Liberty leading the people

Irene Armesto Méndez_G&H_4°C

By ia1
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    It is a period in history that started when Columbus discovered America and ended with the French Revolution.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament that caused landowner to enclose their property, so large pasture areas became privately owned. Big landowners benefited from these Acts and the individualisation of production led to technical and agricultural innovations. However, poor farmes couldn't enclose their properties and had to sell them. They moved to the cities to look for work or they became labourers in exchange for a wage.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    The flying shuttle was an invention that contributed to the development of the textile industry because it increased the speed of production and allowed to weave wider fabrics. A shuttle is a component with rollers used for weaving.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and transformed the economy from the Ancien Régime, which was agrarian and artisan based, into an industrial economy. It's causes were the increase in demand because of the population growth, the colonial empire that provided easy access to abundant resources and raw materials, the extensive transport network and the political system.
  • James Watt's Steam Engine

    James Watt's Steam Engine
    The steam engine uses burning coil to boil water and produce steam. The pressure from the steam moves a piston that generates movement. It was one of the main inventions of the Industrial Revolution and it was used in locomotives, sailing ships and steamships.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith was a Scottish economist and philosopher born in 1723. His book promoted economic liberalism, a doctrine based on private ownership tha led to the development of capitalism. The basic theory of capitalism is a free market regulated by the law of supply and demand, and the competition law, which encourages technological innovation.
  • Invention of the Power Loom

    Invention of the Power Loom
    The power loom was designed by Edmund Cartwright. It is a mechanized loom that increased productivity in the textile industry during the Industrial Revolution and lowered fabric cost.
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    The French Revolution

    The French Revolution started in France because of the country's economic and social crises and France's enormous debt. It was influenced by the American Revolution and Enlightenment ideas.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    The Constitutional Monarchy was directed by the moderate bourgeoisie. During the Constitutional Monarchy feudalism was abolished, the First French Constitution was approved, the National Guard was formed, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (their properties were confiscated and sold) and the Declaration of the rights of Man and of the Citizen were approved. It ended with the flight to Varennes of the Royal Family and the Austrian invasion.
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    Contemporary History

    It is a historic period that started with the French Revolution and continues nowadays.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    It was meeting organised by the King to discuss France's financial and social crisis, and it was necessary because the priviledged classes refused to pay taxes. In the meeting there were representatives of the nobility, the clergy and the Third Estate.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    The representatives of the Third Estate decided to leave the Estates-General meeting because only one vote per state was allowed, instead of one per representative. They met in the Jeu de Pomme, a pavillion in Versailles, and swore not to come out until they had drafted a Constitution. They declared themselves the National Assembly of France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Third Estate stormed a prison called Bastille and freed the prisoners. The prison was a symbol of the absolute power of the monarchy and also held a lot of gunpowder and artillery.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It was a declaration aproved by the National Assembly in August of 1789. It stated the equality in taxation and laws, the individual freedoms and the rights of all citizens (although only male citizens).
  • Women's march on Versailles

    Women's march on Versailles
    A group of women from Paris armed with weapons went to Versailles, where the king was, and demanded the abolishment of manorialism because of the bread shortage and high prices of food. This caused the king and the royal family to move to the Tuileries Palace.
    More information on the event.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    This constitution established a separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equaly. Despite this, the monarch could still veto. It also introduced census suffrage.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    They were a set of wars that ended in 1797. Europe fought against France. Each state that fought wanted to keep a part of France after its defeat, but they didn't succeed.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed the Touleries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. This event signals the end of the Constitutional Monarchy and the beginning of the Social Republic. It was impulsed by the flight of Varennes of the monarchy.
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    Social Republic

    It was a republic led by the radical bourgeoisie. During this republic many people were killed, and the regime had a lot of opponents. It lasted until July of 1794 when a coup ended the dictatorial government.
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    Girondin Convention

