Revolucion francesa 1789 1280x720

José Mariño_G&H_4G

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    The historic period from the discovery of America to the French Revolution.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    Flying shuttle was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. It was invented by John Kay in 1733 and represented an important step toward automatic weaving. Using the flying shuttle, one weaver could weave fabrics of any width more quickly. The large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle, but the Kay's flying shuttle was able to do the work of two people and more quickly.
  • Period: to

    First Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution is the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world.
  • Period: to

    Enclosure Acts

    They were essentially the abolition of the open field system of agriculture. The ownership of all common land, and waste land, that farmers and Lords had, was taken from them. New fields were designed, and the land was re-allocated to different farmers and Lords. This process was agreed upon through informal agreement but Parliament took over during the 18th century.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer. He was given a model of the first working steam engine to repair. He realised that it was inefficient and improve the design. He designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented enormous losses of steam. This avoided the need to waste energy and radically improved the power, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of steam engines.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith wrote "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", commonly referred to simply as "The Wealth of Nations" to describe the industrialized capitalist system that was upending the mercantilist system. It was the first great work in political economy, an inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The first power loom was developed by Edmund Cartwright in 1784 and completed in 1785. A loom is a device that is used to weave together threads in order to produce a fabric. Traditional handlooms were slow and required several laborers to operate. Cartwright’s invention of the power loom was significant because it used mechanization to automate much of the weaving process and the textile production increased.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary Age is the historical period that ranges from the year 1789, with the French Revolution, to the present day.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    A legislative and consultive assembly which had to be convened by the king, divided in the three different estates. It had no power: was an advisory body to the king.
    In 1789, the last time that it was convened was 174 years ago
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    Revolutionary movement that took place in France between 1789 and 1799, and marked the end of the ancien régime.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    After the members of the French Third Estate were locked out by Louis XIX out of the meeting, they went to the Tennis Court and they oath never to separate until they established a written constitution for France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The third state met in Versailles and decided to start a revolution. For this, they needed arms and gunpowder so they broke in the Bastille to collect them and also free some prisoners.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    March where thousands of women, due to high prices of food in Paris’ markets, marched to Versailles, where they forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    A document that denied women civil rights like property, legal and fiscal equality or the right to vote.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    They abolished guilds and created a new army force to protect the revolutionaries. To fix the crisis, they obligated the privileged to pay taxes.
  • Period: to

    Constitutional monarchy

    Form of monarchy in which the king exercises authority in accordance with a constitution. This was the first phase of the French Revolution after Louis XVI was forced to accept the National Assembly.
  • Period: to

    Social Republic

    The second phase of the Revolution, that caused the monarchy to lose most of its followers. It was ruled by the radical bourgeoisie, first the Girondists (1792-1793), and the Jacobins (1793-1794).
  • Period: to

    Girondin Convention

    The first half of the second phase of the french revolution, the Social Republic, that was ruled by the moderates.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    War declared by the Legislative Assembly to Austria and Prussia, given that Prussia and Holy Roman Empire oathed to help Louis XVI against revolutionaries.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed the Touleries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. This event signals the end of the Constitutional Monarchy and the beginning of the Social Republic.
  • Period: to

    Jacobin Convention

    Second period of the National Convention when the Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, seized power. The Committee of Public Safety, leader by Robespierre, had the executive power and enacted a new constitution.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    A period of the French Revolution when they were Counter-revolutionary revolts and plots. They were also executions
    under the Law of suspects.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI by guillotine was one of the most important event of the French Revolution that took place at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. The National Convention had convicted the king of high treason in a near-unanimous vote, finally they condemned him to death by a simple majority.
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    During this republic, Jacobin laws were cancelled, sufragge was censitary and the executive power was held by the Directory. A new constitution was approved in 1795. It faced the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people, and it ended with a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Period: to

    The Consulate

    The Consulate was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule in France lead by Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and aspired to put an end to the political instability of the French Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule. The French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    New political system
    - Ø Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
    - Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
    - Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
  • Period: to

    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1804, after being crowned emperor by the Pope, Napoleon kept conquering Europe with the help of his army. After Austerlitz in 1806, the Napoleonic army became unstoppable. In 1808, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte, one of emperor's brother, was proclaimed the new king. In 1811, the empire reached its zenith but after the failure of the invasion of Russia in 1808 and the revolts against Joseph in Spain in 1812 caused the end of the Napoleonic Empire in The Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope after the beginig of his conquest.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    In 1806, Napoleon decreed the so-called Continental Blockade, which prohibited trading with England. But Portugal (ally of British) refused to comply with the order. Napoleon decided to invade Portugal. The treaty of Fontainebleau between Napoleon and Godoy allowed French troops to pass trough Spain to invade Portugal. It was the trigger for the French invasion of Spain.
  • Period: to

