a unión made by different type of workers to defend the right of association, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • Zollverein

    There were customs union created by Prussia in the German Confederation.
  • 1837 Constitution

    This was a progressive constitution wich its mains goals were the national sovereignity (census suffrage), separation of powers, creation of 2 chambers (Senate and Congress of Deputies) and to grant more rights and individual liberties. This constitution helped to abolish the Ancien Regime.
  • 1845 Constitution

    This moderate constitution implanted a highly restricted suffrage and made Sovereignity be shared between the Cortes and the Crown. It also restricted a lot civil liberties and reorganisated the State and the municipal administrations, and the Basque Country and Navarre were the only ones allowed to held on their statutory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    The rise of liberalism and the expansión of nationalism made the nations to pursuit Independence from the absolute monarchies. In the Austrian empire, there were many uprisings, and in France, a poplar uprising declared the second republic. Thanks to this revolution, democratic reforms and nationalism was consolidated, the importance of workers in politics was demonstrated, democrats defended universal male suffrage and collective rights.
  • Period: to

    French Second Republic

    It was proclaimed by the popular uprising and it adopted democratic measures such as universal male suffrage or certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    It was a machine made to make steel.
  • Period: to

    Unification of Italy

    In 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont started the unification process by declaring the war to Austria and annexing Lombardy. Then, he annexed the south of Italy, and in 1861 King Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed King of Italy. In 1866, he annexed Venetia, and in 1870, the Papal States.
  • Period: to

    Unification of Germany

    Prussia and Austria were fighting for the states of the German Confederation, and in 1834, Zollvereins were created. Then, in 1848, the first parliament offered the Crown of Germany to the King of Prussia, who refused, but in 1861 King Wilhelm I and its cancellor, Otto von Bismarck started to conquer. Finally in 1871 they proclaimed the Second German Empire, with Wilhelm as Kaiser.
  • Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"

    Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Amadeo I was chosen king of Spain in 1870 by progressives, unionists and democrats, and in 1873, due to some problems as a war on the island on Cuba and the Second Carlist War, he abdicated.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    The First Republic was proclamated in 1873 after the Cortes voted to form a republic since the abdication of Amadeo I.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Alfonso XII

    This reign is characterized for its political system: the Canovist system. It made political parties to alternate in power and created social and political stability. This was possible through Bipartisanship System and electoral fraud. Alfonso XII's reign ended in 1902 because to main things: the new nationalists movements and the crisis of 1898, boosted by the loss of the remaining spanish colonies.