By lucia t
  • King Charles I was executed

    King Charles I was executed
    The king was executed and a republic was proclaimed under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
  • the Habeas Corpus was approved

    the Habeas Corpus was approved
    A text guaranteeing individual freedoms and preventing the king from using arbitrary detention was approved, called HABEAS CORPUS.
    The monarchy was also restored with a new King: Charles II.
  • Bill of Rights in England

    Bill of Rights in England
    The Parliament offered the crown to the Dutch prince William of Orange (a Protestant) who accepted the Bill of Rights.
    Before England was ruled by the absolutist policy of the new monarch James II and his Catholic faith which caused a second revolution.
  • Scotland and England united

    Scotland and England united
    The separation of powers was decided during the 18th century in Britain, then Scotland and England were united.
    Finally, the Parliament was given the power to make laws and judicial powers were separated from the goverment.
  • Tea Party

    Tea Party
    A rebellion in Boston caused by the British decision to grant a monopoly on the sale of Tea.
    The rebellion consisted on throwing to the sea all the shiploads of tea.
    Later that year, King George III sent an army to stop the rebellion.
  • Declaration of Independence of USA

    Declaration of Independence of USA
    The 13 british colonies in North Amercia met in Philadelphia and declared Independence.
    This stated the duty of a goverment to respect the inalienable rights of its people.
  • George Washington

    George Washington
    Geroge Washington became the very first president of the United States.
  • The United States Constitution

    The United States Constitution
    The new USA created a written constitution that ensured the separation of powers (executive, legislative and judicial) and established a republican goverment (elected by an elected president and a federal system of goverment).
    The Constitution was completed by a Bill of Rights that guaranteed: freedom of religion, speech, press and assembly. (plus, trial by jury)
    Also justice must be decided with a proper court.
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    The Age of Liberal Revolutions

    During the first half of the 19th century, a series of libereal revolutions spread accross Europe (inpired by the 1789 French Revolution).
    These revolutions meant the end of absolutism and the Ancient Régime (new society based on equality).
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    The Constitutional Monarchy

    The first phase of the Revolution, the moderate bourgeoisie tried to reach an agreement with the King and privileged classes to make France a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy.
    They abolished feaudalism, approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and drew up a constitution.
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    The development of the French Revolution

    The Constitutional Monarchy, the Social Republic, The Girondin Convention, the Jacobin Convention and the Conservative Republic took place during this.
  • the French Revolution

    the French Revolution
    The french people challenge King Louis XVI and demand a constitutional government.
  • The Constitutional Monarchy and the Constitution

    The Constitutional Monarchy and the Constitution
    The National Constituent Assembly drew up a constitution based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality (the king reserved the right of veto).
    Census suffrage was also introduced.
    A constitutional monarchy was established.
  • Flight to Varennes

    Flight to Varennes
    Louis XVI fled Paris when the Austrian army invaded France but he was arrested.
  • Austrian army entered France

    Austrian army entered France
    After Louis XVI was arrested, the Austrian army entered France and reached Paris.
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    The Social Republic

    They imprisioned the Royal family due to the betrayal and a republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.
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    The Girondin Convention

    The more moderate bourgeoisie controlled the Republic.
    A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage. The kings were excuted and monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France.
    Also, inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out.
  • Imprisoned the royal family

    Imprisoned the royal family
    The betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt of the common people.
    They stormed Tuileres Palace and imprisoned the royal family.
    A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.
  • Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoniette executed

    Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoniette executed
    Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoniette were convicted of treason and executed.
    After the king´s death, monarchies of Europe began an absolutist coalition against France.
  • The Jacobins seized power

    The Jacobins seized power
    The Jacobins (the most radical sector of the Bourgeoisie) endorsed the demands and got the power.
    The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety.
    The power was given to the Jacobin leader, Robespierre.
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    The Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins took the power and the Revolution entered its most extreme phase.
    A new constitution was enacted (recognised universal male suffrage and right to social equality).
    There was a mass levy to fight the Austrian invasion.
    The Reign of Terror was imposed (freedoms were suspended and people opposed the goverment).
    Executions were ordered by the court (Law of Suspects).
    Prices and salaries were controlled, church lands were sold and education became compulsory.
  • the Jacobin goverment ends

    the Jacobin goverment ends
    A lot of people opposed the dictatorial goverment, so an organized coup ended the Jacobin goverment.
    Robespierre and other Jacobin leaders were excuted by guillotine.(july 28, Robespierre death)
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    The Conservative Republic: The Directory

    The moderate bourgeoisie took back the control of the Revolution and it entered its third and final phase.
    Jacobin laws were cancelled and a new constitution granted executive power to the Directory and restored census suffrage.
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup and ended with the goverment.
  • A new Constitution

    A new Constitution
    A new constitution granted executive power to a collegial goverment (the Directory) and restored census suffrage.
  • End of the Directory

    End of the Directory
    The Directory was permanently unstable because it faced opposition from aristocracy.
    An organized coup by general Napoleon Bonaparte ended the Directory.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon was named consul and the Consulate´s rule began.
    This was a pereiod of autocratic and authoritarian rule.
    Napoleon aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary pprinciples and promote economic recovery.
    The public finance sector was reformed adn state school were created.
    Napoleon allowed exiles to return if they accepted the new goverment.
  • The Consulate

    The Consulate
    A coup names Napoleon Bonaparte consul and the Consulate´s rule began (period of autocratic and authoritarian rule).
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Bonaparte started his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope one year later.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and a year later was named Emperor by the Pope.
    His large army and the use of new military tactics enabled him to defeat most European monarchies.
    After defeating Austria, the French troops seemed unstoppable.
  • France´s victory against Austria

    France´s victory against Austria
    After France defeated Austria with Napoleon, the french troops seemed unstoppable.
    Their empire extended to Spain and Germany.
    Now France controlled most Europe.
  • The Fall of Napoleon

    The Fall of Napoleon
    He failed his invasion of Russia and the revolt in Spain against Napoleon´s brother (the king) marked the decline of the Napoleonic Empire.
    He was defeated again in 1815 in Waterloo against Great Britain.
    He later died in 1821.
  • Holy Alliance Treaty

    Holy Alliance Treaty
    The treaty was signed and it stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Between abolutism and liberalism

    There was a restoration of absolutism were the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed and the revolutionary wave of 1830.
  • The Spring of Nations

    The Spring of Nations
    They were revolutions that showed how countries under the control of empires wanted to pursue the idea of nationalism and the creation of new liberal goverments.
  • Italian Unification

    Italian Unification
    The liberal monarchy of Piedmont-Sardinia (governed by Cavour) started a unification process.
    They declared war on Uastria and annexed Lombardy.
    They also overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king.
    In 1866, Austria left Venecia.
    And inn 1870, The Papal States were annexed by Italy.
  • German Unification

    German Unification
    Prussia created a customs union that united most of Germanic states.
    Then in 1861, Wilhelm I became the king of Prussia and made the first moves towards a United Germany.
    Prussia declared war on Denmark, Austria and France in severeal years.
    Finally, Prussia won all the wars and the unification of Germany was made.