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Timeline of the 18th, 19th and start of the XXth century

  • Estates General

    Estates General
    The Estates General of 1789 were the only Estates General of France convened after 1614 and the last of the old regime of France. They developed in Versailles, where King Louis XVI lived, on the outskirts of Paris.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was the most important political and social change that took place in Europe at the end of the 18th century. It was a violent period in which the Old Regime was overthrown to end up establishing a new regime where the bourgeoisie, sometimes supported by the popular masses, became the dominant political force
  • National Assembly

    National Assembly
    The National Constituent Assembly was the first constituent assembly in France. Formed from the National Assembly, it was proclaimed on July 4, 1789, at the beginning of the French Revolution. The Assembly took innumerable measures that profoundly changed the political and social situation of the country.
  • Oath of Jeu de Paume

    Oath of Jeu de Paume
    After having constituted the National Assembly, and finding the door of the room in which they will deliberate closed by royal order, the representatives of the third estate meet in the covered pediment that was used to play ball and solemnly swear not to separate until they provide France of a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The assault on the Bastille prison in Paris is perceived as the origin of a movement that brought about the defeat of the absolutist monarchy model. Its fall into the hands of the Parisian revolutionaries symbolically marked the end of the Old Regime and the starting point of the French Revolution.
  • Abolition of feudalism

    Abolition of feudalism
    The night of August 4, 1789 is a session of the French Constituent Assembly during which the feudal system in France is abolished.
  • Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen
    After on August 4, in a frenetic night session, the nobility and the clergy will compete to ask for the abolition of their privileges, the National Assembly approves the Declaration, whose first article establishes that «all men are born and live equal in rights ».
  • March on Versailles

    March on Versailles
    Faced with the king's resistance to sanctioning the Declaration of Rights, and mobilized by the cost of living, the women of the Les Halles market lead a march on Versailles that leads to the assault on the royal palace. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette agree to accompany the mob back to Paris to settle in the Tuileries.
  • Failed King's Escape in Varennes

    Failed King's Escape in Varennes
    Feeling imprisoned in the Tuileries, the king, queen and their children flee in disguise, according to a plan drawn up by the Swedish diplomat Fersen, in love with Marie Antoinette. After a day's journey north, where loyal troops must escort them to the other side of the border, they are discovered and arrested in the town of Varennes, and from there returned to Paris, where they receive a frosty welcome.
  • The king swears the Constitution

    The king swears the Constitution
    The text maintains the Monarchy and grants the right of veto to a king with limited powers. The Constituent Assembly is dissolved and, after census-based elections in which the outgoing deputies cannot stand, the Legislative Assembly meets on October 1.
  • France declares war on Austria

    France declares war on Austria
    At the behest of Louis XVI, who secretly seeks the defeat of his armies, the Assembly declares war "on the King of Hungary and Bohemia," to give the impression that it is not doing so against the Austrian people. Only Robespierre and a minority of deputies from the left are opposed.
  • Overthrow of the Monarchy

    Overthrow of the Monarchy
    The uprising coordinated by the Parisian sections with the help of the federates arrived from Marseilles leads to the taking by arms and with a strong bloodshed of the Tuileries Palace. The king and his family take refuge in the Legislative Assembly, and an Insurrectionary Commune takes control of the Paris City Hall. The Assembly provisionally suspends the king and convenes a National Convention.
  • Establishment of the Republic.

    Establishment of the Republic.
    The Convention meets, declares the Monarchy abolished and proclaims the Republic. Although only ten percent of French people exercise their right to vote, it is the first parliament in history elected by universal male suffrage in a major country.
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    Reign of Terror

    The Terror was a period characterized by a state of exception that took place during a few months of the French Revolution, from September 1793 to the summer of 1794, ending with the fall of Robespierre.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    After being tried and condemned by the Convention, and failing all the maneuvers of the moderates to save his life, the king is guillotined in the Plaza de la Revolución The executioner raises his head before a shocked crowd, who learned of the assassination that same morning of deputy Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau by a former Corps Guard.
  • Creation of the Revolutionary Tribunal

    The deputies are distributed by the sections to stimulate recruitment and echo the proposal to create a court that judges political crimes without possible appeal. Simultaneously, the list of those punished with the death penalty is expanded. There is also an attempted uprising in Paris by the enragés, with complicity in the Jacobin Club and the Commune.
  • Jacobin coup

    Jacobin coup
    The alliance between the Jacobins and the Enragés with the support of the Commune mobilizes the sections of Paris against the moderate leaders of the Convention. After three days of fighting, during which it is harassed by the National Guard, the Convention gives in and puts twenty-nine of its members and two ministers under house arrest. A few days later the new republican Constitution is approved, which will never come into force.
  • Robespierre joins the Public Safety committee

    The aftermath of the coup d'état is the almost complete renewal of the Committee at the beginning of July. Danton and his people are replaced by a Jacobin government led by Couthon and Saint-Just. The incorporation of Robespierre, replacing a lower-ranking deputy, culminates the coming to power of the Jacobins and marks the beginning of the Terror.
  • Execution of Marie Antoinette

    Execution of Marie Antoinette
    The deposed queen is guillotined after a mock trial at the Revolutionary Court, during which she is accused of incestuous relations with her son.
  • Execution of the Hébertists

    In its obsession to eliminate the "factions", the Committee of Public Safety led by Robespierre arrests the leaders of the most radical sector of the revolution, led by Jacques Hébert, editor and editor of the popular newspaper Le Père Duchesne, and promotes their condemnation. .
  • Execution of the Dantonists.

