Primer electrico int

Alejandro Barreiro_G&H_4ºF

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Historical period which starts in 1492 (with, among others, the discovery of America) and ends in 1789 (with the French Revolution).
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    Enclosure Acts

    Series of laws approved in Britain whose objective was to allow landowners take over common land and enclose their property, due to the rise in grain prices. That caused that large areas of land and pastures became privately owned, allowed improvements in farming techniques and rose production (aimed in markets) and the move of a great number of people from the countryside to the cities.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    The mechanisation of textile industry started with John Kay’s flying shuttle, which made possible to weave wider fabrics and spinning machines, and increased production speed.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution was a process started around 1750 in UK, in which several technological changes caused a revolution in mostly all areas of society.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    In 1764 James Watt was asked to repair a Newcomen steam engine. He realised it was very inefficient, because of the amount of steam it wasted, so he created a much more efficient machine, which became the driving force behind industry and transport.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776 by Adam Smith was the first modern economical book. Smith talks the prosperity of countries like England or Holland, some economic theories like work division or market, and some economical systems like mercantilism and physiocracy.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    In 1785 Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom, which caused a huge increase in the fabric production an lowered the costs of textile industry, because it caused almost a complete mechanisation of the process.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    Assembly created in Versailles, in France, in 1789 by king Louis XVI. It was made because of the monarchy's lack of money, and it was formed by the nobilit, clergy and the Third State. The Third State wanted a greater representation and one vote per state instead tha one per representative, but previleged classes refused to it, so they left the meeting and proclaimed the National Assembly.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    In August 1789, at the first phase of the revolution, when France was a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy, the National Constituent Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen to recognise individual rights, freedom and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    Contemporary History

    Period which starts in 1789, with the French Revolution, and goes up to the present.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    First phase of French Revolution when the National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism, approved Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and a drew up a constitution.
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    French Revolution

    Revolution in France caused by the economic and financial crisis, the Enlightenment principles and the Independence of United States, etc., between 1789 and 1799. It had thre phases: the Consttutional Monarchy (supported by the constitunialists and moderated burgeoise), the Social Republic (supported at first by the Girondin Convention and then by the Jacobin Convention) and the Conservative Republic (supported by the moderated burgeoise).
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    After the Third State created the National Assembly, people of Paris stormed the Bastille (which was one of the main symbols of absolute monarchy) on July 14. Then, the revolution spread to the countryside, were people burnt nobles' homes. In the autumn of 1789 Louis XVI, frightened by the situation, accepted the National Assembly, which made France a constitutional monarchy.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    After Third State left the Estates General, they proclaimed the National Assembly in the Tennis Court Oath (in Versailles). They pleged to draft a constitution that reflected the will of the majority of French people.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    The 5th October of 1789 thousand of andry women marched to Versailles (due to the high prices of food) and forced tghe king to leave his palace and translate to Tuileries (in Paris).
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    During the Constitutional Monarchy of the French Revolution the National Assembly drew up the First French Constitution (in 1791) which was based on the separation of powers, national sovereignity and legal equality. Other important points that were included were the right of veto of the king and the census suffrage.
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    Social Republic

    Phase of the French Revolution which took place between 1792 and July 1794 where there was no king. The first part of it (between 1792 and 1793) was governed by the Girondin Convention; some of important events were: the execution of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoniette and the declaration of the War of First Coalition. The second part was ruled by the Jacobin Convention between 1793 and 1794; one of the most important events was the creation of Comittee pf Public Safety.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    After the royal family tried to escape from Tuileries and they were arrested by the National Guard and then executed, Prussia and Holy Roman Empire oath to help Louis XVI against revolutioneries, because other absolutes monarchies were afraid of the spread of liberalism. In 1792 those kingdoms threatened France with a war if they don't let the king in freedom, so Legislative Assembly daclered war to Austria the 20th of May and the War of the First Coalition began.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Due to the betrayal by the king and the military invasion, common people (sans-coulottes) stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisioned royal family. After this, the republic was proclaimed.
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    Girondin Convention

    Period durind the Social Republic in which the Girondins, the moderate burgeoise, controlled the republic. It started on 10th August 1792, when the sans-coulottes stormed Tuileiris Palace, and ended with the Jacobien Convention.
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    Jacobin Convention

    Period of the Social Republic in which the republic was controlled by the Jacobins, the most radical secotr of the burgeoise. It started when they endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power, and ended when a group of people executed Robespierre and other Jacobin leaders.
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    Reign of Terror

