The age of liberal revolution

Lucas Noya Prieto_G&H_4ºC

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Period of the World history after the Middle Ages. It extends from the discovery of America in 1492 to the French Revolution in 1789. Throughout this period, great transformations took place in political systems, economic activities, and cultural and artistic manifestations. Europeans expanded to other continents and created colonies in large areas of the world.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    John Kay’s flying shuttle started the mechanisation process and increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics, and spinning machines.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    There were interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain (mid-18th century).
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Steam engines use the power from steam to generate continuous movement, which is transferred to machinery. The steam engine was applied to the industrial machinery, that produce the mechanisation of the textile industry,to the agriculture, to mines, to mills and to the transport (Rails - Ships)
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    Enclosure Acts

    The Enclousure Acts were a series of laws that were passed by the British Parliament to authorise this process, which led to a concentration of land ownership. This reorganisation of land benefited the big landowners, who were able to produce more and increase their profits.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    Smith exposes his analysis on the origin of the prosperity of countries like England or the Netherlands. Develops economic theories on the division of labor, the market, currency, the nature of wealth, the price of commodities in labor, wages, profits, and the accumulation of capital.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    Edmund Cartwright's power loom, dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
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    Contemporary History

    It is the historical period that extends from the French Revolution to the present. It is characterized by the industrial revolution, the consolidation of capitalism and democratic systems, and the advancement of human rights.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    Form of government established in the first phase of the French Revolution (1789-1792). It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie who aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime, elect a Parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution. The origin of the monarch's power lies in the Constitution.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    Period of history from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries in which a number of significant revolutionary movements took place in most of Europe and the America. The period is noted for the change from absolutist monarchies to representative governments with a written constitution, and the creation of nation states.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a social and political process of change that took place between 1789 and 1799 in France and that, over time, spread to other countries. It supposed the end of Ancien Régime.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    The Estates-General was a meeting of representatives of the three states: clergy, nobility and the Third Estate (mainly bourgeoisie) called by Louis XVI in Versailles in May 1789 to approve tax reform. The first two groups wanted to vote per estate but the Third Estate wanted to vote per representative. The denial of the privileged made them leave the meating.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Tennis Court Oath (in French, Serment du jeu de Paume) was a promise to draft a constitution that reflected the wish of the majority of French people taken by representatives of the Third State, after leaving the Estates General meeting, at a tennis court in Versailles. It became one of the most iconic scenes of the French Revolution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Violent attack against the absolutist monarchy of Louis VI, that took place in Paris on July 14, 1789. It marked the beginning of the French Revolution. It was led by citizens from the Third Estate that attacked and took control of the Bastille (state prison symbol of monarchy).This event inspired other French people to take up arms against the king and the nobility and the revolution spread.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Text written during the first phase of the French Revolution that recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation. It consisted of 17 articles that became the basis of the First French constitution. It was aproved by the National Constituent Assembly in August 1789.
  • Women`s March on Versailles

    Women`s March on Versailles
    On 5th October 1789, women in Paris, equipped with weapons and tools, marched to Versailles where the royal family lived. They protested against the shortage of bread and demanded the king sign the decree abolishing the manorialism. Their actions caused the king to abandon Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    French constitution approved by the National Constituent Assembly on september 1791. It was based on separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. It also introduced census suffrage. On 13th September Louis XVI accepted this constitution and a Constitutional monarchy was established. This constitution lasted less than a year.
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    Girondin Convention

    First phase of the Social Republic during which, the Girondins, the moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic. A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage and Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed. During this period counter-revolutionary revolts and royalist plots took place.
  • War of the First Coallition

    War of the First Coallition
    Set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against France, to avoid the spread of liberalism and the French Revolution. The beginning of this War took place on 20th April 1792 when the Legislative Assembly declared war to Austria and Prusia.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Violent revolt led by common people (sans-culottes) against the Tuileries Palace, the official residence of Louis XVI and the home of the Legislative Assembly. They stormed the palace and imprisoned the royal family. This event marks the beginning of the second phase of the French Revolution.
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    Social Republic

    Second phase of the French Revolution during which a republic was declared and the Reign of Terror was imposed. It began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with universal male suffrage and social laws. It was divided into two phases: The Girondin Convention (1792-1793) and the Jacobin Convention (1793-1794)
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    Jacobin Convention

    Second phase of the Social Republic during which, Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie controlled the Republic. During this period a new Constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and social equality was approve, the Reign of Terror was imposed and social laws to satisfy sans-culottes were approved.
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    Reign of Terror

    Period of violence imposed during the Jacobin convention that lasted almost a year in which freedoms were suspended and the opponents of the Jacobins were imprisoned or executed by guillotine under the Law of Suspects.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    After the storm of Tuileries Palace, the king Louis XVI was convicted of treason and executed by guillotine on 21st January 1793, during the Girondine Convention of the Social Republic.
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    Conservative Republic

    Third phase of the French Revolution, led by the moderate bourgeoisie who implemented a new moderate liberalism. During this period, Jacobin laws were cancelled and a new Constitution was approved (1795) and the census suffrage was restored. Its Government, The Directory, was opposed by the aristocracy and the common people.
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    The Consulate

    A period between 1799 and 1804 of autocratic and authoritarian rule and the government of France during this period. It began when Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and ended when he was named emperor by the Pope in 1804.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Coup organised by general Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799 that ended the Conservative Republic and brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France. This event marks the end of the French Revolution. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, second month under the French Republican Calendar.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    French national constitution adopted on 24 December 1799 that established the Consulate as form of government. It didn’t include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinion.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Imperial state created in France by Napoleon Bonaparte after being crowned Emperor in 1804. That coronation led to war with several states in Europe, who wanted to prevent French expansion (Napoleonic wars). It ended when Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. During this period France controlled most of Europe.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    On May 18, 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor, and made his wife Josephine Empress. His coronation ceremony took place on December 2, 1804, in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris, with incredible splendor and at considerable expense.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, The French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, was crowned king.
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    Luddite movement

