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"Daniel Bouzas González_G&H_4ºC"

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Modern Age is the third of the historical periods into which world history is conventionally divided, between the 15th and 18th centuries. Chronologically, it houses a period whose beginning can be set in the fall of Constantinople (1453) or the discovery of America (1492), and whose end can be placed in the French Revolution (1789) or at the end of the previous decade, after the independence of the United States (1776).
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    Flying shuttle was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. It was invented by John Kay in 1733 and represented an important step toward automatic weaving. Using the flying shuttle, one weaver could weave fabrics of any width more quickly. The large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle, but the Kay's flying shuttle was able to do the work of two people—and more quickly.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution is the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world. The main features involved in the Industrial Revolution were technological, socioeconomic, and cultural.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were essentially the abolition of the open field system of agriculture. The ownership of all common land, and waste land, that farmers and Lords had, was taken from them. New fields were designed, and the land was re-allocated to different farmers and Lords. This process was agreed upon through informal agreement but Parliament took over during the 18th century.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer. He was given a model of the first working steam engine to repair. He realised that it was inefficient and improve the design. He designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented enormous losses of steam. This avoided the need to waste energy and radically improved the power, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of steam engines. His first patent is from 1769.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith wrote "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", commonly referred to simply as "The Wealth of Nations" to describe the industrialized capitalist system that was upending the mercantilist system. It was the first great work in political economy, an inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The book touches topics as the division of labour, productivity, and free markets. https://www.adamsmith.org/the-wealth-of-nations
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The first power loom was developed by Edmund Cartwright in 1784 and completed in 1785. A loom is a device that is used to weave together threads in order to produce a fabric. Traditional handlooms were slow and required several laborers to operate. Cartwright’s invention of the power loom was significant because it used mechanization to automate much of the weaving process and the textile production increased.
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    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary Age is the name that designates the historical period between the Declaration of Independence of the United States (1776) or the French Revolution (1789), and today.
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    French Revolution

    It's a revolution that began in France, in May 1789, when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. Its causes were a social crisis developed by the Third Estate and an economic and financial crisis (poor harvest, new taxes...). Their consequences were the construction of a society based on respect for fundamental and basic human rights and on the principle that all citizens had the same rights and should choose representatives to govern their nation.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a constitution. To do this, in France, the National Constituent Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen; drew up a constitution based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty, legal equality, and census suffrage, though the king reserved the right of veto, and formed a Legislative Assembly.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    Estates-General was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (300 members), nobility (300), and the Third Estate (600). It convened by Louis XVI in Versailles in May 1789 to approve tax reform, but the Third Estate representatives decided to leave the meeting when the privileged classes refused to allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate rather than one per representative.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Tennis Court Oath (in French, Serment du Jeu de Paume) was a commitment to a national constitution and representative government, taken by the representatives of the Third Estate in Versailles. They proclaimed themselves the National Assembly and pledged to draft a constitution that reflected the will of the majority of French people.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and, on July 14, they stormed and dismantled the Bastille, a royal fortress and prison that had come to symbolize the tyranny of the Bourbon monarchs. This action signaled the beginning of the French Revolution.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    On 26 August 1789, the French National Constituent Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen which defined individual and collective rights at the time of the French Revolution.
    Inspired by the declaration of American independence of 1776 and the philosophical spirit of the 18th century, marks the end of the Ancien Régime and the beginning of a new era.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Morning 5/10/1789: a large group of women in a Paris marketplace began to revolt. They wanted to buy bread for their families. They began to march through Paris demanding bread at a fair price. As they marched, more people joined the group and soon there were thousands of marchers. The crowd ransacked the city armory for weapons and marched to the Palace of Versailles. They besieged the palace and compelled the king to return with them to Paris. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i85SXP0QwA8
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    The Constitution of 1791 was drafted by the National Constituent Assembly and passed in September 1791. It was France’s first attempt at a written national constitution. It preserved the monarchy who reserved the right of veto but approved the separation of powers, national sovereignty, and legal equality. It also introduced census suffrage, giving the vote to people with a certain level of wealth.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    This was part of the struggle which followed the French revolutionary wars, between 1792-1797, with the great dynastic powers of Europe trying to reverse the outcome of the revolution and restore the French monarchy. The forces of the First Coalition were Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia, and the Netherlands. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsqVX9NgR-I
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution, when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace. The conflict led France to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic.
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    Social Republic