    War of independence

    Popular uprising against French. It began in Madrid and spread across the country... Some liberals accepted Joseph I (afrancesados) and his Statute of Bayonne, that introduced measures to abolish Ancien Régime, but the majority of the population (patriots) composed their own government (Juntas and Cortes) and fought against the invasion with the help of British troops. It ended with the Treaty of Valençay.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Bayonne abdications took place on May 7, 1808 at the Marracq castle in the French city of Bayonne. It is the name by which the successive resignations of the kings Carlos IV and that of his son Fernando VII to the throne of Spain in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte are known. The French emperor, shortly after, ceded such rights to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who reigned under the name of Joseph I.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was made king.
  • Period: to

    Luddite movement

    Luddism was a movement of British weavers and textile workers, active in the early 19th century, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and which was notable for the destruction of machines as a form of protest.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    During the war of indenpendence, the Central Junta decided to convene Cortes. The representatives of every provincial Junta met in Cádiz (a city not occupied by the French) and approved reforms to abolish the Ancien Régime. They drafted the first Spanish Constitution, La Pepa, establishing separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The Treaty of Valençay was signed between the French Empire and the Spanish Crown on 11 December 1813. The agreement provided for the restoration of Ferdinand VII as King of Spain, who had been imprisoned in France, in the Château de Valençay, since his abdication in 1808. The French troops withdrew from Spain and it was the end of the war of independence.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    Iits authorship is collective and was signed by some 69 royalist deputies. Throughout different articles, the document tries to justify the rejection of liberalism and the return to an absolutist regime. With their support, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms of the Cádiz Cortes Liberals, who hoped for a constitutional monarchy, were persecuted.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    In 1814 French troops withdrew from Spain and Ferdinand VII, the Desired, returned to Spain and re-established an absolutist monarchy. However, the spread of liberal ideas during the War of Independence made the restoration of absolutism difficult. As a result of the struggle between liberals and absolutists, there were different phases during his reign: Six years of absolutism 1814-20; Liberal Triennium 1820-23; Ominous Decade 1823-33.
  • Period: to

    The Restoration of absolutism

    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage: Ø the peoples and their nationalist aspirations.
    France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire
    was divided among the victors.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    It was a congress between Britain, Prussia, France, Russia and Austria,
    Was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. It's objectives were:
    - Stop the spread of liberal ideas.
    - Restore absolutism. Absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia + Prussia + Austria) creating the Holy Alliance Treaty.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia.
    After that Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the liberals were persecuted. Some of them tried unsuccessful liberal pronunciamientos against the king, but the pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Diego in Sevilla, was successful: the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812 and the National Militia, made up of armed liberal volunteers, was created to defend the liberal regime.
  • Period: to

    Greek War of Independence

    The Greeks were part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries.
    They had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state administration jobs and were dominated by people with different religion and culture.
    1822. Greeks declared independence (not recognized by the Turks).
    1827. Greek victory thanks to French and British military intervention help.
    1830. Recognized independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    After the pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego, Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Alliance (Russia, Prussia and Austria) to sent troops to defend the absolutism in Spain: in 1823 the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, commanded by Duke of Angoulême, restored absolutism. Spain returned to an absolutist regime, but the political and economical crisis led to the final breakdown of the system.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Combination Acts were British acts of 1799 and 1800 that made trade unionism illegal. They were directed against trade unions when the government feared unrest and even revolution. They failed to crush the unions, but did force them to operate secretly. Their repeal in 1824, after a campaign master‐minded by Place and presented by Joseph Hume, was followed by a number of strikes, and in 1825 an unsuccessful attempt was made to reimpose the acts.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    Stephenson's Rocket was an early steam locomotive of 0-2-2 wheel arrangement. It won the Rainhill Trials of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, held in 1829 and show that improved locomotives was more efficient than stationary steam engines.
    Though it was not the first steam locomotive, it was the most advanced locomotive of its day. It became the template for most steam engines in the following 150 years.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples causing this revolutionary wave.
    Two main opposition forces appeared:
    - Liberalism: Political philosophy that says that people are free and have fundamental rights (Constitutions).
    - Nationalism: Political philosophy that defends the right of nations to exercise their sovereignty and create their own state.
  • Period: to

    The Age of the revolutions

    This period of time includes the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire...
    After the fall of Napoleon, a new wave of liberalist revolutions started.
  • Period: to

    The Belgian Revolution

    After the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of the Netherlands divided into:
    - Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist).
    - Belgium (catholic and liberal). 1830 -39: Armed conflict after Belgium’s declaration of independence.
    1839: Recognition of independence. Liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Period: to

