Alvaro Gil_G&H_4·E

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Period of the World history after the Middle Ages. It extends from the discovery of America in 1492 to the French Revolution in 1789. great transformations took place in political systems, economic activities, and cultural and artistic manifestations. Europeans expanded to other continents and created colonies in large areas of the world.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    John Kay’s flying shuttle started the mechanisation process and increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics, and spinning machines.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    There were interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain (mid-18th century).
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Steam engines use the power from steam to generate continuous movement, which is transferred to machinery. The steam engine was applied to the industrial machinery, that produce the mechanisation of the textile industry,to the agriculture, to mines, to mills and to the transport (Rails - Ships)
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    Smith exposes his analysis on the origin of the prosperity of countries like England or the Netherlands. Develops economic theories on the division of labor, the market, currency, the nature of wealth, the price of commodities in labor, wages, profits, and the accumulation of capital.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    Edmund Cartwright's power loom, dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    Form of government established in the first phase of the French Revolution. It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie who aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime, elect a Parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution. The origin of the monarch's power lies in the Constitution.
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    French Revolution

    .The French Revolution was a social and political process of change that took place between 1789 and 1799 in France and spread to other countries. It supposed the end of Ancien Régime
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    The Age of the revolutions

    Period of history from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries in which a number of significant revolutionary movements took place in most of Europe. The period is noted for the change from absolutist monarchies to governments with a written constitution, and the creation of nation states.
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    Contemporary History

    It is the historical period that extends from the French Revolution to the present. It is characterized by the industrial revolution, the consolidation of capitalism and democratic systems, and the advancement of rights.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    The Estates-General was a meeting of representatives of the three states: clergy, nobility and the Third Estate called by Louis XVI in Versailles in May 1789 to approve tax reform. The first groups wanted to vote per estate but the Third Estate wanted to vote per representative. The denial of the privileged made leave the meating.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Tennis Court Oath was a promise to draft a constitution that reflected the wish of the majority of French people taken by representatives of the Third State, after leaving the Estates General meeting, at a tennis court in Versailles. It became one of the iconic scenes of the French Revolution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Violent attack against the absolutist monarchy, that took place in Paris on July 14, 1789. It marked the beginning of the French Revolution. It was led by citizens from the Third Estate that attacked and took control of the Bastille.This event inspired other French people to take up arms against the king and the nobility and the revolution spread.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Text written during the first phase of the French Revolution that recognised the rights, freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation. It consisted of 17 articles that became the basis of the First French constitution. It was legit by the National Constituent Assembly in August 1789.
  • Women`s March on Versailles

    Women`s March on Versailles
    On 5th October 1789, women in Paris, equipped with weapons and tools, marched to Versailles where the royal family lived. They protested against the poor of bread and demanded the king sign the decree. Their actions caused the king to abandon Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    French constitution approved by the National Constituent Assembly on september 1791. It was based on separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. It also introduced census suffrage. On 13th September Louis XVI accepted this constitution and a Constitutional monarchy was established.
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    Girondin Convention

    First phase of the Social Republic during which, the Girondins, the moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic. A new assembly, and Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed. During this period counter-revolutionary revolts and royalist plots took place.
  • War of the First Coallition

    War of the First Coallition
    Set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against France, to the French Revolution. The beginning of this War took place on 20th April 1792 when the Legislative Assembly declared war to Austria and Prusia.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Violent revolt led by common people (sans-culottes) against the Tuileries Palace, the official residence of Louis XVI and the home of the Legislative Assembly. They stormed the palace and imprisoned the royal family.
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    Social Republic

    Second phase of the French Revolution during which a republic was declared and the Reign of Terror was imposed. It began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with universal male suffrage and social laws. It was divided into two phases: The Girondin Convention and the Jacobin Convention.
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    Reign of Terror

    Period of violence imposed during the Jacobin convention that lasted almost a year in which freedoms were suspended and the opponents of the Jacobins were imprisoned or executed by guillotine.
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    Jacobin Convention

    Second phase of the Social Republic during which, Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie controlled the Republic. During this period a new Constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and social equality was approve, the Reign of Terror was imposed and social laws to satisfy were approved.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    After the storm of Tuileries Palace, Louis XVI was convicted of treason and executed by guillotine on January 1793, during the Girondine Convention of the Social Republic.
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    Conservative Republic

