Alba Otero_G&H_4ºE

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    Modern history

    It is main system was the Ancien Régime
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    Enclosure acts

    The British Parliament authorised it due to rise in grain prices; it had positive consequences:
    -Concentration of land ownership
    -Improvement in farming techniques: rise of
    -Production aimed at the market (Ø personal
    It had negative consequences:
    -Poor farmers couldn’t enclose land = they sold
    their property:
    1.Became labourers in exchange for a wage
    2.Moved to the cities
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    Remains to the mechanistion process and increase speed production and wider fabrics
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    First Industrial Revolution

    interconnected changes driven by innovetion and pioneered by Great Britain.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    It was applicated in industrial machinery, agriculture, mills, mines and transport. It was and incredible invent that developed the industrialisation.
  • Adam Smith published the wealth of nations

    Adam Smith published the wealth of nations
    An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    It was a spinning machine
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    French Revolution

    It was a long and complex process with different phases and political groups
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    Constitutional monarchy

    The National Constituent Assembly formed by moderate bourgeoisie, negotiated with the king and privileged classes how to establish a Parliamentary monarchy in France.
  • Meeting of the Estates General

    Meeting of the Estates General
    Louis XVI convenes the assembly for the fiscal enquiry. Privileges states demand a vote per estate, rather than per representative; this was because the Third State was more than the half and they will win everytime
  • Tennis Court Oath (proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (proclamation of the National Assembly)
    Louis XVI closed the door, trying to expelled the Third State and the 149 and the 2 clergies that joined them from the aasembly. The Third State went to a pavilion on Versailles (the tennis court) and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France (truly representatives of France). They promised to draft a Constitution.
  • The Third State stormed the Bastille

    The Third State stormed the Bastille
    They stormed the Bastille because it had many weapons and gunpowder.
  • Women`s march on Versailles

    Women`s march on Versailles
    Thousand of angry women ( due to the rises of the food) they marched to Varsailles and forced the king to left his palace and go to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It denied woman civil rights ( property, legal and fiscal equality, right to vote)
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    The king from the executive branch, had the power to name ministers and approve the laws. The national assembly, in the legislative branch, draw up laws and taxes and declare war. In the judicial power were the courts elected by the electoral assembly, this last at the same time elceted by the voters that were male French citizens over 25 years old that pay taxes.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the revolution. It started for two reasons: betrayal by the king(flight to Varennes) and military invassion of Prussia and Austria that were absolute monarchies.
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    Girondin Convention

    In the national convention was a new assembly elected by universal male suffrage.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The Legislative assembly declares the war to Austria and Prussia
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed the Tuileries Palace and impresioned the royal family, declaring a republic in France that was ruled first by the Girondists and then by the Jacobins.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    They were executed due to a formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaires, counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalist plots by privileged classes.
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    Jacobin Convention

    In 1793 the constituion appeared, it was republican, have social equality and a popular sovereignty. The Committee of Public Safety leaded by Robespierre had the executive power. Neutralization of enemies: absolute monarchies invasion and counter-revolutionary revolts and plots. Social laws to satisfy the ´Sans-Culottes´(Law of the Maximum, compulsory education, sale of assets of the priviliged.
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    Reign of Terror

    This happened in the Jacobin convention. They imposed the Reign of Terror, in which execution swre under the `Law of suspects´
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    Conservative republic

    A coup ended the dictatorial Jacobin government and Roberspierre and 21 supporters were executed. In 1795, another Constitution was drafted, containing census suffrage, and the executive power was granted to a collegial government (Directory); unstable due to the aristocrecy and common people.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon was named consul. He put some objectives: political instability od the Revolution, consolidation od some of the revolutionary principles and economy recovery through a government. It established the Constitution(1800), econmic and other reforms.
  • Coup of 18th Broumaire

    Coup of 18th Broumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule, the French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    In the new constitution appeared: separation of powers and declaration of rights, very limited liberties and public opinion censures, states organized in departments, run by prefects.
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    Contemporary history

    It starts with the French Revolution
  • Napoleon emperor

    The Napoleonic Empire: Napoleon begas his conquest and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804
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    The Napoleonic empire

    Napoleon began his conquest in Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope. He defeated mos European monarchies.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It allowed French troops to pass trough
    Spain to invade Portugal
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    During the Napoleon Empire, the French troops seemed unstoppable. In 1808, Spain was invaded and Napoleon put one of the persons of his family; Joseph Bonaparte, in the crown.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Napoleon persuaded the
    Bourbons to give the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph
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    War of Independence

    The abdications of Bayonne weren’t recognized by the majority of the Spanish population (patriots), who supported Ferdinand VII as their king. As Ferdinand VII was exiled, they created their own legitimate government to represent the Spanish people and command the war.
    They created local and provincial Juntas and then a Central Supreme Junta, but this didn`t work so they convene the Cortes.
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    Luddite movement