    When the Jacobin Convention reached the power, they imposed the Reign of Terror to reject the Austrian invasion trying to stop conspiration. Freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were executed.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    During the Girondin Convention king Louis XVI was executed (and then Marie Antoniette) convicted of treason. That caused the beginnig of the War of the First Coalition.
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    Conservative Republic

    After the Jacobin Convention, the moderate burgeoise took back the control of the Republic (and the Revoulution). They abolished Jacobins laws and exiles were encouraged to return and a new Constitution was made. It ended with the arrival of Napoleon bonaparte.
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    The Consulate

    After Napoleon's coup d'état, he was named consul, as he was supported by a large parte of burgeoise because of his aim to implement moderate ideas of French Revolution nad his political stability. A new Constitution was made and Napoleaon started and autocratic and authoritarian government. The Consul ended when the Pope crowned Napoleon emperor, in 1804.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup, whic was supported by a large part of the burgeoise, and ended the French Revolution and started an authoritarian rule.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    Constitution made by Napoleon which included a new political system, with no separation of powers or no declaration of rights, so liberties were limitedand consorhip was imposed to control public opinion.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803 Napoleon began his conquest of Europe, and in 1804 he was crowned emperor by de Pope. He defeated most European monarchis (Russia, Austria, Holland...) and in 1811 he reached its zenith: most Europe began to Napoleonic Empire. In 1812 a revolt in Spain against Joseph Bonaparte was made and in 1815 the empire was defeated in the battle of Waterloo, so in that year, Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exiled.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    The 18th May of 1804 Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope, which marked the began of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    The Treaty of Fontainebleau allowed French troops to pass through Spain in 1807 in order to invade Portugal (ally of England and enemy of Spain and France).
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Napoleon asked Spain in 1804 to enter in it for conquer Portugal (as it was the ally of England, ith main enemy), and the king of Spaind accepted, but when the army was in, the decided to conquer also Spain, and Napoleon give the power to his brother Joseph Bonaparte.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    With the Abdications of Bayonne, Napoleon persuaded Bourbons to give the Spanish Crown to his brother Joseph, in 1808, after the Mutiny of Aranjuez and after Ferdinand VII became king. Then, the War of Independence began.
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    War of Independence

    War between French troops and afrancesados against the patriots (and later British troops) in Spain, by the which Spain separated from France. It had 3 main phases: Popular Resistance (1808), French Offensive (1808-12) and Anglo-Spanish Victories (1812-14). It started with the popular uprising on 2nd May of 1808 and ended with the Treaty of Valençay (December 1813).
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    Luddite movement

    Revolt developed in England in which the workers protested against the machinery, which were responsible for low wages and unemployment,
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    The Constitution of 1812 was created in the Cortes, in Cádiz (which were created to coordinate the different Juntas around Spain). It established: separation of powers, universal male suffrage, individual freedoms and rights and other reforms to abolish Ancien Régime. The war didn't allow its implementation and then, Ferdinand signed the Manifesto de los Persas, instead of the constitution.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Due to the Treaty of Valençay the Independence War of Spain ended, in December 1813. With it, Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops withdrew from Spain.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Between 1814 and 1815 the powers which defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna, where they decided to stop the spread of liberalism and restore the absolutism. In 1815 the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed, which unificated the absolute monarchies against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    With the Manifiesto de los Persas, Ferdinand VII re-established an absolute monarchy, repealing the Constitution, with the support of a few absolutists representatives of Cadiz Cortes.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815 the powers which defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna, where they decided to stop the spread of liberalism and restore the absolutism. Finally, in 1815 the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed, which unificated the absolute monarchies against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand VII started after Independence War with the Manifiesto de los Persas. It was divided in three phases: Six years of absolutism (1814-1820), the Liberal Triennium (1820-1823) and the Ominous Decade (1823-1833). It ended with his dea (1833), when his daughter Isabella was only 3.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The ambition of Napoleon drove him to try to conquer also Great Britain and Prussia, so in 1815 the imperial armies fought against those kingdoms in Waterloo, but they were defeated, so Napoleon abdicated the same year and the Napoleonic Empire ended.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    In 1820, a pronunciamiento was successful, so Ferdinand was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. With this event, the Liberal Triennium started, until 1823.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of Ottoman Empire for centuries, but Greeks had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs and they had different customs. In 1822 Greece declarded independence in Epidauris, but it wasn't recognised by the Turks, and a war began (Eurpean liberals supported them, as they were the origin of European culture). In 1827 France and England helped Greece and in 1830 they got their independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    The Liberal Triennium ended when Ferdinand VII appealed the Holy Alliance to defend the absolutism, so in 1823 they sent the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, restoring absolutism. Then, the Ominous Decade started.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    The Combination Acts forbade workers for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions. They were abolished in 1824 due to a campaign led by led by the London tailor and political agitator Francis Place and the member of Parliament Joseph Hume.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Rail was the main mode of transport to be powered by inanimate tractive force, due to the steam engine, thanks to Stephenson's steam locomotive (also called the Rocket). It could carry more passengers and goods in less time with a lower cost.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The Congress of Vienna (in 1815) caused from 1830 to 1848 a lot of revololutions in Europe. The insurrections which were successful replaced absolutism and implemented new liberal political systems with a Constitution.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    From 1815 (Congress of Vienna) Belgium had been part of Netherlands, which consited in Holland (protestants and absolutists) and Belgium (catholic and liberal). After Belgium's declaration of independence (1830) an armed conflict was created, which ended in 1839 with the recognition by Holland of Leopld I as king of Belgium (liberal monarchy).
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The Reign of isabella II is divided into 5 phases: Regency of Maria Christina (1833 - 40), Regency of Espartero (1840 - 43), The Moderate Decade (1843 – 54, when she started to reign), The Progressive Biennium (1854 - 1856) and The system in decline (1856 – 68). This period was marked by the instability of the government due to the continue pronunciamentos of the army, which changed the power from moderates to progressives continuously.
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    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War began in 1833 due to the death of Ferdinand. When he died his daughter, Isabella, was allowed to reign due to the Pragmatic Sanction, signed by Ferdinand, which made angry absolutists. It was won by Isabella.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    After abolishing the Combination Acts, the Great Trade Union was created (in 1834), which defended the right of association, improved wages and regulated child labour.
  • Zollverein

