Tiffany Pereiro_G&H_4F

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    It was a stage that developed after the Middle Ages throughout the 15th and 18th centuries, and it was before contemporary times. This space of time was dominated by ideals that were framed in the progress of Western society, communication, domination and reason.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Thanks to this machine, the trade developed and the market economy rised.
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    Enclosure acts

    British laws which enclosed open fields and common land and created legal property rights.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    Machine that represented an important step towards automatic weaving.
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    First Industrial revolution

    It was a process of economic, social and technological transformation that started at the second half of the 18th century in the Kingdom of Great Britain and then, it spread throughout the rest of Europe.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Is a seminal book that represents the birth of free-market economics.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom was significant because it used mechanization to automate much of the weaving process.
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    Contemporary History

    It begins (more or less) in 1945 and continues to the present.
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    Jacobin Convention

    They were the members of the political group of the French Revolution whose headquarters was in Paris
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    It was a general assembly (chaired by the king) that represented the French estates of the kingdom: the clergy, the nobility, and the bourgeoisie (Third Estate).
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    It was a revolution in France that started in 1789 and ended 1799.
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    French Revolution

    It was a revolution in France that started in 1789 and ended 1799.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Tennis Court Oath was a commitment to a national constitution and representative government, taken by delegates at the Estates-General at Versailles.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    It was the first major act of violence in the French Revolution by the revolutionaries against Louis XVI and the French Monarchy. The storming of the Bastille started the French Revolution.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It was a document from the French Revolution with human civil rights set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    On the morning of October 5, 1789, a large group of women in a Paris marketplace began a revolt. They protested against the high price and shortage of bread and the deficiency of rights.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    It was the revolutionary government’s first attempt at a written constitutional document. Motivated by Enlightenment ideas and the American Revolution, it was intended to define the limits of power in the new government.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    The Constitution of 1791, the first written constitution of France, turned the country into a constitutional monarchy following the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.
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    Girondin Convention

    It was a political group which was made up of several deputies from Gironde.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The First Coalition was formed between 1792-1797 when the forces of Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Prussia, Sardinia, Holland and the Netherlands felt incited to unite against France, because of the decree that assisted in recovering liberty and the execution of Louis XVIII.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    It was like the storming of Bastille but in this, the people of Paris attacked the Tuileries Palace, the official residence of Louis XVI and the home of the Legislative Assembly. This attack took place of the end of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris.
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    Reign of Terror

    It was a period in were a lot of massacres and numerous public executions took place.
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    The Consulate

    It was the highest level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire until the start of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte led a military coup against the French Directory in Paris.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    It was a national constitution of France, which established the form of government known as the Consulate.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Period in were Napoleon conquered many places of Europe, to make that possible, they used new military tactics.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement signed on 27 October 1807 in Fontainebleau between King Charles IV of Spain and the French Emperor Napoleon.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    King of Spain in 1808 and from 1814 to 1833. Between 1808 and 1813, during the Napoleonic Wars, Ferdinand was imprisoned in France by Napoleon. Ferdinand was the son of Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma.
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    War of Independence

    Armed conflict as a consequence of the entry of Napoleonic troops into the Iberian Peninsula with the excuse of invading Portugal. It constituted a spontaneous and heroic response of the peninsular people to the Napoleonic military occupation. In an unequal armed confrontation, the people took to the mountains and into the streets, killing French people.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    The Abdications of Bayonne took place on 7 May 1808 when the French emperor Napoleon forced Charles IV and his son, Ferdinand VI to renounce the throne in his favour.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Joseph Bonaparte was made king by his brother Napoleon Bonaparte.
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    Luddite movement (c. 1811-1817)

    Luddites were textile workers rebelled against the introduction of machinery.
    The first noticeable riots occurred in 1811. The Luddites activity emerged against a backdrop of economic struggle from the Napoleonic Wars which impacted negatively on the working conditions already experienced in the new factories. Some of the ideas and requests of the Luddites were: the introduction of a minimum wage, taxes which would enable funds to be created for workers’ pensions, etc.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    Also known as the Constitution of Cádiz and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history. The Constitution was ratified on 19 March 1812 by the Cortes of Cádiz, the first Spanish legislature that included delegates from the entire nation.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Treaty between Napoleon and King Ferdinard VII of Spain. It's aim was to disentangle France from the Peninsular War, the treaty was rejected by the Spanish Council of Regency.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Several meetings between France, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria. They met at the Congress of Vienna. All of them wanted to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    Manifesto de los Persas is a document signed on April 12, 1814, in Madrid, by 69 absolutist deputies, led by Bernardo Mozo de Rosales.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    The congress of Vienna was the place in wich the powers that defeated Napoleon met in.
    The Holy Alliance Treaty was created and signed at the Congress of Vienna by the crowned heads of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Its purpose was to re-establish the principle of hereditary rule and to suppress democratic and nationalist movements, which sprung up in the wake of the French Revolution.
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    Italian Unification process

