La toma de la bastilla

Sofía Pérez_G&H_4ºF

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Modern History is a period between 15th and 18th centuries. We say it started in 1492 when Colon discovered America and it ended in 1789 with the French Revolution.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were a series of laws that were passed by the British Parliament due to the rise in grain prices. The open field system was remplaced by enclosed properties, which were enclosed lands privately owned.
    Its consequences included the concentration of land ownership, the improvement in farming techniques, the aim at the market and that poor farmers couldn’t enclose land, so they sold their properties, became labourers in exchange for a wage and moved to the cities.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    John Kay's flying shuttle started the mechanisation proccess. It increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution was a series of interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain.
    Industrialisation transformed the agrarian and artisan-based economy of the Ancien Régime into a predominantly industrial economy.
    These changes formed a new economic organisation (capitalism) and led to a social transformation (class society).
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    It uses the power from steam to generate continuous movement, which is transferred to machinery: water is heated by burning coal, high-pressure steams fills a steam chamber, pressure pushes a piston, which pushes a a beam, and continuous movement is transferred to machinery.
    Its applications included industrial machinery (textile industry), agriculture, mills, mines and transport.
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    It's a book that establishes capitalism and an economic system underpinned by economic liberalism.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom was the last step of the mechanisation proccess. It was invented by Edmund Cartwright and it dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the first phase of the French Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly formed by
    moderate bourgeoisie, negotiated with the king and privileged classes how to estabilish a parliamentary monarchy in France abolishing feudalism by approving the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 1789) and approving the first French constitution (September 1791)
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    Contemporary History

    Contemporary history is a period between the 18th century and the present. We say it started in 1789 with the French Revolution and it continues now-a-days.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The 5th May 1789 in Versailles Louis XVI convenes the Estates-General, which was a legislative and consultive assembly which had to be convened by the king and was divided in the three different estates (but had no power, it was just an advisory body). He convenes it for the fiscal enquiry. Privileged estates demand a vote per estate, rather than per representative.
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    French Revolution

    It started the 5th May 1789 when Louis XVI convened the Estates-General in Versailles. It had three phases: the first one was the Constitutional Monarchy (1789-1792), the second one was the Social Republic (1792-1794) and the third one was the Conservative Republic (1794-1799). It finished the 9th November 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    During the Estates-General meeting, the Third Estate asked anyone to join them, and 2 nobles and 149 clergies did.
    On the 20th June 1789, Louis XVI tried to expelled them form the assembly.
    The Third Estate went to a pavilion in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France. They promised to draft a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Assembly's proposals joined more and more supporters in Paris and the situation got more and more tense.
    The 14th July 1789, the Third Estate stormed the Bastille (a castle used as a state prision).
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Thousands of angry women marched to Versailles to protest against the high prices of food. They forced the king to go to Tuileries Palace in Paris and abandon Versailles.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    In June 1791 Louis XVI tried to escape from Paris (Flight to Varennes), but he was arrested.
    In August 1791 Prussia and Holy Roman Empire oath to help
    Louis XVI against revolutionaries.
    In April 1792 the Legislative Assembly declares war to Austria
    and Prussia.
    In September 1792 Austrian and Prussian army reached Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    It was based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality.
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    Girondin Convention

    The National Convention was a new assembly elected by universal male suffrage.
    Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793. In response, european monarchies formed an absolutist coalition against revolutionaries, there were counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots by privileged classes.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the French Revolution. It started with the Flight to Varennes and military invasion of Prussia and Austria, which increased the republican feelings among the "sans-culottes", who stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family, declaring a republic in France.
    The Social Republic was ruled by Girondists (1792-1793) and Jacobins (1793-1794).
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The "sans-culottes" stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family. The Social Republic started.
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    Jacobin Convention

    They wrote the 1793 constitution, that recognised popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and the right to social equality.
    The Comitee of Public Safety held the executive power and was led by Robespierre.
    There was a mass levy to increase army forces against the absolute monarchies invasion, the Reign of Terror was imposed and there were executions under the Law of Suspects.
    There were social laws to satisfy sans-culottes (Law of the Maximum).
    It ended by a coup (Robespierre was executed)
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    Reign of Terror

    It was imposed to stop conspirators. Freedoms were suspended and and people opposed to the government were either imprisioned or executed by guillotine (Law of Suspects).
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI and Marie Aintoinette were convicted of treason and executed. In response, european monarchies formed an absolutist coalition against revolutionaries, there were counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots by privileged classes.
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    Conservative Republic

    They wrote a new constitution in 1795 in which executive power was granted to a collegial government (Directory), and restored census suffrage.
    The Directory was unstable due to the opposition of some people, and the 9th November 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire: the French Revolution was over.
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    The Consulate

    In 1799 Napoleon was named consul and the Consulate began. It was an autocratic and authoritarian rule. Its objectives were to end the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and recover the economy through a
    government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire in the context of the crisis of the Directory. He was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule: the French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    The new political system created a new Constitution. It did not include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured. States were organised into departments run by prefects.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1804 Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804.
    His large army defeated most european monarchies.
    After the victory at Austerlitz in 1806 the French troops seemed unstoppable. In 1808 they invaded Spain and in 1811 the Napoleonic Empire extended from Germany to Spain.
    In 1808 they failed in the invasion of Russia, in 1812 there was a revolt in Spain against Joseph Bonaparte and in 1815 Napoleon abdicated after the defeat the defeat in Waterloo.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Treaty that allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal, an ally of the British.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808 the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was crowned king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon persuaded Charles IV and Ferdinand VII to give the Spanish crown to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte.
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    War of Independence

