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Paula Suárez Mallón_G&H_4ºH

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    It's the period that goes from the 15th century (discovery of America) to the French Revolution.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    The mechanization process started with John Kay's flying shuttle. It increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics. Before it was invented, the shuttle was passed through the threads by hand and also two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them. When the flying shuttle was introduced, it used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord. It was one of the most important advances on the textile industry.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    In the First Industrial Revolution there was an industrialization of manufactured textiles that started to move the production from homes to factories. Steam power and the cotton gin played an important role in this period (that starts in 1750 and ends in 1880). There were many changes: Agricultural, demographic, technological, transport changes and also a trade and financial Revolution.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    James Watt adapted the steam engine to power industrial machinery between 1763-1764. The function of this machine is to rise productivity and total production in the mechanization of the textile industry. This made it possible lower the cost and reduce the prize of the product. They were also used in agriculture, flour mills and paper mills and were very important in mines (remove water from galleries). Video link: https://www.britannica.com/video/180124/James-Watt-steam-engine
  • Adam Smith published "The wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith published "The wealth of Nations"
    Adam Smith wrote "The wealth of Nations" in 1776 to provide many alternatives to the mercantilist economic system and also critique it. Smith proposed the idea of an invisible hand: The tendency of free markets to regulate themselves through supply, demand, and self-interest.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The last step in textile evolution was the creation of the power loom, by Edmund Cartwright. What it did was dramatically increase production in factories and lower prices. The power loom mechanized the function of a loom by use of large shaft and sped up the process of textile manufacturing.
  • States-General meeting

    States-General meeting
    It was a meeting of representatives of the clergy, the nobility and the 3rd Estate called by Louis XVI to propose solutions to the financial crisis in May 1789.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The 3rd Estate left the State-General meeting when the privileged classes refused allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate rather than one per representative. They met in a pavilion in Versailles, proclaiming themselves the National Assembly. On July 14 they stormed the Bastille. Louis XVI was frightened by the situation and, in autumn of 1789, accepted the National Assembly.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It is one of the fundamental documents of the Revolution. In it, they collected the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
    Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVJfHjnOpv8
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the first phase of the French Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly (moderate bourgeoisie) and Louis XVI established the Constitutional Monarchy. On August 1789, they abolished feudalism approving the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen and on September 1791, they approved the first Constitution. They also formed a Legislative Assembly that established new liberals laws: Abolition of guilds, the creation of National Guard, nobility paid taxes and the Church was intervened.
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    French Revolution

    It was a social and political movement in France (1789-1799) to eradicate the Old Regime. They were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution and all this together with the discontent of the Third Estate, the economic and financial crisis. Finally a republic is established.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Parisian revolutionaries and troops attached the Bastille, a royal fortress and prison that had come to symbolize the Bourbon monarchs' tyranny. This dramatic action signaled the beginning of the French Revolution, a decade of political terror in which King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette, were executed.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Thousands of angry women (because of the high prices of food) marched to Versailles and entered to the palace. In due to this, the king Louis XVI had to abandon Versailles and move to Tuilleries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    It was promulgated by the National Constituent Assembly and the king Louis XVI. It's a codified text where the powers were separated in: executive (king and ministers), legislative (Legislative Assembly) and judicial (Courts). It drafted new liberal laws.
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    Girondin Convention

    It was an Assembly chosen by universal male suffrage. They executed King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. This caused an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight with the revolutionaries (counter-revolutionary revolts).
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the French Revolution. When the republicans stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family, they decelerated the Social Republic in France.
  • War of First Coalition

    War of First Coalition
    It was a union of France, Austria and Prussia to proclaim a war in France to restore the Absolute Monarchy of Louis XVI.
  • Stormed of Tuilleries Palace

    Stormed of Tuilleries Palace
    Republicans stormed Tuilleries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. They declared France as a Republic.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Gerondins executed Louis XVI by guillotine in the Revolution Square (Paris).
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    Jacobin Convention

    They got the power and they were the most extreme phase of the Revolution. They proclaimed a new Constitution where the executive power was the Committee of Public Safety (with Robespierre as leader). Social laws were approved to satisfy the sans-culottes and they acted against the counter-revolutionary.
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    The Reign of Terror