    Customs union created by Prussia in 1834 which involved the majority of the states of the German Confederation.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The Constitution of 1837 was drafted during the Regency of Maria Christina. It was progressive and established national sovereignty with census suffrage, separation of powers and two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate and granted many rights and individual liberties
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The Constitution of 1845 was drafted during the Moderate Decade of Isabella II reign. It was moderate and established highly restricted suffrage, civil liberties were restricted, sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown and reorganisation of State and municipal administration (only the Basque Country and Navarre held on their statutory laws).
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    French Second Republic

    Due to the Age of revolutions Charles X was overthrown, and Louis Philippe I became the new constitutional king (also called 'Citizen King'), but in 1848 a popular uprising proclaimed de Second Republic, with some democratic measures.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    During 18th century, the iron was highly demanded, to make ships, munitions, machines and tools. After several innovations during all that century, in 1856 the Bessemer converter made it possible to manufacture steel (an alloy of iron and carbon), which was a more flexible material, better for making machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859 kingdom of Piedmont-Sardina (Cavour as Prime Minister) declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy. At the same time, a popular uprising (lead by Garibaldi) overthrew the absolute monarchy in central and southern Italy. In 1861 Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy, and five years later Austra left Venetia. Finally the Papal States were also annexed and Rome became the capital of Italy.
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    German Unification process

    In 1834 Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein) with the Germanic States. In 1848 they first elected a praliament and offered the crown to Prussiian king, which refused due to the liberal parliament. In 1861 Wilhem became king of Prussia and Otto von Bismarck cancellor (and the first mover towards an united Germany were made), and they declarated war to Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870). Prussia won all the wars and Germany was unificated, proclaming Wilhem I Kaiser of Reich.
  • First International

    First International
    Association created by the initiative of Karl Marx in 1864. Its objective was the political organization of the proletariat in Europe. It ended in 1876 due to the ideological differences between marxists, anarchists and trade.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Book published by Karl Marx in 1867 in which criticizes the political economy and analyzes the relationship between proletariat and bourgeois.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo I of Savoy was chosen to take the Spanish throne in 1870, as he had contributed earlier to the unification of Italy. A few days before his arrival, General Prim, his main supporter was assassinated.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Amadeo I of Savoy abdicated due to the problems he had (like the strong opposition or the Second Carlist War), so the Cortes voted to form a Republic, despite most of deputies were monarchist. In 1873 a constitution was drafted, which was based on federal principles and separation of powers between federal republics and central government.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    In 1874, the General MArtínez Campos proclaimed Isabella II's son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain, so the Bourbon Restoration (1874-1902) started.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to coordinate the various socialist parties. It established symbols of labour movement, like the Anthem “The Internationale”, and the International Workers’ Day