French Revolution and Napoleon

  • Constitution of the United States of America

    Constitution of the United States of America
    Defended the inalienable rights of the citizen, the separation of powers, equality, freedom and the right of vote.
  • Financial and economic crisis

    Financial and economic crisis
    Economic crisis: poor harvest, rise in the prise of food.
    Financial crisis: monarchy's lack of money.
    This generated a spirit of rebellion among the people.
  • Estates-General in Versailles

    Estates-General in Versailles
    Representatives of the nobility, clergy and the Third Estate. The Third Estate decided to leave the meeting when the privileged classes refused to allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate.
  • National Constituent Assembly

    The moderate bourgeoisie tried to reach an agreement with the king anda the privileged classes to make France a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy.
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    The Constitutional Monarchy

    The first phase of the French revolution.
  • National Assembly (Jeu de Paume)

    National Assembly (Jeu de Paume)
    The Third Estate met in a pavilion in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly. They pledged to draft a constitution.
  • Storm of the Bastille

    Storm of the Bastille
    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and they stormed the Bastille.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
    Recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Legislative Assembly

    Legislative Assembly
    This drafted new laws to implement liberalism, forced the nobility to pay taxes and abolished the guilds. And created a new army, the National Guard.
  • Austrian invation

    Austrian invation
    The Austrian Army invaded France and Louis XVI fled Paris, but he was arrested.
  • Constitution of 1791

    Constitution of 1791
    National Constituent Assembly drew up a constitution based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality. Census suffrage was created, giving the vote to people with a certain level of wealth.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
    Olympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen and defended the legal recognition of divorce.
  • Austrian Army entered France

    Austrian Army entered France
    Austrian army reached Paris.
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    The Girondin Convention

    The first phase of the Social Republic. The more moderate bourgeoisie created a new assembly, the National Convention was elected by universal male suffrage. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed and absolutist coalition.
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    The Social Republic

    The second phase of the Revolution. The betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt by the common people (sans-culottes). A republic was declared and the royal family was imprisoned.
  • Jacobins

    The Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, seized power.
  • Social laws

    Social laws
    Social laws were introduced. Prices and salaries were controlled, Law of the Maximum. Church lands were sold and education became compulsory.
  • Women's Clubs

    Women's Clubs
    Women also founded their own clubs in which the Assembly decrees were read and discussed. Criticisms and proposals were presented and funds were collected for fellow patriots in need. The National Convention banned women's clubs.
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    The Jacobin Convention

    The second phase of the Social Republic.
  • Committee of Public Safety

    Committee of Public Safety
    The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety, which gave power to the Jacobin leader Robespierre.
  • New Constitution of 1793

    New Constitution of 1793
    This recognised popular sovereignty and the right to social equality was enacted.
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    To stop conspirators, the Reign of Terror was imposed. Freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were either imprisoned or executed by guillotine, Law of Suspects.
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    The Conservative Republic: The Directory

    The third and final phase of the Revolution. The moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution.
  • Robespierre

    Robespierre and other Jacobin leaders were executed by guillotine, and a coup in July 1794 ended the Jacobin government.
  • New Constitution of 1795

    New Constitution of 1795
    Granted executive power to a collegial government, known as the Directory, and restored Census suffrage. The Directory was permanently unstable because it faced opposition from the aristocracy.
  • Consulate's rule began

    Consulate's rule began
    This was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule. Napoleon aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery. Represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon's coup d'état was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie. His aim was to implement the more moderate ideologies that had inspired the French Revolution in 1789.
  • Napoleon's coup d'étàt

    Napoleon's coup d'étàt
    In this context of crisis and war against the absolutist powers, general Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup in 1799 that ended the Directory.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    The new political system did not include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. His large Army and the use of new military tactics enabled him to defeated most European monarchies.
  • Austerlitz Battle

    Austerlitz Battle
    After France's victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz, the French troops seemed unstoppable.
  • Joseph Bonaparte

    Joseph Bonaparte
    The French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte one of the emperor's brothers, was made king.
  • Napoleonic Empire's zenith

    Napoleonic Empire's zenith
    The Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe.