Jeau de paume

María Gómez Troncoso_G&H_4ºC

  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    The mechanisation process started with the invention of John's flying shuttle in 1733. This made the speed to increase and it was possible to make bigger fabrics with it. The invention of the spinning jenny (1764) and spinning mule (1775) made the productivity to increase.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial revolution started in England in the middle of the 18th century. It was caused by numerous agricultural, demographic, technological and transport changes. And also the improvement of trade. New industries were created such as the textile one and mineral started to be used as raw material (steel). The consequences of the Industrial Revolution were the growth of population, the triumph of capitalism, the political, social and economical changes and the urbanisation.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    James Watt invented the steam machine in 1769 . This engine uses steam to create movement, that is transferred to machinery. The high pressure steam (boiled water) it's stored and will later be used to maintain the continuous movement. This invention had a huge impact on the industry and was used for almost everything: agriculture, mills, transport, industrial machinery...
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    Modern History

    This period of time began during mid-18th century and ended with the World War II. During this time, the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, and the Russian Revolution took place.
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    "The Wealth of Nations" was published in 1776 by Adam Smith. It's one of the firsts and most important documents of economics and economic liberalism. It is considered one of the most important works in economy.
    This book is about different systems of political economy, ideas about the natural order and economic theories. It also contains Adam's analysis of the economic prosperity of countries like the Netherlands and England.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom was invented by Edmund Cartwright and it was the last step of the mechanisation of the textile industry. Thanks to this invention the production of fabric was massively increased and the cost went down.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    The Estates-General were a consultive assembly divided in the three different states. On the 5th May of 1789, Louis XVI convened the assembly for fiscal enquiry. The third State stood up and demanded a vote per representative, but the privileged refused, which caused the Third State, two nobles and a hundred forty nine clergies to be thrown out.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The National Assembly had a lot of supporters in Paris, and decided to storm the Bastille. The revolution spread to the countryside, creating the Great Fear. Louis XVI was so frightened he finally accepted to let France become a parlamentary monarchy.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    As they were thrown out, these representatives runited in a tennis court on Versailles, proclaimed themselves the National Assembly and swore they wouldn't leave the tennis court until they drafted an declaration.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    This declaration abolished feudalism and granted rights for man, but not for woman.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a long period of time that was divided in three phases: Constitutional Monarchy, Social Republic and Conservative Republic.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    First phase of the revolution. The National Constituent Assembly was formed by moderate bourgeoisie who negotiated with the king and privileged classes about how to establish a parliamentary monarchy.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women marched, due to high prices of food, to Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    Approval of the first French Constitution. After this, it was formed a Legislative Assembly, which drafted new laws to implement liberalism:
    -Guilds were abolished
    -New armed forces to defend the revolution (National Guard)
    -End of the financial crisis by legal equality of social groups:
    1.Nobility forced to pay taxes
    2.Church gets their properties confiscated and sold and in July 1790 the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was approved.
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    Social Republic

    Second phase of the revolution.
    Betrayal by the king (flight to Varennes), invasion of Prussia and Austria (absolute monarchies).
    This increased the republican feeling among common people (sans-culottes).
    On 10 August 1792: stormed Tuileries Palace. Social republic ruled by:
    -Girondists(1792-93): moderate bourgeoisie.
    -Jacobins(1793-94): radical sector of the bourgeoisie.
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    Girondin Convention

    National Convention (new assembly elected by universal male suffrage). Execution of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoniette. Because of this:
    -Formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight revolutionaries
    -Counter-revolutionary in the countryside.
    -Royalists plots by privileged classes.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The Legislative Assembly declared war to Austria and Prussia, who were absolutists and wanted to stop the spread of liberal ideas. On september of 1792, the Austrian and Prussian armies reached Paris.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    On August 1792, the Third State stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family, declaring a republic in France.
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    Reign of Terror