    The Girondins were the more moderate bourgeoisie that controlled the Social Republic. They established the National Convention, an assembly elected by universal male suffrage.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins were the more radical bourgeoisie that directed the Social Republic. They approved a new constitution that recognised universal male suffrage and social equality. During this convention, mass levy was organised and social laws were approved. The executive power was held by the Comitee of Public Safety, led by Robespierre.
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    Reign of Terror

    It was period of time where numerous public executions and massacres took place, because of the Comittee of Public Safety, directed by Robespierre, and the Law of Suspects. During this time freedoms were suspended and everyone who opposed to the government was either imprisoned or executed with the guillotine.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette were imprisoned, charged with treason and executed during the Social Republic. They were executed with the guillotine. This caused the other absolute monarchies in Europe to form and absolutist coalition against France.
    More information on the event.
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    Conservative Republic

    It was led by the moderage bourgeoisie. During this republic,
    Jacobin laws were cancelled, sufragge was censitary and the executive power was held by the Directory. A new constitution was approved in 1995. It faced the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people, and it ended with a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    This coup d'état, organised by the general Napoleon Bonaparte, ended the Directory and marked the start of the Consulate. Napoleon wanted to bring back the more moderate ideas that had started the French Revolution in the first place and he had the support of a large part of the bourgeoisie. Napoleon's account on his coup d'état.
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    The Consulate

    This period started with Napoleon's coup d'état. He was named consul, and he started an authoritarian rule. He wanted to bring back the moderate ideas that had impulsed the French Revolution. A new constitution was drafted, the state was organised into departments run by prefects, state schools (lyceés) were created, the Bank of France was founded, new banknotes and a commercial code were made to stimulate economy. The exiles were allowed to return.
    In 1803 Napoleon began the conquer of Europe.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    This constitution was installed during the Consulate and it established a new political system without separation of powers or declaration of rights. The liberties were very limited and, in order to control public opinion, censorship was imposed.
  • Napoleon Crowned Emperor

    Napoleon Crowned Emperor
    Napoleo was crowned emperor of the French by the Pope at Notre-Dame.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    The Napoleonic Empire was directed by Napoleon and counted with a large army and new military strategies that allowed France to conquer most of Europe. In it's zenith, in 1811, France ruled directly several states and had many satellite states. The states conquered were unhappy because of France's indiscriminate violence and the submission to French interests and started resistance movements. The Empire's downfall began when in 1812 they failed to conquer Russia and a revolt started in Spain.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    After Manuel Godoy, Charles IV's prime minister, allied with the French against Britain, this treaty allowed the French troops to pass through Spain towards Portugal, an ally of the British.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    After the invasion of Spain, Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, was crowned king of Spain.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    They took place after the Mutiny of Aranjuez, when Ferdinand VII conspired against his father and became king. In these abdications, Napoleon convinced the Bourbons to hand over the crown of Spain to his brother, Joseph I. The new king instaured liberal measures and was defended by the afrancesados, but the patriots were against him and formed Juntas and the Cortes.
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    War of Independence

    This war started with the popular uprising in Madrid the 2nd of May of 1808. The firt phase of the war was the popular resistance, which consisted in guerrilla warfared made by irregular troops (they stopped the French's advance southwards at the Battle of Bailén). The socond phase was the French offensive, between 1808 and 1812, when Napoleon commanded an army and several cities were besieged. It ended with the Anglo-Spanish victories (Battle of Los Arapiles) and the Treaty of Valençay (1813).
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    Luddite Movement

    The Luddite Movement was the first workers' movement that protested against industrialisation. Luddites believed that machinary was responsible for low wages and uneployment, so they destroyed it.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    This constitution was drafted by the Cádiz Cortes, which were made up of representatives of every provincial Junta (who were mainly liberal). It established a separation of powers, national sovereingty, broad individual freedoms and universal male suffrage. It was also called "La Pepa" because it was approved the 19th of March, the day of St. Joseph. Although it was approved in 1808, it didn't come fully into effect because of the wars.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    In this treaty, which took place after the Spanish and British victory over the French at the Battle of Los Arapiles, the French troops retreated form Spain and the crown was handed back to Ferdinand VII "The Desired".
  • Congress of Viena

