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Alicia Parada Pérez_G&H_4ºE

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern history

    Period of history ended by the French Revolution.
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    Enclosure Acts

    It was a series of laws in Britain that allowed landowners to take over common land and enclose the property. This helped the big landowners to increase the profits.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    It increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    A revolution which changed the entire world as it transformed the agriculture leading to a better human nutrition which made the population rise, there was a transport revolution with the Steam engime locomotive, there was a development of industry (textile, iron, coal, iron...) which made capitalism triumph.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    In 1764 Watt invented the steam engine while he was repairing a machine. It worked by burning coal which heated water, the steam pressure pushes a piston which rises ans pushes a beam, which is a continous movement.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    Invented by Cartwright it increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
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    French Revolution

    Social and political conflict whose objective was to finish with absolutism and the Ancien Régime by using the new enlightenment ideas. It was started by the Third State.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    A new political system which was driven by the moderate bourgeosie where the king was limted by a constitution and a parliament.
    They introduced a new constitution, they abolished the feudalism, there was the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen, they introduced the National Guard, the guilds were abolished and the financial crisis ended.
    It had oppositions: the republicans wanted more changes, the privileged classes did not accept the new changes and there were not women's rights,
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    Contemporary History

    Period of history which started with the French Revolution and has not ended yet.
  • Estates-General meeting.

    Estates-General meeting.
    In May 1789, Louis XVI convened the a Estates-General meeting where the three social groups were reunited to make important decisitions. In this case, they were trying to impose new taxes to privileged people to survive to the financial crisis.
    In this meeting the privileged groups wanted to have one vote per state which was not representative, so The Third State refused.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Third state was left out of the assembly, so they met in a pavillon in Versailles, which was the tennis court and declared themselves the National Assembly, and they swore to make a constitution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Due to the dismissal of Jackes Necker the Third State exploted and stormed the Bastille. It had a lot of meaning, because people who thinked differently were locked up in the Bastille. It also started a revolution in the countryside, where the peasants burned the nobles' houses.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
    A declaration by the National Constituent Assembly which recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    Women in Paris with weapons and tools marched to Versailles, there, they protested about the lack of bread and demanded the king sign the decree abolishing manorialism. Due to this march, the king moved to Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The first French constitution was written in 1791 it was based in the separation of powers, national sovereignty, legal equality and census suffrage
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    Girondin Convention

    First ideology who lead in the Social Republic. They were the moderate bourgeoisie, They created a new assembly, the National Convention which was elected by universal male suffrage and they executed the old King and Queen.
    During this period there were many problems: there was a formation of absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against the revolution, there were revolts in the country-side and royalist plots.
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    Social Republic

    Period of time where there was no monarchy anymore due to the betrayal of the king.
    During this period of time two ideologies governed: the Girondins and the Jacobin.
    In this period of time there were new social laws, the universal male suffrage was introduced and also the idea os social equality.
    It ended becaused the leaders of the second ideology were executed.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The war to Austria and Prussia is declared as they were trying to help Louis XVI to bring back his absolute power tas they did not want that these new ideas to expand.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The republicans entered in Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family due to the king's betrayal (who tried to get out of the country to plot with the other absolute monarchies). After this event, the Republic was declared and the perios of The Social Republic started.
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    Jacobin Convention.

    The Jacobin seized the power and threw away the Girondins. They were the most radical sector and they created a new constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and included new social laws and social equality.
    Due to the conquest of Verbum by Austria, the leaders were afraid of conspiratons of monarchists so the Reign of Terror was imposed.
    It ended in 1994 due to the execution of Robespierre and his supporters.
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    Reign of Terror

    After Austria coquered Verbum the leaders were afraid of the monarchic conspirations so they started to imprisoned monarchical people or even only suspects of this ideology and all the freedoms were suspended.
    There were thousand of executions by guillotin under the Law of Suspects.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Luis XVI was executed during the Girondin Convention. However it had some bad consequences: Europed formed an absolutist coalition against the revolution, there wre counter-revolutionary revolts in the countrysideand the privileged classes organised royalist plots.
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    Conservative Republic