    First workers to protest in England (early c.19th). They destroyed the machinery because they believed that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment.,las%20dif%C3%ADciles%20condiciones%20laborales%20en%20las%20f%C3%A1bricas%20textiles.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was a document signed by the absolutist representatives of the Cortes, who requested an absolute monarchy. With their support, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and reforms the Cadiz Cortes.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    In 1814 French troops withdrew from Spain and Ferdinand VII the Desired returned Spain. With the support of the absolutists, who signed the Manifiesto de los Persas, he re-established an absolutist monarchy in Spain. Thre were different phases during his reign: Six years of absolutism, Liberal Trienium and Ominous Decade.
  • Congress of Viena and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Viena and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna was an international meeting held in the Austrian capital, by the powers that had defeated Napoleon, with the aim of restoring absolutism and reshape the European map. The Congress of Vienna established the principles of the Restoration. The Holy Alliance Treaty was an agreement signed in 1815 that stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Viena, to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore the absolutism in Europe.
    The ideological principles of the Restoration were the legitimacy of the abosolute monarch and the denial of national soveraignity.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Battle fought on 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in Belgium, where the Napoleonic Imperial armies were defeated by Great Britain and Prussia armies. Napoleon abdicated and was sent into exile to the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821
  • Pronunciamiento del Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento del Colonel Rafael del Diego
    Pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Diego in 1820 in Sevilla that forced the king Ferdinand VII to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War od Independence

    In 1822, the Greeks declared independence from the Ottoman Empire, but it wasn`t recognised by the Turks, and resulted in the begining of a war. The European Liberals supported the Greeks because they wanted to help the region they considered the origin of European culture. In 1827, with the help of French and British armies the Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire. Greece gained its independence in 1830
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Alliance to send troops to defend the Absolutism in Spain, so in 1823 the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored absolutism.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Unions of workers from the same field, appear after the repeal of laws prohibiting worker’s associations in 1824 in England.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Stephenson created the steam locomotive, which used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. This new transport system could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. The improvement boosted trade and helped create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Revolutions of 1830 were rebellions against the absolute monarchs and governments, led by liberals and nationalists that took place in different parts of Europe between 1830 and 1832. They started in France with the July Revolution, when the king Charles X were overthrown. These rebellions had significant popular support.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the independence of Belgium from the Kingdom of Netherlands. By the Congress of Viena Belgium was part of The Kingdom of Netherlands, but the spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian Revolution, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I. An armed conflict broke out. It ended when Netherlands recognised Belgium´ s independence in 1839.
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    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War began in the Basque Country lead by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defeated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    It is the period of contemporary history of Spain between the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833 and the triumph of the Revolution of 1868, which forced the queen to go into exile. This reign is divided into two major stages: the minority of age (1833-1843) during which his mother Maria Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias assumed the regency and, later, General Baldomero Espartero; and the effective reign that begins with the declaration of her majority when she was only thirteen years old.
  • Zollverein

    German customs union established in 1834 under Prussian leadership. It created a free-trade area throughout much of Germany and is often seen as an important step in German reunification.
    Zollverein, (German: “Customs Union”)
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    In the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought together different types of woekers, and was founded in 1834. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    Spanish Constitution approved in 1837, during the Regency of Maria Christina. It was a progressive constitution that recognised: National sovereignty with census sufrrage; separation of powers, two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate and granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    Spanish Constitution approved in 1845 during the Moderate Decade of the Reign of Isabella II. It was a moderate Constitution that established: highly restricted suffrage, civil liberties were restricted, sovereignity was shared between the Cortes and the Crown, reorganisation of State and municipal administration (only the Basque country and Navarre held their own statutory laws).
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Revolutions of 1848, were a wave of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. They all ended in failure and repression and were followed by disillusionment among liberals.
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    French Second Republic

    A short-lived republican government of France under President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (nephew of Napoleon) that lasted between 1848 and 1852. During this period a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers, were adopted.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer converter made it posible to manufacture steel (an alloy of iron and carbon). This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    Italian unification process, also known as the Risorgimento, was the 19th century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state, the Kingdom of Italy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. This process ended in1871, when Rome was officially designated the capital of the Kingdom.
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    German Unification process

    German unification procces that started after Wilhem I became king of Prussia in 1861 and ended when in 1871 Wilhem I was proclaimed Kaiser (emperor) of the Second German Empire (Rich). After being declared king, his chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark, Austria, and France. Prussia won all three wars, making the unification of Germany into a nation-state possible.
  • First International

    First International
    First International of International Workingmen’s Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864. Ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and trade unions made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Das Kapital is a fundamental theoretical text in the philosophy, economics and politics of Karl Marx. Is a critical treatise on political economy; at the same time, it has also been read as a work of philosophy, as a treatise on economics, or as a political treatise on the relations of domination between the classes, on the one hand the proletarians and on the other the bourgeoisie.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo de Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo de Savoy
    After the Battle of Alcolea, the Queen Isabella II and her heir Alfonso XII went into exile and a provisional government was formed to establish a democratic political system. In 1870 Amadeo de Savoy was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    In 1873, Amadeo of Savoy abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a Republic. Most of the deputies were monarchist but lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans prepared a programme of social and economic reforms. In 1873 the federal republicans won the elections and the Constitution of 1873 was draft.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    The beginning of his reign ended the First Republic and started the period known as Restoration. The Restoration occurred when General Matínez Campos proclaimed Isabella's II son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to coordinate the various socialist parties. Established symbols of the labour movement such as "The Internationale" and the 1 May holiday.