    Led by Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety executed everyone that was suspected of not liking the Republic with the guillotine. A lot of innocent people died because of the Law of Suspects, with which people could be executed without any proof. Robespierre ended up beeing killed with the guillotine alongside 21 of his supporters.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The 1993 Constitution was republican, had popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and social equality. The executive power was the Committee of Public safety led by Robespierre.
    -Neutralization of enemies:
    1.Absolute monarchies invasion: mass levy.
    2.Counter-revolutionary revolts and plots: imposition of the Reign of Terror, executions under the Law of Suspects.
    -Social laws to satisfy sans-culottes:
    1.Law of the Maximum.
    2.Compulsory education.
    3.Sale of assets of the privileged.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The royal Family was caught trying to escape, so they were imprisoned. During the Girondin Convetion both the king and the queen were sentenced to the guillotine..
    Louis XVI was executed 21 January 1793, and Queen Marie Antoniette on 16 October 1793.
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    Conservative Republic

    On July 1794 a coup ended the dictatorial Jacobin government:
    Moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the 1795 Constitution:
    -Census suffrage
    -Executive power granted to the Directory (unstable due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people).
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    The Consulate

    Because of the unstable situation and due to the opposition of aristocracy and common people.
    Objectives: end of the political instability of the Revolution, consolidation of some of the revolutionary principles and economic recovery through a government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie.
    Economic reforms: reform of the finance sector, established a commercial code, creation of the bank of France.
    Other reforms: civil code, creation of a state school, Concordat with the church.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Due to the context of this crisis Napoleon Bonaparte organized a coup (Coup of 18 Brumaire) supported by a lot of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. French revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    New political system:
    -End of the separation of powers and declaration of rights.
    -Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
    -States organized in departments, which were run by prefects.
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    Enclousure Acts

    The open fields were used by small farmers who had to abandon them. These were plots of land to which the villagers had access, but didn't own. They were strips of lands disconnected from each other. It hadn't an actual economic fuction but survival. The new laws made the communal lands to become prvate and to connect each other. So land ownerships had huge plots of land where farmers had to work for them. This was how private property was started.
  • Napoleon crowned Emperor

    Napoleon crowned Emperor
    In 1804, the Napoleonic Consulate ended, as Napoleon was crowned by the Pope after conquering a large part of Europe.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803 Napoleon began his conquest of Europe, he was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804 and defeated most European monarchies because he had a large army and new military tactics.
    After Austerlitz French troops seemed unstoppable.
    In 1808, Spain was invadedand defeated.
    In 1811 the Napoleonic Empire controlled most Europe.
    The Fall of Napoleon:
    1808: Failure of his invasion of Russia.
    1812: Revolt in Spain.
    1815: Imperial defeat in Waterloo.
    1815: Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exile.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

     Treaty of Fontainebleau
    This treaty allowed the french to pass through Spain to invade Portugal, who was a Great Britain's ally. But the french troups decided to stay in Spain.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned King

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned King
    In 1808, Napoleon tricked the spanish by telling them he would only use Spain as a way to get to Portugal, but instead he invaded Spain. When he finally won, he named his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    After convincing Ferdinand to give him his crown, Napoleon made his brother Joseph Bonaparte king.
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    War of Independence

    This war was occured because the bad government of Ferdinand VII and his father Charles IV. Ferdinand was persuaded to abdicate in favour of Napoleon's brother, Josph. Spain was governed by a foreign king and the patriots didn't want this. They developed a system with the local Juntas and later on with the Central Supreme Juntas, who drafted the first Constitution in 1812.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    When Ferdinand VII became king, Napoleon persuaded him to give the Sapinch crown to his brother. Joseph I was supported by the afrancesados, who helped him proclaim the Statue of Bayonne (where he wrote measures to abolish the Ancien Régime).
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    Luddite Movement

    Because of the social movements created thanks to the Industrial Revolution there was a rise on Workers' associations. For example the Luddite movement. This was a group of different workers who protested on the early 19th century in England. They caused grate damage in machinery because they believed that was the reason for unemployement,.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    The Constitution of 1812 was drafted by the Supreme Juntas in the Cortes of Cadiz. This constitution defends national sovereignty, universal male suffrage and rights of press, property, inviolability of your house.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    This treaty was signed by France when they decided to stop fighting because they lost the war in December 1813. The crown was returned to Ferdinand VII.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was an agreement signed by Ferdinand VII (when he returned) and a group of absolutists. With it Ferdinand could repeal the Constitution and the reforms to abolish the Ancien Régime and the creation of a liberal system.This text was signed the 12th April of 1814.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand VII is divided in phases that go from liberalism to absolutism. At first he signed the Manifiesto de los Persas and repealed the 1812 Constitution. Then there were pronuciamentos. One of them was driven by Rafael del Diego, which was succesful. In the second phase (Liberal Triennium) the liberals had the power and created the National Militia. It ended when the Holly Alliance was signed. In the Ominous Decade his reign finished with a crisis and the Pragmatic Sanction.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Participated: Russia, France, Britain, Prussia, Austria.
    Organizer: Austrian Chancellor Metternich
    Objectives: Stop spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism.
    Principles of restoration:
    -Legitimacy absolute monarchs.
    -No national sovereignty. Balance of power.
    -Right of intervention.
    1. Holy Alliance Treaty (1815): absolute monarchs unite against any liberal revolution (Austria+Prussia+Russia). Change of Borders and political powers in Europe.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815 the Imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia, finally stopping Napoleon. He resigned shortly after this, and was exiled to Santa Helena.
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    The Restoration of Absolutism

    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia, Austria) reshaped European map to their advantage, not the people & their national aspirations. France returned to its borders in 1712 and the Napoleonic Empire was divided amongst the victors.
  • Pronunciamiento of Coronel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Coronel Rafael del Diego
    After three unsuccessful pronuciamentos finally one worked. It was led by the Coronel Rafael del Diego and it took place in Sevilla, the first of January 1820. Thanks to this pronuciamento a new phase in the reign of Ferdinand VII called the Liberal Triennium started.
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Ottoman empire imposed the Greeks taxes, they didn't have any representative on the State or administration jobs and they did not share a religion or culture.
    1822:they declare independence but it isn't recognized.
    1827:Greek victory thanks to the British and French support.
    1830:the Ottomans recognize their independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII wanted to take control of Spain again after the pronuciamento led by Coronel Rafael del Diego, so he appealed to the Holly Alliance Treaty. This was coalition of European monarchs, and they sent the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis. Absolutism was restored thanks to them.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    In England the workers had forbidden to create associations to reunite and try to improve their working conditions. This situation ended when the Combination Acts were abolished, which led to the formation of trade unions such as the Grand National Consolidated Union. This groups defended the rights of the proletariat.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    In France Charles X was overthrown and executed. Louis Phillipe I, the Citizen King replaced him, and replaced absolutism by a liberal political system governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power.
    In Poland in 1831 a revolt broke out against the autocratic Russsian rule but was suppressed, so they came back to absolutism.
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    The Age of the Revolutions

    C. Vienna didn't respect liberal principles or nationalist aspirations, there were two opposition forces: liberalism and nationalism.
    This movement began in France and spread all over Europe:
    - Successful: absolustism replaced by a liberal political system governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power (France: Charles X substituted by Louis Philippe(Citizen King)).
    - Unsuccessful: back to absolutism (in 1831 a revolt broke out in poland but was suppressed).
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    The Belgian Revolution

    1815: C.Vienna decides to create the Kingdom of the
    Netherlands which was formed by the Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist) and Belgium (liberal and catholic).
    - 1830-1839: armed conflict after Belgium declares independence.
    - 1839: recognition of independence. Liberal monarchy by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    Started in the Basque Country. The liberals (led by General Espartero) and the carlists (led by the commander Zamalacárregui), were the ones fighting. The carlists lost and peace was signed in 1839 in the Convetion of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    Isabella II started to reign in 1833 when she was three years old but until she was therteen years old she wasn't proclaimed queen until she was thirteen. Until then, there were different regents like her mother Maria Christina and General Espartero. Her reigns is divided in five parts: The regency of Maria Christina, The regency of General Espartero, the Moderate Decade, the Liberal Biennium and The system in crisis.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trade Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trade Union
    The Industrial Revolution had several consequences such as social movements, which led to the formation of trade unions. A good example of this is the Grand National Consolidated Trade Union. It was founded in 1834 and it's goals were to improve wages, regulate child labour, reduce the working hours and to defend the right of association.
  • Zollverein