    Congress of Viena
    It was an evernt organised by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich with the powers that had defeated Napoleon (Russia, Britain, Austria and Prussia). Their goal was to stop the spread of liberal ideas and to restore absolutism. They redesigned the European map, they established the principles of the Restoration, they denied national sovereignty and they accorded periodic meetings and the right of intervention to maintain the balance of power between them.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    This process begun with the Congress of Viena when the absolutists monarchies in Europe came together to fight agains liberal ideas. It ended with the revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand is divided in three phases: the Six Years of Absolutism (1814-1820, the 1812 Constitution was repealed, liberals were persecuted), the Liberal Trienium (1820-1823, the constitution was reinstated, the National Militia was created) and the Ominous Decade (1823-1833, Spain was bankrupt, a giscal reform was proposed, Isabella II was born and Ferdinand VII issued the Pragmatic Sanction to repeal the Salic Law).
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was a manifest written by the defnders of absolutism, defending the return th the throne of Ferdinand VII after the reign of Joseph Bonaparte.
  • Holy Alliance Treaty

    Holy Alliance Treaty
    It was treaty signed by the absolutist monarchs where they promised to unite against any liberal revolution.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In this battle France was defeated by Great Britain and Prussia. It marks the end of the Napoleonic Empire, because after the battle Napoleon abdicated. He was eent into exile on Saint Helena.
  • Pronunciamiento de Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento de Rafael del Riego
    This pronunciamiento was made by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla and marked the end of the Six Years of Absolutism and the start of the Liberal Triennium.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, but they were unhappy because they had to pay high taxes, weren't allowed to participate in state administration and the Turks had another culture and religion. In 1822 the Greeks declared their independence and were supported by a lot of European liberals that believed Greece was the cradle of European culture. With the help of France and Britain, they defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1827 and it recognised their independence in 1830.
  • Holy Alliance Intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis

    Holy Alliance Intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis
    During Liberal Triennium (1820-1823), Ferdinand the VII asked the other European absolutist monarchies for help to stop the liberal governnment. The Holy Alliance sent the Hundred Thousand Sons of St Louis, commmanded by the Duke of Angoulême, who defeated the liberals, restored absolutism in Spain and ended the Liberal Triennium.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    The Combination Acts were a series of English laws established in 1799 and 1800 that prohibited strikes and trade unions, among other things. In the end, they were repealed because of the power that the labour force was acquiring, and that allowed the first official trade unions to appear.
  • Stephenson's Steam Locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam Locomotive
    It was a type of locomotive invented by Stephenson that used the steam engine to produce continuous movement in the wheels. The train was the main form of transport during the Industrial Revolution.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    It was a movement prompted by liberalsm and nationalism tha had significant popular support. It began in France when Charles X, an absolutist king, was overthown and replaced by Louis Philipe I, a constitutional monarch also known as the "Citizen King".
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    The Age of the Revolutions

    The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 ended the restoration of absolutism that had begun in 1815 with the Congress of Viena. They presented new liberal and democratic ideal, demostrated the importance of workers as a political force and promoted universal suffrage.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The Congress of Viena created the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 by joining the Kingdom of Holland with Belgium. Belgium declared itself independent and became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I. After an armed conflict, the Netherlands recognised Belgium's independence in 1839.
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    First Carlist War

    This war started with the death of Fedindand VII. His daoughter Isabella II was only three years old, so her mother Maria Cristina became the regent. However, some absolutist (Carlists) were in favour of Ferdinand's brother Carlos. The church, priviledged classes and the rural areas supported Carlos, while the bourgeoisie and the big cities supported Isabella. The Carlists and the Isabelinos fought in the Carlist War. It ended in 1839 with the Convention of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    During most of Isabella's government, the Moderate Liberal Party was in power. She was supported by the liberals. Her reign was divided in the Regency of Maria Cristina (1833-1840), the Regency of Espartero (1840-1843), the Moderate Decade (1843-1854), the Progressive Biennium (1854-1856) and the System in decline (1856-1868). During her reign, the progressive Constitution of 1837, the moderate Constitution of 1845 were approved.
  • Zollverein

