Foto de la revolucuión francesa

Alejandro Rey_G&H_4ºF

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    Modern History

    Refers to the history of the world since the advent of the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    Flying shuttle, Machine that represented an important step toward automatic weaving. It was invented by John Kay in 1733. In previous looms, the shuttle was thrown, or passed, through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them.
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    First Industrial evolution

    Increase in food production and population, new machinery (ex: steam engine) and energy sources (ex: coal), the railway and the creation of a large domestic market and new systems for financing companies and facilitating payments.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Steam engines use the power from steam to generate continous movement, which is transferred to machinery.
    -Water is heated in a boiler burning coal.
    -The front end of the camber contains a cylinder with a piston.
    -A crankshaft and connecting rod system converts the piston's circular motion into reciprocating motion. Applications:
    -Industrial machinery:
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential book on market economics ever written. ... In 1759, Smith published The Theory of Moral Sentiments. His book looked at human nature and ethics. At the beginning of the book, he stated that all people had the capacity to care about others.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The first power loom was designed in 1787 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1787. It was refined over the next 47 years until a design by Kenworthy and Bullough made the operation completely automatic. By the year 1850, there were 260,000 power looms in operation in England.
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    French Revolution

    It was a social and political conflict, with sundry periods of violence, that convulsed France and, by extension of its implications, other nations of Europe that faced supporters and opponents of the system known as the Ancien Regime. It began with the self-proclamation of the Third Estate as the National Assembly in 1789 and ended with the coup of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The causes was Cultural, Political, Social and Economical.
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    Contemporary History

    The Era in which we are nowadays. It starts with the French Revolution.
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    French Revolution

    It was a social and political conflict, with various periods of violence, that convulsed France and, by extension of its implications, other nations of Europe that faced supporters and opponents of the system known as the Old Regime. It began with the self-proclamation of the Third Estate as a National Assembly in 1789 and ended with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in 1799.
  • Estates- General meeting

    Estates- General meeting
    The Estates-General were convened by Louis XVI in Versailles in 1789 in order to approve tax reform. The meeting was made up of representatives of the nobility, clergy and the Third Estate. The first two groups wanted to vote per estate, while the Third Estate demanded one vote per representative. When privileged classes refused, the Third Estate representatives decided to leave the meeting to met in a pavilion in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of National Assembly)
    The Tennis Court Oath was a pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789, and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and, on July 14, they stormed the Bastille, which was used as a prison and was a symbol of the king's absolute power.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    On 26 August 1789, the French National Constituent Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • Coup of 18 Brumaire

    Coup of 18 Brumaire
    In 1799, Napoleon organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. This coup ended the French Revolution.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The National Assembly drew up a constitution in 1791 based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. Census suffrage was also introduced, giving the vote to people with a certain level of wealth.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    On 3 September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced king Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy.
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    Social Republic

    The middle classes led a revolt by storming Tuileries palace and imprisoning the royal family. This provoked the declaration of a republic and the final of the first phase of the Revolution.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The War of the First Coalition is a set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it. They were only loosely allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement; each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    During the Social Republic, republican feelings increased among common people. The sans-culottes stormed the Tuileries Palace in August 1792 and imprisoned the royal family, declaring a republic in France.
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    Jacobin Convention

    In June 1793, the Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized powers. A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and the right to social equality was enacted. The Jacobin Convention was led by Robespierre, who was executed by guillotine with other Jacobin leaders in July 1794
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In 1793, Louis XVI was convicted of treason and executed by guillotine.
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    Reing of Terror

    The Reign of Terror was a period of the Jacobin Convention in which, in order to stop conspirators, freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were either imprisoned or executed.
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    Conservative Republic

    The Conservative Republic was the third phase of the French Revolution. The moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution. A new Constitution granted executive power to a collegial government, known as the Directory, and restored census suffrage. This phase ended with a coup organised by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799.
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    The Consulate

    n 1799, Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate's rule began. This was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule. Napoleon aspired to put and end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Constitution 1800