    Social Republic was the second phase of the French Revolution. It started with the betrayal by the king and the military invasión of Prussia and Austria. This increased republican feelings among "common people" (sans-culottes). On 10 August 1792, they stormed Tuileries Palaces and imprisoned the royal family, declaring a Republic in France, ruled by Girondins (1792-1793) and Jacobins (1793-1794).
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    Girondin Convention

    It's the first period of the history of the Nationale Convention (a new assembly elected by universal male suffrage) during the social republic, controlled by the Girondins, the more moderate bourgeoisie. They executed Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.
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    Reign of Terror

    The Reign of Terror was a period of the French Revolution when, during the Jacobin Convention, a series of numerous public executions, under the Law of Suspects, took place in response to revolutionary fervour, anticlerical sentiment, and spurious accusations of treason by the Committee of Public Safety.
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    Jacobin Convention

    Second period of the National Convention when the Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, seized power. It's the most extreme phase of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety, leader by Robespierre, had the executive power and enacted a new constitution.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI had failed to address France's financial problems. In 1792, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed the First French Republic. That November, proof of Louis XVI's secret dealings and counter-revolutionary intrigues was discovered, and he and his family were charged with treason. Louis was soon found guilty by the National Assembly and condemned to death. He was guillotined in the Place de la Révolution on January 21, 1793. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWWl2H2CwXc
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    Conservative Republic

    The third and final phase of the French Revolution. A coup ended the dictatorial Jacobin government. The moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the Constitution of 1795 that granted executive power to a collegial government, known as the Directory, and restored census suffrage.
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    The Consulate

    The Consulate was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule in France lead by the general Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and aspired to put an end to the political instability of the French Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18 Brumaire

    Coup of 18 Brumaire
    The coup of 18 Brumaire, (November 9, 1799) was the coup d’état that overthrew the system of government under the Directory in France and substituted the Consulate, making way for the despotism of Napoleon Bonaparte. The event is often viewed as the effective end of the French Revolution. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3EzMtRcLCw
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    French constitution established after the Coup of 18 Brumaire, during the French Revolution. It created the regime known as the Consulate, which concentrated all real power in the hands of Napoleon. The new political system didn't include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured. The state was organized into departments that were run by prefects.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    The period from the coronation of Napoleon as emperor by the Pope in 1804, until his abdication in 1815. In this period, Napoleon carried out his conquest of Europe from Germany to Spain.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    On December 2, 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed himself Emperor of France in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. He was crowned by the Pope. He defeated most European monarchies (Russia, Austria, Naples...) and controlled most of Europe.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    In 1806, Napoleon decreed the so-called Continental Blockade, which prohibited trading with England. But Portugal (ally of British) refused to comply with the order. Napoleon decided to invade Portugal. The treaty of Fontainebleau between Napoleon and Godoy allowed French troops to pass trough Spain to invade Portugal. It was the trigger for the French invasion of Spain.
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    War of independence

    Popular uprising against French. It began in Madrid and spread across the country... Some liberals accepted Joseph I (afrancesados) and his Statute of Bayonne, that introduced measures to abolish Ancien Régime, but the majority of the population (patriots) composed their own government (Juntas and Cortes) and fought against the invasion with the help of British troops. It ended with the Treaty of Valençay.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal, French Emperor Napoleon invaded Spain. Thus began the Peninsular War, an important phase of the Napoleonic Wars. French forces forced King Charles IV to abdicate. In early May, Madrid revolted, and on June 15 Napoleon’s brother, Joseph, was proclaimed the new king of Spain, leading to a general anti-French revolt across the Iberian Peninsula. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jowIsBU0Yg
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Bayonne abdications took place on May 7, 1808 at the Marracq castle in the French city of Bayonne. It is the name by which the successive resignations of the kings Carlos IV and that of his son Fernando VII to the throne of Spain in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte are known. The French emperor, shortly after, ceded such rights to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who reigned under the name of Joseph I.
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    Luddite movement (c. 1811-1817)