    The moderate bourgeoisie took back its power after the executions. All the Jacobin laws were cancelled, they wrote a new constitution where the executive power resided on the Directory and restored censitary suffrage.
    It was an unstable period as they had the opposition of the Aristocracy and also of the common people.
    It ended because of the coup of Napoleon Bonaparte.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon was named consul in 1799, so the Consulate's rule began. It was a autocratic and authoritarian government. He tried to consolidate some of the revolutionary principles to gain the favour of the people.
    A new constitution was written, the financial sector was reformed and state schools were created, a civil code was drawn up and all the exiles were allowed to return, however, they had to sign an agreement (concordat) with the Church. In addition, the Bank of France was created.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Due to the terrible control of the country Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup and took control of the country with the support of a large part of the bourgeoisie and the army. He started an authoritarian rule.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    When Napoleon arrived ti the power he created a new constitution where the separation of powers was not included and neither a declaration of rights. Also, there were limited liberties and many times the public opinion was censured. The state was organised in departements ruled by prefects.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon started to conquer Europe in 1803, there was a moment when he had a lot of power in this continent so he was named Emperor by the Pope in 1804, many people were not happy with this desicion as it meant a new monarchy.
    However, he managed to conquer Spain, Austria, Russia, Naples... After these conquers the empire strated to decline: many people did not want a foreign king (usually Napoleon's relatives), he failed to invade Russia and the empire ended because of the defeat in Waterloo.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    As it was told before, due to the multiple conquers and gain of power in Europe, Napoleon was named emperor by the Pope. There is a myth that tells that the day of the coronation Napoleon put the crown in his own head to show that he had his own power.
    Many people were not happy with this crowning, as he had promised to not bring back the monarchy.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    A treaty with Napoleon made by Godoy which allowed the french troops to pass through Spain to attack Portugal. Nevertheless, it brought serious consequences.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Napoleon was in war with Portugal because it was an allie of Great Britain, so he asked the Spain's King if he could travel through his country, surprisingly he said yes and when the French army was inside Spain, Napoleon conquered Spain by forcing the king to abdicate.
    He named his brother Joseph Bonaparte Spain's king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon tricked the king to abdicate on his father who abdicated in Napoleon who abdicated in her brother, Joseph Bonaparte.
    To persuade them he threated to attack Spain now that he had all his troops inside the country so it let no option to the actual king.
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    War of Independence

    With the French occupation the people were angry and started a popular revolt, which started in Madrid de 2nd May and spread through Spain. It ended un 1813 with the Treaty of Valencay, which meant the returining of Ferninand VII to the crown
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    Luddite movement

    Movement started in 1811 in England where the first workers protested and the way of protesting was by the destruction of the machinery, which created unemployement.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    The Cortes in Cadiz (mainly made by liberals) decided to make the first spanish constitution which would never be sworn.
    It stablished national sovereignty, separation of powers, universal male suffrage and recognised broad indiidual freedoms (press, property...) it also made Spain a confessional state to get help from the clergy.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    It finished the War of Independency and brought back Ferdinand VII to the crown.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    Was signed by the absolutists of las Cortes of Cadiz, it requested an absolute monarchy which Ferdinand signed immediately.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    His reign was unstable with three phases in total. Two of them were ruled by absolutism and other one by liberalism. No one was happy with his decisions. That's why the absolutists (carlists) were against him.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    In this congress the european absolute monarchies (Britain, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria) were reunited to stop the liberal ideas and to distribute the territories from Napoleon's Empire.
    They reshaped Europe and returned Frnces to the borders from 1792. In addition the congress established the principles of the Restoration: Legitimacy of absolute monarchs, Denial of national sovereignty, Balance of power and Right of intervention.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    In 1815, after Napoleon's exile, the absolute monarchies met at the Congress of Vienna to try to stop the spreading of liberal ideas and to distribute Napoleon's territories. They reshaped Europe and France returned to the borders from 1792.
    The principles were: legitimacy of absolute monarchs, Denial of national sovereignty, Balance of power and Right of intervention
    Nevertheless, there were many revolts as people now only wanted liberal régimes.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Napoleon was defeated in this battle by Great Britain and Prussia after this battle he abdicated and was exiled.
  • Holy Alliance Treaty

    Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Holly Alliance Treaty was a deal which was signed in 1815. Were the absolute monarchies (Russia, Austria and Prussia) compromised to unite agains any liberal revolution.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    He led a successful pronunciammiento which forced the king to reinstate de 1812 constitution. This started the second phase of his reign: The Liberal Triennium.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was not happy belonging to the Ottoman Empire as they had to pay high taxes, they were exclude from state administration jobs and they were dominated by people with different religion and culture.
    So in 1822 they declared they independence and started a war against Turkey, which they won in 1827 thanks to the help of France and Britain. Its Independance was declared in 1830.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VII called the Holly Alliance to fight the liberal revolution and start the third phase of the reign, the Omnious Decade.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Thanks to the repeal of this law in England, now workers could associate and created the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    It was a revolution due to this new transport which was invented through the steam engine. It could carry more passengers, less time and with lower cost. It also boosted trade and created a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    Liberalism was not repected in the Congress of Vienna, so there were two main oppossition forces: nationalism (independency and popular sovereignty) and liberalism.
    It started in France because Charles X was an absolutist so the people substitued him for Louis Philippe I and with a constitutional monarchy.
    There were also revolutions in the Netherlands that divided the kingdom in two: the Netherlands and Belgium.
    Moreover, there were other revolts in Europe but none of them succeded.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The kingdom of Netherlands was fromed by Belgium which was catholic an liberal and the kingdom of Holland that was protestant and absolutist. Due to this fact, Belgium declared its independence in 1830 and a war started. It finished in 1839 due to the recognition of the independence.
    Belgium started a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    It was a period of constant revolutions against the Restauration and the non-liberal ideas. There were two main waves of revolutions which both started in France, they had two main ideas that were liberalism and nationalism.
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    First Carlist War

    The absolutists refused to recognise Isabella II as their queen and insisted on Infante Carlos. That's why they startedan uprising against the government.
    The government (Maria Christina) had the support of the liberals.
    For all of that, the war started and the discussion of who would occupy the throne and the political system used began.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The reign of Isabella started in 1833, it was the start of building a liberal state in Spain.
    In her reign there were many changes of power: between progressives and moderate liberals. As a consequence, there are several constitutions from this period.
    The system started to decline in 1856.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    This association defended the right of association, improve wages and regulate children labour. It brought together many diffrent types of workers.
  • Zollverein

    The king of Prussia created a customs union
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    German Unification process

    Prussia created a customs union called Zollverein which united many german states. In 1848, it was Germany's first freely elected parliament and they offered the crown to the king of Prussia but said no because of the liberalism.
    In 1871, Wilhelm I became of king of Prussia and made Otto von Bismarch chancellor. In 1864 they declared the war to Denmark, in 1866 to Austria and in 1870 to France. In 1871, the king is proclamed Emperor of the Second German Empire (Reich)
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The progressive constitution recognised national soverignty with census suffrage, the separation of powers and the two chambers (Congress of Deputies and the Senate), and it granted many rights and individual liberties
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The moderate Constitution consisted in highly restricted census suffrage, restricted civil liberties, sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown and reorganisation of State and municipal administration (only asque country and Navarre had statutory laws at this moment).
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    New revolutions started again in France which finally proclamed the II Republic and adopted democratic measures as a new social group was claiming rights, the workers.
    There were also revolutions in the Austrian Empire, the claimed liberal ideas and nationalism was uprising. The actual king was forced to abdicate and also the first minister, and they put another king with a constitutional monarchy.
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    French Second Republic

    The republic started with the revolutions of 1848, it adopted democratic measures and universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
    Nevertheless, it finished in 1852 with Napoleon III's coup who proclamed himself Emperor.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    Made possible to manuacture steel.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859 Piedmont started the unification led by Savoy and his prime ministe Cavour. They declared the war to Austria and anexed Lombordy. At the same time there were popular uprisings led by Garibaldiin central and southern Italy against the absolute monarchies. In 1861, Savoy is proclamed king of Italy; in 1866, Austria leaves Venice and it's annexed and finally in 1870 the Papal States are annexed to Italy and Rome becomes the capital.
  • First International

    Created by the initiative of Marx but was disolved in1876
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    It brought together all his ideas and the history of the economy, it changed the vision of many people. After years of studies.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    He started his reign in 1870. He was chosen to take the throne and he had the support of progressives, unionists and democrats. The government also introduced new measures to help economic recovery and democratisation process.
    However, he had a strong opposition:
    • Moderates
    • Some representatives of the Church loyal to the Bourbons
    • Republicans
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Due to the abdication of Savoy, the Cortes voted for a republic. Lower social classes were happy and the republics prepared a programme of social and economic reforms. In 1873, the federal republicans won the elections so they drafted a constitution which was never aproved.
    There were problems and too high expectations and the monarchy came back in 1874.
  • Second International

    Founded by Marxist and stablished the Anthem and the International Worker’s day