    It was a period of the Revolution in which the Jacobins took place massacres and numerous public executions by guillotine applying the Law of Suspect.
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    Conservative Republic

    When Robespierre was executed the moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the Constitution of 1795 (where the executive power was a Directory). It has the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people.
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    Contemporary History

    It's the period that goes from the French Revolution (or American Revolution) to the present.
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    The Consulate

    In this period Napoleon was named consul creating an autocratic and authoritarian rule. They consolidated some of the revolutionary principles. Constitution of 1800 was established. There were economic reforms: Established a commercial code and created the Bank of France. More reforms were made, like: Creation of a civil code for all citizens, state schools (lycées), allowed the exiles to return and concordat with the Church.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organized Coup of 18th Brumaire, supported by bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. The French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Napoleon approved the Constitution of 1800. It collected: The separation of powers, declaration of rights, limited liberties and the States were organized in departments run by prefers.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1804, Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope and it took place in Notre-Dame in Paris.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon and his troops began to contest Europe. A year later, he was crowned emperor by the Pope. The most European Monarchies were defeated: In Austerlitz they defeat Austria and Russia. Later, he conquered Spain (Joseph Bonaparte is proclaimed king). In 1811, France controlled the most of Europe (from Germany to Spain).
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal (ally of the British).
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Spain, after the Imperial armies invaded Spain.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    In the Abdications of Bayonne, Napoleon persuaded the Bourbons to give the crown of Spain to his brother Joseph I.
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    War of Independence

    The war of Independence was between the liberals who accepted Joseph I (afrancesados) and his Statutes of Bayonne that introduced measures to abolish Ancien Regime and the patriots who composed their own government (Juntas and Cortes) with the British Troops. It had three phases: Popular Resistance, French Offensive and Anglo-Spanish victory.
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    Luddite movement

    The workers, fed up with being exploited, decide to unite and break the factory machinery as a form of protest. They protested against manufacturers using machines to get around standard work practices. These actions caused low wages and unemployment.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    The 1812 Spanish Constitution was the first one in Spain. It was promulged by The Cortes of Cádiz (representatives of every provincial Junta). It was named La Pepa. It stablished: Separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The Treaty of Valençay put an end to the Independence Spanish War. Ferdinand VII became king and the French troops withdrew from Spain.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Tresty

    Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Tresty
    In this Congress intervened the following countries: France, Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia. The objectives were: Stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism. The principles were: Legitimacy of absolute monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and right of intervention. In consequent resulted the Holly Alliance Treaty (1815) the absolute monarchies of Europe united to stop the liberal revolutions.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    The Manifiesto de los Persas was signed by the absolutist of the Cortes (69 deputies), who wanted an absolute monarchy, repealed the Constitution and the reforms of Cádiz.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII wanted to restore the absolutism. It's reign has three phases: 6 years of absolutism (Manifiestos de los Persas and abolition of the 1812 Constitution), Liberal Triennium (del Riego reinstates the Constitution and Ferdinand appealed to the Holly Alliance) and the Ominous Decade (political and economical crisis and the Pragmatic Sanction).
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    Stephenson created the first steam locomotive in 1814. A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. It was involved on the transport developments that occurred during the First Industrial Revolution, being a new transport system that could carry more passengers and goods. Link of the video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR4OVtjE3JU
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In this battle, Napoleon´s armies were defeated by Great Britain and Prussia. He abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    It was a period between 1815 and 1848 where absolute monarchs reunited to establish an absolutist monarchy in Europe.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    Colonel Rafael del Riego led a pronunciamiento in Sevilla which was successful. It forced the king to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greeks wanted independence from the Ottoman Empire (that had been part of it during centuries) because they had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from State administration jobs and they felt dominated by people with different religion and culture. In 1822, Greeks recognized independence (but not by the Turks). In 1827 they received help from British and French military interventions and they victory. Finally, in 1830, it recognized independence.
  • Holly Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holly Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII appealed the Holly Alliance to send troops to defend the absolutism in Spain. The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis arrived to restore absolutism (commanded by Duke of Angoulême).
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    English combination laws prohibited workers from organizing to earn higher wages or control workplace conditions. The acts were repealed in 1824 as a result of a campaign.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    After the Congress of Vienna, two forces opposed to it appeared. Liberalism and nationalism emerged. Liberalism defended the fundamental rights and freedom of the people. Nationalism defended the rights of nations to have their own identity and sovereignty.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The 1830 and 1848 revolutions ended with the absolutism that had begun in 1815. They represented democratic ideals and nationalistic aspirations.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815, Belgium was part of the Kingdom of Holland (by the Congress of Vienna) that then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian revolution and it became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    First Carlist War