    First Carlist War

    Civil war (1833 - 1839) between absolutists, that refused to recognise three-year-old daughter of Ferdinand VII, Isabella, as their king when he died in 1833, and the Carlists, that backed Infante Carlos.
    This first Carlist War began in the Basque Country lead by the experienced commander Zumalacárregui, who was defetated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara. Isabella won this war.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Isabella II

    ISABELLA II, daughter of Ferdinand VII, built a liberal state from 1833 to 1868. Her reign had different phases:
    Regency of Maria Christina (1833 - 40)
    Regency of Espartero (1840 - 43)
    The Moderate Decade (1843 – 54)
    The Progressive Biennium (1854 - 1856)
    The system in decline (1856 – 68)
  • Zollverein

    It was a customs union that unified the majority of the German states. It was made by Prussia.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union of 1834 was an early attempt to form a national union confederation in the United Kingdom
  • Period: to

    German Unification Process

    In 1834 the Zollverein was created by Prussia. The 1st freely elected German parliament offered the German crown to the king of Prussia in 1848, but he rejected it because the German parliament was liberal. In 1861 Wilheim I became king of Prussia and he made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war to Dennmark, Austria and France in 1862, 1866 and 1870 respectively, and won all the wars. In 1871, Wilheim I was made Kaiser of the Second German Empire (Reicht).
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    In 1837, moderate liberals and their conservative policies took control of the government. Maria Christina was forced to step down and the General Espartero was appointed regent. They drafted the Constitution of 1837 (progressive) that established the National sovereignty with census suffrage; the separation of powers; two chambers: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate, and granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    Moderate Liberal Party led by General Narváez remained in power during almost the entire reign of Isabella II. Its representatives drafted the Constitution of 1845 (moderate) that established a highly restricted suffrage and the sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown. The civil liberties were restricted. They also realised the reorganisation of State and municipal administration.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy).
    Rise of liberalism + expansion of nationalism = pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In the Austrian empire, nationalistic uprisings based on liberal principles appeared in different places. And in France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic.
  • Period: to

    French Second Republic

    It was republic proclaimed by a popular uprising in France during the Spring of Nations. This republic adopted several democratic measures, like universal male suffrage, press freedom or the abolition of death penalty. It also demostrated the importance of workers as a political force and recognised some of their rights.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    Henry Bessemer developed the first process for manufacturing steel inexpensively (1856), leading to the development of the Bessemer converter. This egg-shaped converter converted iron into steel, and removed most of the impurities without extra fuel was required.
    The first converters could make seven tonnes of steel in half an hour.
  • Period: to

    Italian Unification Process

    The monarchy of the Kingdom of Piedgemont and the Prime Minister Cavour started a unification process, declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy. Garibaldy led a popular uprising and defeated the absolute monarchies in central and south Italy.
    In 1861 Victor Manuel of Saboy was proclaimed king, in 1866 Austria left Venetia and in 1870 the Papal Stated were annexed. The capital was placed in Rome.
  • First International

    First International
    First International was workers’ groups with different ideologies that had a considerable influence as a unifying force for labour in Europe during the latter part of the 19th century.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Published in 1867 by German philosopher Karl Marx, Das Kapital is a description of how the capitalist system works and how it will destroy itself. His studiy is part history, part economics and part sociology. Marx set out his ideas on class struggle: how the workers of the world would seize power from the ruling elites because an economic system based on private profit is inherently unstable, an unsustainable way to organise society.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy (1870-73)

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy (1870-73)
    The Revolution of 1868 was triggered by progressives and democrats, joined by unionist. Revolutionary Juntas were formed all over the country. After the Battle of Alcolea, the Queen Isabella II and her heir Alfonso XII went into exile. A provisional government was formed to establish a democratic political system. Amadeo of Savoy was chosen to take the throne.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic (1873-74)

    Proclamation of the First Republic (1873-74)
    During the reign of Amadeo I there were many conflicts, and in 1873 Amadeo I abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchist. Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans prepared a programme of social and economic reforms. 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans, but after other many conflicts, in 1874, a coup dissolved the Cortes.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Alfonso XII

    In 1874 the General Martínez Campos proclaimed Isabella’s II son, Alfonso XII, king of Spain and occurred the Bourbon Restoration. The Canovist System (political system created by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo) allowed political parties to alternate in power and promised political and social stability. Its objective was the pacification of Spain. They drafted the Constitution of 1876 (moderate).
  • Second International

    Second International
    It was a federation of socialist parties and trade unions that greatly influenced the ideology, policy, and methods of the European labour movement from the last decade of the 19th century to the beginning of World War I.