    The Committee compensates its blow against the left wing with another similar one against the so-called "indulgents", who with Danton at the head and Camille Desmoulins as journalistic spokesman, have been demanding the end of Terror.
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    Thermidorian Reaction
    In the Convention an alliance is forged between the Jacobin sector that feels threatened by Robespierre and the deputies of the Plain, usually mute. Robespierre's voice is silenced when he attempts to make a speech, and he and his top aides are arrested. After an unsuccessful attempt to resist at the Town Hall —taken by storm by troops loyal to the Commune— the Incorruptible is guillotined, along with his brother, Saint-Just, Couthon and other members of his entourage.
  • Robespierre's execution

    Robespierre's execution
    He was arrested and guillotined on July 28, 1794 (Thermidor 10) along with twenty-one followers. Robespierre ended up succumbing to his political fall caused by the very instability that he himself had generated.
  • Napoleon takes the power (brumaire 18)

    Napoleon takes the power (brumaire 18)
    After a year in which the Thermidorians control the Convention, and four years of authoritarian rule through the Directory, the coup d'état of Brumaire 18 takes place, in which General Napoleon Bonaparte, recently returned from Egypt, takes power as first consul. France already has the dictator repeatedly demanded by Marat.
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    The Consulate was the institution of government in France after the fall of the Directory, after the coup d'état led by Napoleon Bonaparte on Brumaire 18, a new constitution was promulgated that established an executive power made up of three consuls for 10 years in the position of 1799, but all power was concentrated in the first consul, until the beginning of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804. By extension, the term Consulate also refers to this French historical period
  • Concordat

    The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.[1] It remained in effect until 1905, except in Alsace-Lorraine, where it remains in force. It sought national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France, with most of its civil status restored.
  • Civil code

    Civil code
    The French Civil Code is one of the best known civil codes in the world. It was approved by the Law of March 21, 1804 and is still in force, although with numerous and important reforms.
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    Napoleon's Empire (First French Empire)

    The First French Empire was the monarchical government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the dissolution of the French First Republic in 1804. Napoleon Bonaparte, who in 1804 had himself crowned Emperor of the French. That coronation led to war with several European states, notably Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, who wanted to prevent French expansion.
  • Coronation of Napoleon

    Coronation of Napoleon
    Napoleon establishes a hereditary monarchy and proclaims himself emperor, having himself crowned by the Pope in Notre Dame Cathedral
  • Abdication of Napoleon

    After the defeat of the French armies and the occupation of Paris by the forces of the Sixth Coalition, the treaty established Napoleon's resignation and the conditions of his exile to the island of Elba.
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    Bourbon Restoration in France

    Following the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the House of Bourbon to the French throne. The period that followed was called the Restoration, characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a political power in France.
  • Charter of 1814

    Charter of 1814
    The Constitutional Charter of 1814 was a constitutional document sanctioned by the King of France, on June 4, 1814. It is not a constitution as such, but rather a charter granted, that is, a concession from the king.
  • The Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was an international meeting held in the Austrian capital, convened with the aim of reestablishing the borders of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte and reorganizing the political ideologies of the Old Regime.
  • Triumphal return of Napoleon Ier to Paris

    Triumphal return of Napoleon Ier to Paris
    Napoleon, exiled to the island of Elba by the monarchs of Europe, made a triumphant return to France. He rallied part of the army, returned to Paris and managed to regain power
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    Hundred Days

    The period known as the Hundred Days, or the Waterloo Campaign, runs from March 20, 1815, the date of Napoleon's return to Paris from his exile on Elba, to July 8, 1815, the date of the second restoration of Louis XVIII as King of France.
  • Defeat of Napoleon I at Waterloo

    Defeat of Napoleon I at Waterloo
    On June 18, 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte lost a decisive battle in a small Belgian town, called Waterloo.
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    Following the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the House of Bourbon to the French throne. The period that followed was called the Restoration, characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the reestablishment of the Catholic Church as a political power in France.
  • Birth of Queen Victoria

    Birth of Queen Victoria
    Born in Kensington Palace, London, UK
  • Chios massacre

    Chios massacre
    Chios massacre was the killing of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822. Greeks from neighboring islands had arrived on Chios and encouraged the Chiotes to join their revolt. In response, Ottoman troops landed on the island and killed thousands. The massacre of Christians provoked international outrage across the Western world, and led to increasing support for the Greek cause worldwide.
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    The July Monarchy