    Third phase of the French Revolution, led by the moderate bourgeoisie who implemented a new moderate liberalism. During this period, Jacobin laws were cancelled and a new Constitution was approve and the census suffrage was restored. Its Government, The Directory, was opposed by the aristocracy .
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    The Consulate

    A period between 1799 and 1804 of autocratic and authoritarian rule and the government of France during this period. It began when Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and ended when he was named emperor by the Pope.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Coup organised by general Napoleon in 1799 that ended the Conservative Republic and brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France. This event marks the end of the French Revolution. This occurred on 9 November 1799, was 18 Brumaire, second month under the French Republican Calendar.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    French national constitution adopted on 1799 that established the Consulate as form of government. It didn’t include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinion.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Imperial state created in France by Napoleon Bonaparte after being crowned Emperor in 1804. That coronation go to war with several states in Europe, who wanted to prevent French expansion. It ended when Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. During this period France controlled most of Europe.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    On May 18, 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor, and made his wife Josephine Empress. His coronation ceremony took place in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris, with incredible splendor and at considerable expense.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, The French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, was crowned king.
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    Luddite movement

    The Luddite movement started in England in the early 19th century. It consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment.
  • Congress of Viena and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Viena and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna was an i meeting held in the Austrian capital, by the powers that had defeated Napoleon, with the aim of restore absolutism and reshape the European map. The Congress of Vienna established the principles of the Restoration. The Holy Alliance Treaty was an agreement signed in 1815 that say the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Viena, to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore the absolutism.
    The ideological principles of the Restoration were the legitimacy of the abosolute monarch and the denial of national soveraignity.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Battle fought on 18 June 1815, near Waterloo, where the Napoleonic Imperial armies were defeated by Britain and Prussia armies. Napoleon abdicated and was sent into exile to the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821
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    Greek War od Independence

    In 1822, the Greeks declared independence from the Ottoman Empire, but isn´t recognised by the Turks, and resulted in the begining of a war. The European Liberals supported the Greeks because they wanted to help the region they considered the origin of European culture. In 1827, with the help of French and British armies the Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire. Greece declare the independence in 1830
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Unions of workers from the same field, appear after the repeal of laws prohibiting worker’s associations in 1824 in England.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Stephenson created the steam locomotive, which used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. This new transport system could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. The improvement boosted trade and helped create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Revolutions of 1830 were rebellions against the absolute monarchs , led by liberals and nationalists that took place in different parts of Europe between 1830 and 1832. They started in France with the July Revolution, when the king Charles X were in the crown. These rebellions had significant popular support.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the independence of Belgium from the Kingdom of Netherlands. By the Congress of Viena Belgium was part of The Kingdom of Netherlands, but the spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian Revolution, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy. An armed conflict. It ended when Netherlands recognised Belgium´ s independence in 1839.
  • Zollverein

    German customs union established in 1834 under Prussian lead. It created a free-trade area throughout much of Germany and is often seen as an interesting step in German reunification.
    Zollverein, (German: “Customs Union”)
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

     Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    In the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought together different types of woekers, and was founded in 1834. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Revolutions of 1848, were a wave of republican revolts against monarchies, beginning in Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. They all ended in fail and repression and were followed by disillusionment among liberals.
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    French Second Republic

    A short-lived republican government of France under President Napoleon that lasted between 1848 and 1852. During this period a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers were adopted.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer converter made it posible to manufacture steel (an alloy of iron and carbon). This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    Italian unification process, also known as the Risorgimento, was the 19th century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Peninsula into a single state, the Kingdom of Italy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II was proclaimed king of Italy. This process ended in1871, when Rome was officially the capital of the Kingdom.
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    German Unification process

    German unification procces that started after Wilhem I became king of Prussia and ended when in 1871 Wilhem I was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire . After being declared king, his chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark, Austria, and France. Prussia won three wars, making the unification of Germany into a nation-state possible.
  • First International

    First International
    First International of International Workingmen’s Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864. Ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and trade unions made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Das Kapital is a fundamental theoretical text in the philosophy, economics and politics of Karl Marx. Is a critical treatise on political economy; at the same time, it has also been read as a work of philosophy, as a treatise on economics, or as a political treatise on the relations of domination between the classes, on the one hand the proletarians and on the other the bourgeoisie.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to coordinate the various socialist parties. Established symbols of the labour movement such as "The Internationale" and the 1 May holiday.