    In 1834, Prussia created a customs union, Zollverein.
  • Constitution of 1837

    Constitution of 1837
    During the government of Mendizábal a new constitution was drafted. I wanted to abolish the Ancien Régime. This constitution implemented various rights and individual freedoms, it established two chambers, separation of powers and national sovereignty with census suffrage. However, this constitution didn't last a lot due to the conflict between moderates and progressives.
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    This was a moderate constitution drafted in 1845 by the Cortes (led by General Narváez). In it, ther is highly restricted suffrage, limited civil liberties and the sovereignty was shared between the Crown and the Cortes. This constitution was followed by other changes like the implementation of the first penal code and the national education system.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Austrian empire:
    Vienna: revolt based on liberal principles, Chancellor Metternich forced to resign. Nationalistic uprisings in Hungary, Bohemia, Northern Italy and the German Confederation.
    Second republic (popular uprising proclaimed it). Democratic measures: universal male suffrage, press freedom, no death penalty, rights for workers.
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    French Second Republic

    Second republic (popular uprising proclaimed it). Democratic measures: universal male suffrage, press freedom, no death penalty, rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer Converter

    Invention of the Bessemer Converter
    Thanks to a rise on the demand of iron on the 18th century the iron industry improved. This led to new techniques such as puddling and rolling, a new fuel (coke) and finally steel. Which became possible to manufacture in 1856 with the Bessemer converter.
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    Italian Unification Process

    Divided in several states.
    C.Vienna decided to annex Austria to Lombardy-Venetia.
    - 1859: Kingdom of Piedmont (liberal monarchy of Savoy). Cavour, the Prime Minister, started unification. Declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. This was lead by Garibaldi.
    - 1861:Victor Manuel I of Savoy, king of Italy.
    - 1866: Austria left Venetia.
    - 1870:Papal states annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification Process

    Divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    - 1834: Prussia created a customs union.
    - 1848: first freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia who didn't want it.
    - 1861: new political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto Von Bismarck, declare and won war to:
    1871: proclaim of the Second German Empire (Reich) with Wilhelm I as kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    As said, the Industrial Revolution led to different social movements as workers associations. In 1864 Karl Marx started an initiative and created the International Workingmen's Association, which caused anarchists, marxists and trade unions to join. But it split in 1876 because of ideological differences.
  • Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"

    Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"
    Marx was a philosopher who started the idea of the marxism. This political thought opposed to privete property, denounced the oppresion of workers and wanted to put an end to capitalism. It also proposed other economical and social models to replace it. In 1867 he publishe the book "Das Kapital" as a critique of political economy. It also explained the philosofy of Marx, as well as his political and economical point of view.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    The Constitution of 1869 established a parliamentary monarchy, which meant Spain needed a monarch. The government chosed Amadeo of Savoy, who was an italian. He was supported by the progressives, the unionists and the democrats. The monarchy didn't start well because just before arriving his biggest supporter, General Prim, was assasinated. Amadeo abdicated after a lot of problems, specially the the revolution in Cuba.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    After the abdication of Amadeo of Savoy the Cortes voted to form a a republic,although nearly all the deputies were monarchists. The lower classes were happy with this change, however the monarchists didn't approve this type of government. There were four presidents: Figuras, Pi y Margall, Salmerón and Castelar. There were a lot of problems during the republic, like the different ideologies or the independization of spanish colonies.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    Alfonso XII became king when General Martínez Campos proclaimed him. Be cause of this the Canovist System by Cánovas was implemented. This system aimed to pacificate Spain and it was based on the alternation of power of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. The Constitution of 1876 was drafted to support this alternation. This system worked thanks to electoral fraud (caciquismo).
  • Second International

    Second International
    After the First International split in 1967, the Second International was created in 1889 by the marxists, who cooardinated with other social parties. It created some symbols like "The Internationale" and the first May holiday (International Workers' Day).
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    Contemporary History

    From the end of World War II until todat. Some events are the Cold War; the democratisation of much of Europe, Africa, and Latin America; and a global pandemic.