    It had three phases:
    - Popular resistance (1808): guerrilla warfare by irregular troops and Battle of Bailén.
    - French offensive (1808-1812): Napoleon commanded the army
    and recovered the control of the country. Some besieged cities resisted the attack for several months.
    - Anglo-Spanish victories (1812-1814): Napoleon took many troops to Russia in 1812. Wellington attacked from Portugal and
    defeated the French in the Battle of Los Arapiles (1812).
    It ended with the Treaty of Valençay.
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    Luddite movement

    The Luddite movement started in England in the early 19th century by the first workers to protest against industrialisation. It consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployement
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution ("La Pepa")

    1812 Spanish Constitution ("La Pepa")
    The Cortes draft the first Spanish Constitution, estabilishing the separation of powers, national sovereignty, universal male suffrage and recognised individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops withdrew from Spain (ending of the War of Independence).
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    After reclaming the throne with the support of absolutists, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms proposed by the Cádiz Cortes. Spain returned to absolutism.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    It had three phases:
    - Six years of absolutism (1814-1820)
    - The Liberal Triennium (1820-1823)
    - The Omnious Dacade (1823-1833)
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815 the imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. It was then when Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exile.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    It was organized by Austrian Chancellor Metternich. Its objectives were to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism. It estabilished the ideological principles of the Restoration such as the legitimacy of absolute monarchs, the denial of national sovereignty, the balance of power and the right of intervention.
    The Holy Alliance Treaty was signed: the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
    Borders and political powers in Europe changed.
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    Restoration of absolutism

    In 1815 the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the congress of Vienna and signed the Holy Alliance Treaty.
    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage but without considering the peoples and their nationalist aspirations.
    France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire
    was divided among the victors.
  • Pronunciamiento de Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento de Rafael del Riego
    A pronunciamiento led by Coronel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla was successful: the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries. They had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs and they were dominated by people with a different religion and culture.
    In 1822 Greeks declared independence, but the Turks didn't recognize it.
    In 1827 the Greeks were helped by the French and the British to defeat the Ottoman Empire.
    In 1830 Greece became independent.
  • Holy Alliance (Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis)

    Holy Alliance (Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis)
    Ferdinand VII appealed other European absolute monarchs (Holly Alliance) to defend Spain against the liberals. They sent troops called the Hundred Thousand Troops of Saint Louis that restored absolutism under the command of the Duke of Angoulême.
  • Abolishment of the "Combination Acts"

    The repeal of the laws prohibiting workers' associations in England in 1824 led to the creation of the first official trade unions, which united workers in the same field.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    This mode of transport was invented thanks to the steam engine, which was used to generate continuous motion of the wheels.
    It could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples.
    Two main opposition forces appeared: liberalism and nationalism.
    The movement began in France and the insurrections spread all over Europe.
    When they were succesful absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems (in France by a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe I)
    When they were unsuccesful they went back to absolutism (revolt in Poland, 1831)
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815 the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by the union of the Kingdom of Holland and Belgium by the Congress of Vienna.
    Between 1830 and 1839 there was an armed conflict after Belgium’s declaration of independence.
    In 1839 the independence of Belgium was recognized. A liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I started.
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    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War began in the Basque Country led by the commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by the Liberal army
    of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The Reign of Isabella II had four phases:
    - The regency of Maria Christina (1833-1840).
    - The regency of Espartero (1840-1843).
    - The Moderate Decade (1843-1854).
    - The Progressive Biennium (1854-1856).
    - The system in decline (1856-1868).
  • Zollverein

    Customs union created by Prussia.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    It brought together different types of workers. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The progressive Constitution of 1837 was drafted during The regency of Maria Christina. It included:
    - National sovereignty with census suffrage
    - Separation of powers
    - Two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate
    - Many rights and individual liberties
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The moderate Constitution of 1845 was drafted during The Moderate Decade. It included:
    - Highly restricted suffrage
    - Civil liberties were restricted
    - Sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown
    - Reorganisation of State and municipal administration. Only
    the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire or were fragmented into various states.
    The rise of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism led to the pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In the Austrian Empire, in Viena there were revolts based on liberal principles, and in the rest of the empire there were nationalistic uprisings.
    In France, popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic and they adopted democratic measures.
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    French Second Republic

    During the Spring of Nations France proclaimed the Second Republic, and they adopted democratic measures as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    It made it possible to manufacture steel.
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    Italian Unification process

    Italy was divided and Lombardy-Venice was annexed by Austria by the Congress of Vienna.
    In 1859 the kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. A popular uprising lead by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy
    1861: Victor Manuel II was proclaimed king of Italy.
    1866: Austria left Venetia.
    1870: The Papal States were annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    The territory was divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power. 1834: Zollverein.
    1848: 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it.
    1861: New political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor.
    War on Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), France (1870). Won by Prussia.
    1871: Proclamation of the Second German Empire with Wilhelm I as Kaiser
  • First International

    First International
    First International of International Workingmen's Association was created at Marx's initiative.
    Ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and trade unions made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"

    Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"
    Book in which Karl Marx wrote about his philosophy, economy and politics.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
    He imposed measures to recover the economy and start a democratisation process.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    When Amadeo of Savoy abdicated, the Cortes voted to form a republic.
    The 1873 Constitution was drafted. It included:
    - Federal principles.
    - Legislative powers divided between the central government and the federal republics.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    The restoration of the Bourbon Monarchy began when General Martinez Campos proclaimed Isabella II's son, Alfonso XII, king of Sapin.
  • Second International

    Second International
    Second International was founded by Marxists to coordinate the various socialist parties. It estabilished some identity symbols of the labour movement , such as the anthem "The Internationale" and International Workers' day.