    The first Carlist War (1833-1839) began in the Baque Country and it was led by Zumalacárregui. The Carlist were finally defeated by General Espartero and his Liberal army. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara in 1839.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The reign of Isabella II was divided in 5 phases:
    - The regency of Maria Christina (1833-1840)
    - The regency of Espartero (1840-1843)
    - The Moderate Decade (1843-1854)
    - The Progressive Biennium (1854-1856)
    - The system in decline (1856-1868) It ended up in 1868 when Isabella and his son Alfonso XII abdicated and exiled.
  • Zollverein

    It was a customs organization in 1834 when tariffs were abolished among the members of the German Confederation with the exception of Austria.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union are the 1st tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labor.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1837 was promulgated in Spain during the regency of María Christina of Bourbon. It's goal was to establish national sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers, two chambers (Congress and Senate) and granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The Constitution of 1845 wasn't approved. It proposed many economic reforms that were:
    1) Confiscation of the common and municipalities (Confiscations of Madoz, 1855)
    2) General Railway Law
    3) Mining Acts
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    In this period, there was a rise of the liberalism and an expansion of nationalism that wanted that the independent nations were free from the control of absolutist empires. It happened because people lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy).
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    French Second Republic

    Against the restored absolutism there was a popular uprising and the Second Republic was established. In this stage, there was an adoption of the following democratic mesures: Universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were legislative acts with which the British Parliament favored the concentration and privatization of agrarian property (during the 18th century). This allowed the constitution of profitable agrarian companies that were oriented to the market. However, it harmed the small owners and day laborers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer converter was invented by Henry Bessemer. It made possible to manufacture steel (carbon+iron), that was a flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, public works and buildings.
    Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLD95I6naEc
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    Italian Unification process

    Italy was divided into many states and Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia. In 1859, the liberal monarchy of Piedmont, ruled by Savory with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification. They declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. A popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and souther Italy. In 1861, Savoy proclaimed king of the country. In 1866, Austria left Venecia and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed and Rome became capital.
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    German Unification progress

    Germany was divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation (where Prussia and Austria were competing for power). In 1834, Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein). Then, in 1848, the 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia (who didn't accept it). In 1861, the King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck (as chancellor) appeared as political figures. In 1871, the proclamation of the Second German Empire was proclaimed with Wilhelm as Kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    It was an international organization that aimed to unite a variety of different socialist, communist and anarchist trade union groups and unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. All of this created at the initiative of Marx.
  • Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"

    Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"
    Marx tries to analyze the mechanism of a capitalist economy with the concepts of political economy. The worker sells his labor to the capitalist and receives a salary. Das Kapital is not only an economic work: it is also a great historical and philosophical work.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to be the king of Spain. He supported the progressives, unionist and democrats. Savoy put many measures to help economic recovery of the country and to start a democratization process. There was a strong opposition of the moderates, some representation of the Church and republicans because of his reignite.
  • Proclamation of the first Republic

    Proclamation of the first Republic
    Before the proclamation of the first Republic, Amadeo abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a Republic, but most of the deputies were democrats. The elections that were formed, were won by federal republicans. Lower classes were happy because the republicans were going to prepare a program of social and economic reforms. A Constitution was drafted in 1873.
  • Reign of Alfonso XII

    Reign of Alfonso XII
    The restoration of the country occurred when Martínez Campos proclaimed Isabella's son, Alfonso XII, king. Cánovas introduced the Canovist system that allowed two political parties to alternate the power (promising social stability). The longest constitution of Spain was drafted, the 1876 Constitution.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was an organization created by socialist and labor parties that wanted to work together for international socialism. The work of the First International continued, ceasing to be an organization in 1886. It did not include the still powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and the trade unions.