    The July Monarchy is the historical period that developed in France from 1830 to 1848, between two of the main revolutionary processes considered cycles of the liberal or bourgeois revolution: the so-called Revolution of 1830, also called the "July Revolution", and the another called the French Revolution of 1848 or "Spring of the Peoples". The July Monarchy was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I
  • Taking of Algeria

    Taking of Algeria
    The period called French Algeria or colonial Algeria takes place in Algerian history from 1830 with the taking of Algiers until 1962 with the independence of the country. This period is sometimes also designated, collectively, as that of the French colonization, presence, or occupation of Algeria.
  • July Revolution (Les Trois glorieuses)

    July Revolution (Les Trois glorieuses)
    The Revolution of 1830 was a revolutionary process that began in Paris, France, with the so-called July Revolution or the Three Glorious Revolutionary Days of Paris that brought Louis Philippe I of France to the throne and opened the period known as the July Monarchy.
  • Queen Victoria take the throne

    Queen Victoria take the throne
    She inherited the throne at age 18, after the death without legitimate issue of his three paternal uncles
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    The Victorian Era

    The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the Industrial Revolution and the British Empire characterized by a class-based society, a growing number of people able to vote, a growing state and economy, and Britain's status as the most powerful empire in the world.
  • First Opium war

    First Opium war
    The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was a war between the United Kingdom and the Chinese Empire between 1839 and 1842, as a consequence of which Hong Kong Island was ceded to the United Kingdom.
  • Queen Victoria marries her cousin

    Queen Victoria marries her cousin
    Victoria and Alberto were married on February 10, 1840 in the Royal Chapel of St. James's Palace (London).
  • The people's spring

    The people's spring
    The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe starting in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history to date. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, as envisioned by romantic nationalism.
  • Revolution of 1848

    Revolution of 1848
    The French Revolution of 1848 was a popular insurrection that took place in Paris from February 23 to 25, 1848. It forced King Louis Philippe I of France to abdicate and gave way to the French Second Republic
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    French Second Republic (Deuxième République)

    The Segunda República francesa fue el regimen político republicano established in France during the period understood between the 25th of February of 1848 and the 2nd of December of 1852. The Second Republic favors, through universal suffrage, the politicization of the population. From the start of the regime, the end of censorship allowed for an easier circulation of ideas, particularly within working-class circles.
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    Industrial Revolution

    The Second Industrial Revolution meant that technological and scientific advances came out of the UK, reaching other places. Obviously, the expansion of these elements also had repercussions in these countries. Since 1850, the phenomenon known as the Second Industrial Revolution took place in some countries, especially European ones. Many historians place the end of this process in 1914, coinciding with the start of the First World War.
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    Second Empire

    The Second Empire was the 18-year Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 14 January 1852 to 27 October 1870, between the Second and the Third Republic of France. Historians in the 1930s and 1940s often disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. In its early years, the empire was authoritarian but enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favorable foreign policy.
  • Napoleon III, proclaimed Emperor of France

    Napoleon III, proclaimed Emperor of France
    On December 2, 1852, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Emperor of France under the name of Napoleon III.
  • Second Opium War

    Second Opium War
    The Second Opium War, Second Anglo-Chinese War, Second China War, or Anglo-French Expedition to China was an armed conflict between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and France, on the one hand, and the Qing dynasty of China, on the one hand. for another.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    The Franco-Prussian War was a military conflict that was fought between July 19, 1870 and May 10, 1871 between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with the support of the North German Confederation and the allied kingdoms. from Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg.
  • Berlin conference

    Berlin conference
    At the Berlin Conference, held between 1884 and 1885, the main European powers, who were eager to expand their African colonies, agreed on a division to prevent a colonial dispute from leading to a large-scale conflict on the European continent as well.
  • The Scramble for Africa

    The Scramble for Africa
    The Scramble for Africa was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonization of most of Africa by some of the European powers during a brief period known to historians as the New Imperialism.
  • Fashoda incident

    Fashoda incident
    The Fashoda Incident or Fashoda Crisis is the name by which the episodes that took place in 1898 are known when France and the United Kingdom decided to build communication lines destined to connect their respective African colonies in an uninterrupted manner.
  • Death of Queen Victoria

    Dies at Osborne Castle, East Cowes, UK
  • Fordism

    Fordism is a chain production system implemented by Henry Ford. After the manufacture of the first model (the Ford T), which was a great sales success by the Ford Company, the American businessman decided to implement this system in all his factories.
  • Taylorism

    Taylorism, in work organization, refers to the division of the different tasks of the production process. It was a method of industrial organization, whose purpose was to increase productivity and avoid the control that the worker could have in production times.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Gavrilo Princip conceives the idea of assassinating the heir to the crown of Austria-Hungary. The Black Hand, a Serbian ultra-nationalist organization, lends its support to Princip. In Sarajevo, Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. This was the triggering event for the first world war
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    World War 1

    In 1914, Europe is under tension. The territorial upheavals of the 19th century awakened strong nationalist claims and many territories are subject to dispute. In addition, colonial and political rivalries have led the different states to form alliances to protect themselves from possible aggression and avoid isolation. Each thus undertakes to support the other against the country which attacks it.