Marcos Vázquez_G&H_4ºF

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Period of time between the Discovery of America and the French Revolution.
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    Enclosure Acts

    Series of laws passed by the Brittish Parliament to authorise landowners to take over common land and enclose their property. This led to a concentration of land ownership.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    This increased 5he speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    Period of time were demographic, agricultural, technological... revolutions took place and produced some changes and new machinery.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    - Industrial machinery: mechanisation of the textile industry (spinning and weaving).
    - Agriculture (ex: threshing machine).
    - Agriculture.
    - Mines (remove water from the galleries).
    - Transport:
    + Rail (steam locomotive: Stephenson 1829)
    (more passengers and goods, less time, lower cost)
    + Ships (1st sailing ships, 2nd steamships)
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    This was invented by Edmund Cartwright and dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
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    Contemporary History

    Period of time from the French Revolution to the present.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a long and complex process with different phases and political groups.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the firt phase of the Revolution. The governing body of that phase was the king and ministers and the National Assembly.
    Changes introduced:
    - Abolished feudalism and approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of tne Citizen.
    - Drew up the first French Constitution.
    The royal family and the privileged classes did not accept the changes.
    This phase ended when the Austrian army invaded France and Louis XVI was arrested.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General met in Versailles with representatives of the nobility, clergy and third state. The third estate left the meeting when privileged classes refused to allow the greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate rather than per representative.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The representatives of the Third Estate met in a pavilion in Versailles (Jeu de Paume) and proclamed themselves the National Assembly (representatives of the nation).
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    People stormed the Bastille. The revolution spread to the countryside, where noble's homes were burnt (The Great Fear).
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    Based on the separation of powers, national sovereignity and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto
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    Social Republic

    Second phase of the Revolution. The governing body was the National Convention.
    It was divided into two parts:
    - Girondin Convention (1792-93)
    - Jacobin Convention (1793-94)
    Changes introduced:
    - New constitution.
    - Committee of Public Safety.
    - Law of Suspects.
    - Law of the Maximum.
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    Girondin Convention

    National Convention was elected by universal male suffrage.
    Formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaries. Counter-revolutionary revolts broke out.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Legislative Assembly declares war to Austria and Prussia (beginning of the War of the First Coalition).
    Austrian and Prussian army reached Paris in September of 1792.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The "common people" stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the
    royal family, declaring a republic in France.
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    Jacobin Convention

    A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignity and the right to social equality was enacted.
    The Committee of Public Safety leaded by Robespierre had the executive power.
    A mass levy was organised to reject the Austrian invasion. The Reign of Terror was imposed to stop conspirators.
    To satisfy the sans-culottes, a series of social laws were introduced (Law of the Maximum, compulsory education, sale of assets of the privileged...).
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    Reign of Terror

    It was imposed by the Jacobins to stop conspirators. Freedoms were suspended and people who opposed to the government were either imprisoned or revolutionary courts ordered their execution by guillotine (Law of Suspects).
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    During the Girondin Convention, Lous XVI was convicted of treason and executed.
    Queen Marie Antoinette was also executed that year (16th October).
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    Conservative Republic

    Third phase of the French Revolution. The governing body eas the Directory.
    Changes introduced:
    - A new constitution (1795) granted executive power to the Directory.
    The Directory was permanently unstable because it faced opposition from the aristocracy.
    Napoleon organised a coup that ended the Directory.
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    The Consulate

    After the coup d'état, Napoleon was named consul and the Consulate began. It had an autocratic and authoritarian rule.
    1. Ø political instability of the Revolution.
    2. Consolidation of some of the revolutionary principles.
    3. Economic recovery through a government that represented the
    interest of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    In the context of crisis of the Conservative Republic Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule (the French Revolution was over).
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    New political system
    - Ø Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
    - Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
    - Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. He defeated most European monarchies.
    After Austerlitz (victory over Austria and Russia in 1806), French troops seemed unstoppable,
    In 1808, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was made king.
    In 1811 Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith. France controlled most of Europe (from Germany to Spain).
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope after the beginig of his conquest.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was made king.
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    Luddite movement

    The movement started in England. It consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage: Ø the peoples and their nationalist aspirations.
    France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire
    was divided among the victors.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    It was a congress between Britain, Prussia, France, Russia and Austria,
    Was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. It's objectives were:
    - Stop the spread of liberal ideas.
    - Restore absolutism. Absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia + Prussia + Austria) creating the Holy Alliance Treaty.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia.
    After that Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena.
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Greeks were part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries.
    They had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state administration jobs and were dominated by people with different religion and culture.
    1822. Greeks declared independence (not recognized by the Turks).
    1827. Greek victory thanks to French and British military intervention help.
    1830. Recognized independence.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Laws prohibiting workers' associations in England that led to the creation of the first official trade unions, which united workers in the same field, such as the Union of Spinners.
  • Stephenson's Steam Locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam Locomotive
    Transport system that could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. This improvement boosted trade and helped create a large domestic market
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples causing this revolutionary wave.
    Two main opposition forces appeared:
    - Liberalism: Political philosophy that says that people are free and have fundamental rights (Constitutions).
    - Nationalism: Political philosophy that defends the right of nations to exercise their sovereignty and create their own state.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    This period of time includes the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire...
    After the fall of Napoleon, a new wave of liberalist revolutions started.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    After the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of the Netherlands divided into:
    - Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist).
    - Belgium (catholic and liberal). 1830 -39: Armed conflict after Belgium’s declaration of independence.
    1839: Recognition of independence. Liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    It began in the Basque Country lead by the commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    Isabella II reigned during five phases:
    - Regency of Maria Christina (1833 - 40)
    - Regency of Espartero (1840 - 43)
    - The Moderate Decade (1843 – 54)
    - The Progressive Biennium (1854 - 56)
    - The System in Decline (1856 - 68)
  • Zollverein

    Custom union created by Prussia.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    It brought together different types of workers to:
    - Defend the right of association
    - Improve wages
    - Regulate child labour
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    Progressive constitution that promised:
    - National sovereignty with census suffrage
    - Separation of powers
    - Two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate
    - Granted many rights and individual liberties
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    Moderate constitution that promised;
    - Highly restricted suffrage.
    - Civil liberties were restricted.
    - Sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown.
    - Reorganisation of State and municipal administration. Only
    the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy).
    Rise of liberalism + expansion of nationalism = pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In the Austrian empire, nationalistic uprisings based on liberal principles appeared in different places. And in France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic.
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    French Second Republic

    Republic caused by the revolutionary waves of 1830, that adopted democratic measures such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, the abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    Machine invented by Thomas Bessemer that made it possible to manufacture steel.
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    Italian Unification process

    Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia.
    1859. Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification. Then he declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy and a popular uprising lead by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    1861. Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed king of Italy.
    1866. Austria left Venetia.
    1870. The Papal states were annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    Divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    1834. Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein).
    1848. 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it.
    1861. New political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor.
    1871. Proclamation of the Second German Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    It was an association created at the initiative of Karl Marx. Marxists, anarchists and trade unions joined but the ideological differences between them made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Amadeo of Savoy abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchist.
    Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans
    prepared a programme of social and economic reforms.
    1873 elections were won by the federal republicans.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    The Restoration occurred when General Martínez Campos proclaimed Isabella’s II son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain.
  • Second International

    Second International
    Association founded by the Marxists to coordinate the various socialist parties. It established some identity symbols of the labour movement, such as the anthem "The Internationale" and the 1 May holiday (International Workers' Day).