    The Franco-Austrian War of 1859 was the agent that began the physical process of Italian unification.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    It was a battle in Belgium in which the British and Prussians defeated the French under Napoleon Bonaparte. This marked the decline of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    On January 1, 1820, Lieutenant Colonel Rafael del Riego proclaimed the Constitution of Cádiz, in Cabezas de San Juan, province of Seville. The successive pronouncements that take place in Spain as of February will contribute to the success of the uprising.
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    Greek War of Independence

    It was an armed conflict produced by the Greek revolutionaries against the dominance of the Ottoman Empire and the late assistance of various European powers such as the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of France, and the United Kingdom.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII, to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    The English Combination Acts forbade workers to organize for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions. The acts were abolished in 1824 as the result of a campaign led by Francis Place and Joseph Hume. A wave of strikes following repeal aroused organized opposition from manufacturers, and a new version of the Combination Act was passed in 1825.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    It was one of the first steam locomotives with a wheel arrangement.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    Between this period some revolutions took place:
    Revolutions of 1830: The revolutionary wave of 1830: this movement started in France and dispersed throughout Europe. This rebellions were against conservative kings and governments by liberals and revolutionaries.
    Revolutions of 1848: The Spring of Nations: were a series of democratic revolts against the monarchies of Europe.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
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    Conservative Republic

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    Reign of Isabella II

    Isabella II was the daughter of Ferdinand IV who became queen thanks to the Pragmatic Sanction that her father signed against the "Salic Law".
    Her reign was divided in 5 phases:
    -Regency of Maria Christina 1830-40.
    -Regency of Espartero 1840-43.
    -The Moderate Decade 1843–54.
    -The Progressive Biennium 1854-56.
    -The system in decline 1856–68.
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    First Carlist War

    The first Carlist war was a civil war that developed in Spain between 1833 and 1840 between the Carlist, supporters of the Infante Carlos María Isidro de Borbón (absolutist regime) and the “isabelinos”, defenders of Isabel II and the regent María Cristina de Borbón, whose government was originally moderate absolutist and ended up becoming liberal to gain popular support.
  • Zollverein

    It was a German term meaning 'customs union'.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Founded in 1834 by delegates of societies nation-wide in response to calls of Derby artisans and labourers ‘locked out’ for belonging to ‘combinations’.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    It was the constitution of Spain from 1837 to 1845. Its principal legacy was to restore the most progressive features of the Constitution of 1812 and to entrench the concepts of constitutionalism, parliamentarism, and separation of powers in Spain.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The Constitution of 1845 replaced the more liberal constitution established in 1837. Imposed by the Moderate Party when it took control of parliament, the Constitution of 1845 drastically constricted suffrage.
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    French Second Republic

    Made by Carlos Luis Napoleón Bonaparte. In this, big reforms were produced, such as: male suffrage, the definitive abolition of slavery in the colonies and the right to work.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer procedure was the first chemical manufacturing process to serve the mass production of steel.
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    German Unification process

    In the 1860s, Otto von Bismarck wars against Denmark, Austria, and France, aligning the smaller German states behind Prussia in its defeat of France. In 1871 he unified Germany into a nation-state, forming the German Empire.
  • First International

    It was an organization founded from London in 1864 that initially brought together English trade unionists, French and Italian republican anarchists and socialists. Its aims were the political organization of the proletariat in Europe and the rest of the world, as well as a forum for examining common problems and proposing lines of action. Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Mikhail Bakunin collaborated on it.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics by Karl Marx.
    Karl Marx was a socialist thinker and revolutionary activist of German origin.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo I was an Italian prince who reigned as king of Spain from 1870 to 1873. He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabel II, and was sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I. On 11 February of the same year, the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals, republicans and democrats.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    Alfonso XII of Spain was king of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. After a revolution that deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. His mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup against the First Republic.
  • Second International

    The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 by the Socialist and Labor parties that wished to coordinate their activity. Unlike the First International, there was no General Council to direct it, but the parties were independent to apply the policy they decided in their respective States.
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    Social Republic

    A socialist state is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.