    Constitution 1800
    The Constitution of the new political system that was enacted in 1800 did not include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinions.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. His large army and the use of new military tactics enabled him to defeat most European monarchies.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803, and in 1804 he was crowned emperor by the Pope with the purpose of founding a new monarchy and consolidating power.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    After Manuel Godoy, Charles IV's prime minister, allied with the French against Britain, this treaty allowed the French troops to pass through Spain towards Portugal, an ally of the British.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned emperor

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned emperor
    In 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    They took place after the Mutiny of Aranjuez, when Ferdinand VII conspired against his father and became king. In these abdications, Napoleon convinced the Bourbons to hand over the crown of Spain to his brother, Joseph I. The new king instaured liberal measures and was defended by the afrancesados, but the patriots were against him and formed Juntas and the Cortes.
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    War of Independence

    This war started with the popular uprising in Madrid the 2nd of May of 1808. The firt phase of the war was the popular resistance, which consisted in guerrilla warfared made by irregular troops (they stopped the French's advance southwards at the Battle of Bailén). The socond phase was the French offensive, between 1808 and 1812, when Napoleon commanded an army and several cities were besieged. It ended with the Anglo-Spanish victories (Battle of Los Arapiles) and the Treaty of Valençay (1813).
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    Luddite movement

    First workers to protest in England (early C.19th)
    Violent destruction of machinery (responsible
    for low wages and unemployment).
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    This constitution was drafted by the Cádiz Cortes, which were made up of representatives of every provincial Junta (who were mainly liberal). It established a separation of powers, national sovereingty, broad individual freedoms and universal male suffrage. It was also called "La Pepa" because it was approved the 19th of March, the day of St. Joseph. Although it was approved in 1808, it didn't come fully into effect because of the wars.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    In this treaty, which took place after the Spanish and British victory over the French at the Battle of Los Arapiles, the French troops retreated form Spain and the crown was handed back to Ferdinand VII "The Desired".
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The powers that defeated Napoleon met in the Congress of Vienna. Its objectives were to stop the spread of liberal ideas and to restore absolutism in Europe.
    The principles of the Restoration were:
    - Legitimacy of the absolute monarchs
    - Denial of national sovereignty
    - Balance of power
    - Right of intervention
    In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand is divided in three phases: the Six Years of Absolutism (1814-1820, the 1812 Constitution was repealed, liberals were persecuted), the Liberal Trienium (1820-1823, the constitution was reinstated, the National Militia was created) and the Ominous Decade (1823-1833, Spain was bankrupt, a giscal reform was proposed, Isabella II was born and Ferdinand VII issued the Pragmatic Sanction to repeal the Salic Law).
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was a manifest written by the defnders of absolutism, defending the return th the throne of Ferdinand VII after the reign of Joseph Bonaparte.
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    The Restoration of Absolutism

    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage, but without considering the peoples and their nationalist aspirations.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815, the imperial armies were finally defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. Napoleon abdicated after the defeat and was sent into exile on the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    This pronunciamiento was made by Colonel Rafael del Diego in Sevilla and marked the end of the Six Years of Absolutism and the start of the Liberal Triennium.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries. The Greeks felt excluded, so in 1822 they declared independence in Epidaurus, but it wasn't recognised by the Turks, so a war started.
  • Holy Alliance Intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis

    Holy Alliance Intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis
    During Liberal Triennium (1820-1823), Ferdinand the VII asked the other European absolutist monarchies for help to stop the liberal governnment. The Holy Alliance sent the Hundred Thousand Sons of St Louis, commmanded by the Duke of Angoulême, who defeated the liberals, restored absolutism in Spain and ended the Liberal Triennium.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Stephenson's Rocket was one of the first steam locomotives with a 0-2-2 wheel arrangement. Although the "Rocket" was not the first steam locomotive, it was the first to bring together several innovations, becoming the most advanced of its time. It is the most famous example of the evolution of Stephenson's locomotive design, and it became the benchmark for most steam engines for the next 150 years.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples, and liberalism and nationalism appeared as two opposition forces, making a movement begin.
    It started in France and absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power.
    Charles X (absolute monarch) was overthrown and substituted by the constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the congress of Vienna in 1815, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    From 1830 to 1839, and armed conflict followed Belgium's declaration of independence, which was recognised by the Netherlands in 1839, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    Isabel II of Spain, called "the one of the Sad Fates" or "Queen Castiza" was Queen of Spain between 1833 and 1868, thanks to the repeal of the 1713 Succession Regulation through the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830. This it provoked the insurgency of the infant Carlos María Isidro, brother of Fernando VII and uncle of Isabel II, who, supported by the absolutist groups (the so-called "Carlists") had already tried to proclaim himself king during Fernando's death throes.
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    First Carlist War

    This war started with the death of Fedindand VII. His daoughter Isabella II was only three years old, so her mother Maria Cristina became the regent. However, some absolutist (Carlists) were in favour of Ferdinand's brother Carlos. The church, priviledged classes and the rural areas supported Carlos, while the bourgeoisie and the big cities supported Isabella. The Carlists and the Isabelinos fought in the Carlist War.
  • Zollverein

    It's a customs union created by Prussia in 1834, that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    In 1834, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought
    together different types of workers to:
    - Defend the right of association
    - Improve wages
    - Regulate child labour
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    German Unification process

    1834: customs union created by Prussia (Zollverein).
    1861: Wilhelm I became king of Prussia and made Otto von Bismarck chancellor.
    Prussia declared war on Denmark (1864), on Austria (1866) and on France (1870).
    1871: Unification of Germany. Second German Empire (Reich)
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The Constitution of 1837 was progressive. This social group was led by Juan Álvarez de Mendizábal. The Constitution said:
    ➢ National sovereignty with census suffrage
    ➢ Separation of powers
    ➢ Two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate
    ➢ Granted many rights and individual liberties
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    This Constitution was moderate:
    ➢ Highly restricted suffrage
    ➢ Civil liberties were restricted
    ➢ Sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown
    ➢ Reorganisation of State and municipal administration. Only
    the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws
    (dereitos forais)
    Other measures:
    - Centralisation of taxes
    - Creation of the Guardia Civil (1844)
    - Creation of a Penal code (1848)
    - Development of a national education system
    - Concordat with the Holy See
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire or were fragmented into various states.
    There was a rise of liberalism and a expansion of nationalism, which resulted in the pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    Bessemer converter made it possible to manufacture steel. This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859, Piedmont started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy, and a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866 Austria left Venetia, and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed by Italy.
  • First International

    First International
    First International of International Workingmen’s
    Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864.
    Ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and
    trade unions made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    This first volume of Das Kapital was published on 14 September 1867 in Hamburg, issued in printed wrappers. "Marx himself modestly described Das Kapital as a continuation of his Zur Kritik de politischen Oekonomie
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy, who was from a liberal monarchy that had contributed to the unification of Italy, was chosen to take the throne. A few days before his arrival, his main supporter, General Prim, was assassiated.
    Amadeo I was supported by progressives, unionist and democrats, and the government introduced new measures to help economic recovery and Spain's democratisation process.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Amadeo of Savoy abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchist.
    Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans prepared a programme of social and economic reforms. 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    Alfonso XII of Spain, nicknamed "the Peacemaker" was King of Spain between 1874 and 1885. Son of Queen Elizabeth II and King Consort Francisco de Asís de Borbón, the beginning of his reign put an end to the First Republic and gave way to the period known as the Restoration. After his premature death at the age of twenty-seven, a victim of tuberculosis, he was succeeded to the throne by his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, whose minority was headed by the regency of his mother.
  • Second International

    Second International
    Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to
    coordinate the various socialist parties.
    Established symbols of the labour movement:
    - Anthem “The Internationale”
    - International Workers’ Day
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    Girodin Convention

    The girodins were the moderate bourgesie that controled the republic.