Noa Martínez Pérez_G&H_4ºD

  • Period: 1500 to

    Modern History

    It refers to the history of the world since the advent of the Age of Enlightenment.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    The mechanisation process started with John Kay's flying schuttle, which increased the speed of production an dmade it possible to weave wider fabrics, aand spinning machines, which significantly increased productivity.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    Interconnected changes driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain.
    - New political system.
    - Population growth.
    - Abundance of resources and raw materials.
    - Extensive transport.ç
    - Colonial empire.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    How the machine worked:
    1. Burning coal.
    2. Boiled water.
    3. Steam.
    4. Pressure.
    5. Continuous movement transferred to machinery.
  • Adam Smith publishes: The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes: The Wealth of Nations
    Economic liberalism: it was a doctrine, based on private ownership, established by liberal British authors of the Manchester School, incluiding Adam Smith. His book was an investigation about nature and causes of the nation's wealth. It's considered the first modern book of economics.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The last step was Edmund Cartwright's power loom, which dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    It was approved by the Nationaal Constituent Assembly. This declaration recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a social and political conflict. The long-term causes were:
    -The impact of Enlightenment ideas and the American Revolution
    -The social crisis, the Third Estate was discontent (peasants: manorial system, bourgeoisie: lack of political power)
    -Economic crisis: poor harvest, rise of prices...
    -Financial crisis: debt of France. The short-term causes were:
    - The Estate-General meeting
    - The National Assembly
    - The storming of the Bastille
    - Constitutional Monarchy
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    This was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie, who aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime, elect a parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution (moderate liberalism).
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    It was an assembly convened by Louis XVI in may, 1789 for the fiscal enquiry. Privileged estates demand a vote per estate, rather than per representative. The Assembly was formed by 291 members of the clergy, 270 members of the nobility and 578 members of the Third Estate.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    During the end of June and beginning of July, the Assembly’s proposals got more and more supporters in Paris and the situation got tenser and tenser. Because of that the Third Estate stormed the Bastille, that was a castle used as a state prison by the kings of France. At that time there were only 7 prisioner in it, but it kept a lot of weapons and gunpowder.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    On 5 October 1789, women in Paris, equiped with weapons and tools marched to Versailles where the royal family lived. They protested against the shortage of bread and demanded the king sign the decree abolishing manorialism. Their actions caused the king to abandon Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Third Estate went to a pavillion in Versailles (a tennis court:Jeu de Paume) and proclaimed themselves themselves the National Assembly of France. The promised to draft a constitution.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    The National Assembly approved the first French constitution, based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the revolution. This was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie, who aspired to abolished the Ancien Régime, elect a parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution (moderate liberalism). In this phase the execution of Louis XVI , the Constitution (social democracy) and the fall of the Jacobins took place.
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    Girondin Convention

    The Griondins, controlled the Republic. The Nacional Convention was elected by universal mal suffrage. Louis XVI & Queen Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and executed (1793) and the monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the former privileged classes organised royalist plots.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The Legislative Assembly declares de war to Austria and Prussia.
    The Austrian army invaded France and Louis XVI fled Paris (Flight to Varennes), but he was arrested, and the Austrian army entered France and reached Paris (September 1792)
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family because the betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt by the commom people
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    Jacobin Convention

    In 1793, the Jacobins, the radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors an seized ower. A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and the right to social equality was enacted. The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety, give power to the leader Robespierre.
    To reject the Austrian invasion was organised that forced all citizens to join the army. The social laws were introduced (Law of the Maximum). Robespierre & other were gillotined
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In 1793 Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death an absolutist coalition was formed in Europe to fight against revolutionaries, there were also counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and finally the privileged classes organised royalist plots.
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    Conservative Republic

    It was the third and final phase of the French Revolution. Despite the radicalisation of the French Revolution, the moderate bourgeoisie took power and implemented a new moderate liberalism. Jacobin laws were cancelled and exiles from the Reing of Terror were encouraged to return. They implemented a new Constitution and restores census suffrage. The Directory was unstable because it faced opposition from the aristocracy, return the monarchy. Bonaparte organised a coup that ended the directory
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    The Consulate

    In 1799, Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate's rule began. This was a period of auticratic and authoritarian rule. His objectives were to end the political instability of the Revolution, the consolidation of some of the revolutionary principles and the economic recovery.
    A new Constitution appeared, there were economic reforms and other reforms.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    When the moderate bourgeoisie took back the power and approved the 1795 constitution, the aristocracy and common people opposed to this. And in this context of crisis Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule and this ended the French Revolution.
  • Constitution of 1800

    A new Constitution was approved that didn't include the separation of powers or the declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinion. There were economic reforms like the reform of the finance sector, the establishment of a commercial code and the creation of the Bank of France and new banknotes. There were other reforms like civic code for all citizens, creation of states school, allowed exiles to return and the concordat.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon Bonaparte began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. He also defeated most European monarchies thanks to his large army and the use of new military tactics.
    After the France's victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (1806), the French troops seemed unstoppable. In 1808, France invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, was made king. In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most Europe.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    A treaty that allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal, an ally of the British.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    By which Napoleon persuaded the Bourbons to give the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph.
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    War of Independence

    A popular revolt began in Madrid on 2 May 1808 and it started the War of Independence.
    - Popular resistance (1808): Irregular troops began guerrila warface and the Spanish army stopped the French advance at the Battle of Bailén.
    - French offensive (1808-1812): Napoleon controlled the army and occupied most of Spain.
    - Anglo-Spanish victories (1812-1814): The British army commanded by General Wellington defeated the French in The Battle of Salamanca.
    The Treaty of Valençay was signed (1813)
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king. In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe.
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    Luddite movement

    It started in England. It consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    The Cortes, drafted the first Spanish Constitution, La Pepa, establishing: the separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    This treaty ended the War of Independence in December 1813.
    Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops withdrew from Spain.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna.
    After reinstating monarchs on their thrones, the four great powers reshaped the European map.
    The Congress of Vienna established the ideological principles of the Restoration, like the absolute monarchs legitimacy and the denial of national sovereignty. Request of balance of power between the victors through periodic meetings and the right of intervention. In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    -Six years of absolutism (1814-1820): He reclaimed the throne with the Manifiesto de los Persas, repealed the Constitution of 1812 and returned Spain to absolutism.
    -The Liberal Triennium (1820-1823): A pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Riego(1820), reinstated the Constitution. The National Militia defended the Constitution.
    European monarchs called the Holy Alliance to restore absolutism.
    -The Ominious Decade (1823-1833): Occured fiscal reforms. Salic Law repealed. Pragmatic Sanction.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    Was signed by the absolutive representatives of the Cortes, who request an absolute monarchy.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815, the imperial armies were finallly defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. Napoleon abdicated after the defeat and was sent into exile on the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty, formed by Russia, Prussia and Austria was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    In 1820, a pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Cabezas de San Juan (Seville) was successful, and the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries:
    - Greek had to pay high takes.
    - Excluded from state administration jobs.
    - Dominated by people with different religion and culture. The development:
    - 1822: Greeks declared independence (not recognized by the Turks).
    - 1827: Greek victory thanks to French and British military intervention help.
    - 1830: Recognized independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    In 1823, a coalition of European monarchs called the Holy Alliance sent troops (the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis) that restore absolutism under the command of the Duke of Angoulême.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    The repeal of the laws prohibiting workers' association in England led to the creation of the first official trade unions, which united workers in the same field, such as the Union of Spinners.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    This steam locomotive used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels.
    It also could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. https://youtu.be/XR4OVtjE3JU
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    After 1815, liberalism and nationalism became the two main opposition forces, that prompting the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 that ended the restoration of absolutism. The movement began in France when Charles X, the absolute monarch who succeeded Louis XVIII a few years after the fall of Napoleon, was overthrown in July 1830.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The Congress of Vienna didn't respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some Europeans and two main oppositions forces appeared:
    • Liberalism: political philosophy that says that people are free and have fundamental rights (Constitutions).
    • Nationalism: political philosophy that defends the right of nations to exercise their sovereignty and create their own state.
    Louis Philippe I became the new constitutiona monarch.
    In 1831, a revolt started in Poland.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Development:
    1830-39: Armed conflict after Belgium's declaration of Independence.
    1839: Recognition of independence. Liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    It began In Basque Country lead by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defeated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    • Regency of Maria Christina:military uprisings; popular revolts; end of the Ancien Régime; 1837 Constitution.
    • Rengency of Espartero:control by moderate liberals; strong opposition.
    • The Moderate Decade:1845 Constitution; Guardia Civil, Penal code...; progressive military revolt.
    • The Progressive Biennium:Vilcálvaro pronunciamiento; 1855 Constitution; economic reforms.
    • The system in decline:Liberal Union; new political groups; unionist and moderates alternate in power; military revolts.
  • Zollverein