    Luddism was a movement of British weavers and textile workers, active in the early 19th century, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and which was notable for the destruction of machines as a form of protest. The first riot was in Manchester. The textile workers rebelled against the introduction of machinery which threatened their skilled craft. This was the first of many Luddite riots to take place.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    During the war of indenpendence, the Central Junta decided to convene Cortes. The representatives of every provincial Junta met in Cádiz (a city not occupied by the French) and approved reforms to abolish the Ancien Régime. They drafted the first Spanish Constitution, La Pepa, establishing separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The Treaty of Valençay was signed between the French Empire and the Spanish Crown on 11 December 1813. The agreement provided for the restoration of Ferdinand VII as King of Spain, who had been imprisoned in France, in the Château de Valençay, since his abdication in 1808. The French troops withdrew from Spain and it was the end of the war of independence.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Meeting of the Great Powers in 1814-1815 organized by Austrian Chancellor Metternich whose objectives were to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe. It established the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs, the denial of national sovereignty, the balance of power between the victors, and the right of intervention. Its consequence was the Holy Alliance Treaty that stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    Iits authorship is collective and was signed by some 69 royalist deputies. Throughout different articles, the document tries to justify the rejection of liberalism and the return to an absolutist regime. With their support, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms of the Cádiz Cortes Liberals, who hoped for a constitutional monarchy, were persecuted.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    In 1814 French troops withdrew from Spain and Ferdinand VII, the Desired, returned to Spain and re-established an absolutist monarchy. However, the spread of liberal ideas during the War of Independence made the restoration of absolutism difficult. As a result of the struggle between liberals and absolutists, there were different phases during his reign: Six years of absolutism 1814-20; Liberal Triennium 1820-23; Ominous Decade 1823-33.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna. They wanted to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe. They established the ideological principles of the Restoration, such as the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national sovereignty.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo was Napoleon’s final defeat, ending 23 years of recurrent warfare between France and the other powers of Europe. It was fought during the Hundred Days of Napoleon’s restoration, 3 miles (5 km) south of Waterloo village, between Napoleon’s 72,000 troops and the combined forces of the Duke of Wellington’s allied army of 68,000 (with British, Dutch, Belgian, and German units) and about 45,000 Prussians. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDZGL1xsqzs
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the liberals were persecuted. Some of them tried unsuccessful liberal pronunciamientos against the king, but the pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Diego in Sevilla, was successful: the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812 and the National Militia, made up of armed liberal volunteers, was created to defend the liberal regime.
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Greek War of Independence was the armed conflict produced by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the rule of the Ottoman Empire and the late assistance of various European powers such as the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of France, and the United Kingdom. Greece gained its independence in 1830. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puF4zv-XxM0
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    After the pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego, Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Alliance (Russia, Prussia and Austria) to sent troops to defend the absolutism in Spain: in 1823 the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored absolutism. Spain returned to an absolutist regime, but the political and economical crisis led to the final breakdown of the system.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Combination Acts were British acts of 1799 and 1800 that made trade unionism illegal. They were directed against trade unions when the government feared unrest and even revolution. They failed to crush the unions, but did force them to operate secretly. Their repeal in 1824, after a campaign master‐minded by Place and presented by Joseph Hume, was followed by a number of strikes, and in 1825 an unsuccessful attempt was made to reimpose the acts.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    Stephenson's Rocket was an early steam locomotive of 0-2-2 wheel arrangement. It won the Rainhill Trials of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, held in 1829 and show that improved locomotives was more efficient than stationary steam engines.
    Though it was not the first steam locomotive, it was the most advanced locomotive of its day. It became the template for most steam engines in the following 150 years. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR4OVtjE3JU
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles of the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples. So, two main opposition forces (liberalism and nationalism) appeared. The insurrections began in France and spread all over Europe, with significant popular support. In some places, they were successful and absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems (France); and in others, they were not (Poland). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUyYLL1BfYc
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The Belgian Revolution was the conflict that led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium. Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZKwR0I2Iakw
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    The Age of the revolutions

    In 1830 began a revolutionary wave in Europe. It included two "romantic nationalist" revolutions, the Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the July Revolution in France along with revolutions in Congress Poland, Italian states, Portugal, and Switzerland. It was followed eighteen years later, by another and much stronger wave of revolutions known as the Revolutions of 1848. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nInyWh6F0Fc
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    First Carlist War

    Civil war (1833 - 1839) between absolutists, that refused to recognise three-year-old daughter of Ferdinand VII, Isabella, as their king when he died in 1833, and the Carlists, that backed Infante Carlos.
    This first Carlist War began in the Basque Country lead by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara. Isabella won this war.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    ISABELLA II, daughter of Ferdinand VII, built a liberal state from 1833 to 1868. Her reign had different phases:
    Regency of Maria Christina (1833 - 40)
    Regency of Espartero (1840 - 43)
    The Moderate Decade (1843 – 54)
    The Progressive Biennium (1854 - 1856)
    The system in decline (1856 – 68)
  • Zollverein