    It was a customs union that unified the majority of the German states. It was made by Prussia.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    This Trades Union brought together workers of different professions, who all worked to defend the right of association, regulate child labour, improve wages and reduce the working days (people worked 14-16 hours a day).
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    German Unification Process

    In 1834 the Zollverein was created by Prussia. The 1st freely elected German parliament offered the German crown to the king of Prussia in 1848, but he rejected it because the German parliament was liberal. In 1861 Wilheim I became king of Prussia and he made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war to Dennmark, Austria and France in 1862, 1866 and 1870 respectively, and won all the wars. In 1871, Wilheim I was made Kaiser of the Second German Empire (Reicht).
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    It was a progressive constitution. It granted many rights and individual liberties and it established the separation in the Chambers (the Senate and the Congress of Deputies), national sovereignty, census suffrage and the separation of powers.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    It was a miderate constitution. It presented highly restricted suffrage, sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown, it established a reorganisation of state and municipal administration and granted limited civil rights.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Also called the Spring of Nations, these revolutions happened in European countries under the control of empires. Nationals had spread and many countries wanted to create liberal govenments. They took place in Viena, where chancellor Metternich was forced to resingn, Hungary, Bohemia, Italy and the German Confederation. I France a Second Republic was proclaimed and it adopted democratic measures.
    These revolutions were suppresed, but they showed the emergence of democratic ideals.
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    French Second Republic

    It was republic proclaimed by a popular uprising in France during the Spring of Nations. This republic adopted several democratic measures, like universal male suffrage, press freedom or the abolition of death penalty. It also demostrated the importance of workers as a political force and recognised some of their rights.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer converter was a machine used to manufacture steel, and alloy of iron and carbon. Steel was really useful because it's more flexible than other metals and ideal for construction.
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    Italian Unification Process

    The monarchy of the Kingdom of Piedgemont and the Prime Minister Cavour started a unification process, declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy. Garibaldy led a popular uprising and defeated the absolute monarchies in central and south Italy.
    In 1861 Victor Manuel of Saboy was proclaimed king, in 1866 Austria left Venetia and in 1870 the Papal Stated were annexed. The capital was placed in Rome.
  • First International

    First International
    The International Workingmen's Association was created at the iniciative of Marx and united marxists, anarchists and trade unions to defend the workers' rights. However, the Association broke appart in 1876 because there were too many ideological differences between the groups.
  • Marx published Das Kapital

    Marx published Das Kapital
    Karl Marx collaborated with Friedrich Engels to create Marxism, a model of social organisation that advocated for a revolution to end capitalism. The revolution consisted of two phases: the dictatorship of the proletariat, where the workers would conquer political power and destroy private property, and then the cration of a communist society.
    Marxists defended workers' participation in politics and denounced the explotation of the working class.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy
    The monarchy of Amadeo I lasted until 1873. He was supported by progressives, unionists and liberals.
  • Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic

    Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic
    The presidents were Pi y Margal, Figueras, Salmerón and Castelar.
    It ended in 1874 because if a coup executed by General Pavía, who gave the power to General Serrano and eliminated the Cortes.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    He was proclaimed king by General Martínez Campos. In 1876, a moderate constitution was approved. It was open, so liberals and moderated could rule without having to modify it, and it lasted until 1923. In 1890 the universal male suffrage was declared.
  • Second International

    Second International
    It was an association founded by the Marxists that established some of the labour movement's identity symbols, like the anthem 'The Internationale' or the International Workers' Day (1 May). It's goal was to coordinate socialist parties.