In 1834 the Zollverein was created by Prussia. The 1st freely elected German parliament offered the German crown to the king of Prussia in 1848, but he rejected it because the German parliament was liberal. In 1861 Wilheim I became king of Prussia and he made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war to Dennmark, Austria and France in 1862, 1866 and 1870 respectively, and won all the wars. In 1871, Wilheim I was made Kaiser of the Second German Empire (Reicht).