    The Customs Union of the States of Germany (in German: Zollverein) was a customs organization made in 1834 by means of which tariffs were abolished among the members of the German Confederation, with the exception of Austria.
    The Customs Union promoted the customs tariff unit in a process of economic unification that Austria was unable to prevent.
    It functioned until 1871 when after the Franco-Prussian War the German Empire was constituted which assumed powers in commercial matters.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union of 1834 was an early attempt to form a national union confederation in the United Kingdom. It founded by delegates of societies nation-wide in response to calls of Derby artisans and labourers ‘locked out’ for belonging to ‘combinations’. Robert Owen became president after the trial of the Tolpuddle martyrs in March. https://www.robertowenmuseum.co.uk/
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    In 1837, moderate liberals and their conservative policies took control of the government. Maria Christina was forced to step down and the General Espartero was appointed regent. They drafted the Constitution of 1837 (progressive) that established the National sovereignty with census suffrage; the separation of powers; two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate, and granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    Moderate Liberal Party led by General Narváez remained in power during almost the entire reign of Isabella II. Its representatives drafted the Constitution of 1845 (moderate) that established a highly restricted suffrage and the sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown. The civil liberties were restricted. They also realised the reorganisation of State and municipal administration. https://bvpb.mcu.es/es/consulta/registro.do? control=CCPB000115246-7
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    French Second Republic

    The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France under President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. It lasted from the 1848 Revolution to the 1851 coup by which the president made himself Emperor Napoleon III and initiated the Second Empire. This Republic established universal male suffrage, press freedom, the abolition of the death penalty, and the recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France. They all ended in failure and repression and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    Henry Bessemer developed the first process for manufacturing steel inexpensively (1856), leading to the development of the Bessemer converter. This egg-shaped converter converted iron into steel, and removed most of the impurities without extra fuel was required.
    The first converters could make seven tonnes of steel in half an hour.
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    Italian Unification process

    Italian unification was the 19th century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state, the Kingdom of Italy. Inspired by the rebellions in the 1820s and 1830s against the outcome of the Congress of Vienna, the unification process was precipitated by the revolutions of 1848, and reached completion in 1871, when Rome was officially designated the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.
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    German Unification process

    In the 1860s, Otto von Bismarck, then Minister President of Prussia, provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark, Austria, and France, aligning the smaller German states behind Prussia in its defeat of France. In 1871 he unified Germany into a nation-state, forming the German Empire. Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser of the second German Empire. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mz9Cy0xUH0E
  • First International (International Working Men’s Association)

    First International (International Working Men’s Association)
    First International was workers’ groups with different ideologies that had a considerable influence as a unifying force for labour in Europe during the latter part of the 19th century.
    It was founded at a mass meeting in London in 1864. Its founders were among the most powerful British and French trade-union leaders of the time. Karl Marx had no part in organizing the meeting, but assumed its leadership. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CdzwTds6AOk
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Published in 1867 by German philosopher Karl Marx, Das Kapital is a description of how the capitalist system works and how it will destroy itself. His studiy is part history, part economics and part sociology. Marx set out his ideas on class struggle: how the workers of the world would seize power from the ruling elites because an economic system based on private profit is inherently unstable, an unsustainable way to organise society. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSQgCy_iIcc
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy (1870-73)

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy (1870-73)
    The Revolution of 1868 was triggered by progressives and democrats, joined by unionist. Revolutionary Juntas were formed all over the country. After the Battle of Alcolea, the Queen Isabella II and her heir Alfonso XII went into exile. A provisional government was formed to establish a democratic political system. Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic (1873-74)

    Proclamation of the First Republic (1873-74)
    During the reign of Amadeo I there were many conflicts, and in 1873 Amadeo I abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchist. Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans prepared a programme of social and economic reforms. 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans, but after other many conflicts, in 1874, a coup dissolved the Cortes.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    In 1874 the General Martínez Campos proclaimed Isabella’s II son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain and occurred the Bourbon Restoration. The Canovist System (political system created by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo) allowed political parties to alternate in power and promised political and social stability. Its objective was the pacification of Spain. They drafted the Constitution of 1876 (moderate).
  • Second International (or Socialist International)

    Second International (or Socialist International)
    It was a federation of socialist parties and trade unions that greatly influenced the ideology, policy, and methods of the European labour movement from the last decade of the 19th century to the beginning of World War I.
    The Second International was founded at a congress in Paris in 1889. Unlike the First International, it was based on the membership of national parties and trade unions only. https://www.marxists.org/history/international/social-democracy/index.htm