    First workers to protest in England (early C.19th)
    Violent destruction of machinery (responsible
    for low wages and unemployment).
  • Spanish Constitution

    Spanish Constitution
    The Cortes drafted this Constitution that established: separation of powers, universal male suffrage, individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops withdrew from Spain.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    The Manifiesto de los Persas was signed by the absolutist
    representatives of the Cortes, who requested an absolute monarchy and it was re-established.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    His reign was didvided in three parts:
    1.Six yearsof absolutism(1814-1820)
    2. Liberal triennium(1820-1823)
    3.Ominous Decade(1823-1833)
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    After a failure on the ivasion of Rusia and a revolt in Sapin, the imperial armies were defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 by Great Britain and Prussia.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The main objectives of the Congress of Vienna were stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism. One of the consequences was the Holy Alliance Treaty in 1815, in which absolutre monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia, Prussia and Austria)
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    The Restoration of Absolutism

    Austrian Chancellor Metternich wanted to restore the absolutism
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    This pronunciamiento was succesful and happened in Sevilla, the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    In 1822, the Greeks declared independence(not recognized by the turks.
    In 1827, Greek victory thanks to British and French military intervention.
    In 1830, recognized the independece.
  • Holy Alliance Intervention: 100 sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance Intervention: 100 sons of Saint Louis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored absolutism.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Unions of workers from the same field, appear after the repeal of laws prohibiting worker’s associations in England.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    It was less time, with more passengers and goods and a lower cost.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    These revolutions happened because the Congress of Vienna didint respect the liberal principles and the liberalism and nationalism appeared. Insurrections spread all over Europe beginning in France.
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    The Age of the Revolutions

    The movement began in France and insurrections spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support and a revolt broke out in Poland against the autocratic Russian rule.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The kingdom of the Netherlands was formed by the Kingdom of Holland and Belgium.
    Between 1830 and 1839, armed conflict after Belgium's declaration of independece and in 1839 they recognised the independe.
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    Reign of Isabella the II

    It had several phases, in which the moderates and progressives fought to have the power. The phases are: Regency of Maria Christina, Regency of Espartero, The Moderate Decade, The Progressive Biennium and The system in decline.
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    First Carlist War

    It began in the Basque Country lead by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by the Liberal army
    of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
  • Zollverein

    Prussia created a customs union
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The workers defend the right of association, improve wages and regulate child labour.
  • Constitution of 1837

    Constitution of 1837
    It was a progressive constitution, approving:
    ➢ National sovereignty with census suffrage
    ➢ Separation of powers
    ➢ Two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate
    ➢ Granted many rights and individual liberties
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    This was a moderate constitution, it put some new measures:
    ➢ Highly restricted suffrage
    ➢ Civil liberties were restricted
    ➢ Sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown
    ➢ Reorganisation of State and municipal administration. Only
    the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws
    (dereitos forais)
  • Revolutions of 1848

    This happened because people lived by the rule of an empre or wre fragmented in various states. Rise of liberalism and expansions of the nationalism, pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
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    French Second Republic

    The 1848 revoltions represented democratic ideals and the political importance of workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    It remains to the iron industry in steel.
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    Italian Unification Process

    1. Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal
      monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister,
      started the unification
    2. Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed king of
    3. Austria left Venetia
    4. The Papal states were annexed and Rome became
      the capital
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    German Unification Process

    1. Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein)
    2. 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it
    3. New political figures in Prussia: King
      Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor
    4. Proclamation of the Second German
      Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser
  • First International

    It was a Marx initiative but ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and trade unions made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives,
    unionists and democrats.
    Measures to help economic recovery and democratisation process. ➢ A few days before its arrival, his main supporter, General Prim, was
    ➢ Strong opposition:
    • Moderates
    • Some representatives of the Church loyal to the Bourbons
    • Republicans
    ➢ Second Carlist War (1972-76), Carlists declared Charles VII as king
    ➢ War on the island of Cuba (1869) In 1873, Amadeo I abdicated
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Like Amadeo abdicated, they needed to look for a new king, but they didn´t have anyone, so a republic was proclaimed and the lower classes were the most happy class. Elections were won by federal republicans.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    He was proclaimed king by General Martínez Campos. During his reign, was introduced a moderate constitution(1876). It was iplemented the bipartinsanship system and the "Quenda Pacífica". Also there were caciquismo and electoral frauds during his reign. It ended with the Nationalism movements and the crisis of 1898.
  • Second International

    It was founded by Marxist to coordinate the various socialist parties and it established symbols of the labour movement:
    - Anthem “The Internationale”
    - International Workers’ Day