    It was a custom union created by Prussia in 1834, that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    It brought different types of workers. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution (Progressive)

    • National sovereignty with census suffrage.
    • Separation of powers.
    • Two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate.
    • Granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution (Moderate)

    • Highly restricted suffrage.
    • Civil liberties were restricted.
    • Sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown.
    • Recognisation of State and municipal administration. Only the Basque Country and Navarre held their statutory laws (dereitos forais).
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    The revolutions of 1848('the Spring of Nations') showed how countries under the control of empires wanted to pursue the idea of nationalism and the creation of new liberal governments.
    This revolutions were significant because they demostrated the emergence of democratic ideals and also the importance of workers as a political force.
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    French Second Republic

    In 19th century Europe, many people lived under the rule of an empire or into various states.
    Because of the rise of the liberalism and the expansion of nationalism advocated for independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In France, a popular uprising proclaimes the Second Republic , which adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer Converter

    Invention of the Bessemer Converter
    This invention made it possible to manufacture steel. This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    • 1859: Kingdom of Piedmont was ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification. Declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. Popular uprising lead by Garibaldi.
    • 1861: Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed king of Italy.
    • 1866: Austria left Venetia.
    • 1870: The Papal states were annexed and Rome became capital.
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    German Unification process

    Divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power. 1834:Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein).
    1848:1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it.
    1861:New political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor.
    War on Denmark(1864), Austria(1866) and France(1870)
    1871:Proclamation of the Second German Empire(or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    Marxists and anarchists advocated the need for workers of the world to unite to achieve social emancipation.
    First International of International Workingmen's Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864.
  • Karl Marx publishes: Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes: Das Kapital
    The first voulme of Das Kapital was published in printed wrappers. It was a foundational theoreticaal text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo I was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
    Meausures to help economic recovery and democratisation process.
    - A few days before its arrival, his main supporter, General Prim, was assasinated
    - Strong opposition:
    Some representatives of the Church loyals to the Bourbons.
    - Second Carlist War (1872-76), Carlists declared Charles VII as king.
    - War on the Island of Cuba (1869)
    - In 1873, Amadeo I abdicated.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    The Cortes voted for a Republic.
    Lower social classes were happy and republicans wanted social and economic reforms. Presidents: Figueras, Pi y Margall, Salmerón and Castelar.
    - Division between unitary and federal republicans and between moderates and intransigents.
    - Cuban insurrection.
    - New Carlist War (1872-76)
    - Social unrest and cantonalism
    - Conspiration to restore the monarchy.
    1874: Acoup led by General Pavía disolved the Cortes and made General Serrano head of state.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    General Martínez Campos proclaimed Alfonso XII king of Spain.
    • The Canovist System: political system created by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo that allowed political parties to alternate in power and promised political and social stability.
    • The objective was the Pacification of Spain that ended the Carlist war in 1876. Pact of Zanjón in 1878
    • 1876 Constitution was drafted.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Marxists founded the Second International to coordinate the various socialist parties. The Second International established some identity symbols of the labour movement, such as the anthem 'The Internationale' and the 1 May holiday (International Workers' Day).
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    Contemporary History

    Is a subset of Modern History that describes the historical period from 1945 to the present.