Versailles 3

Inés Vázquez_G&H_4ºE

  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    It goes from the discovery of America, by Christopher Columbus to the French Revolution
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    Enclosure Acts

    This ended with the common lands worked by peasants and shared pastures and created enclosure lands privately owned. Positive consequences:
    - Concentration of land ownership
    - Improvement in farming techniques
    - Production aimed at the market Negative consequences:
    - Poor farmers couldn't enclosure land, so they had to sell their property and...
    1) Became labourers in exchange of wage
    2) Moved to the cities
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    It was a mechanization process that developed John Kay in 1733. This process helped to increase speed production and to build wider fabrics. Here you will see how did it work: Flying shuttle
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    First Industrial Revolution

    It was a series of interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain.
    - Agricultural revolution
    - Demographic revolution
    - Technological revolution
    - Transport revolution
    - Trade and financial revolution
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    It's an engine that uses water to produce continuous movement. It was a very important invention because it had lots of applications that helped the development of transport and trade.
    It had applications in the industrial machinery, specially in textile industry, in the agriculture, in mills, in mines and in transport (locomotive, ships) that led to the development of trade. Here you will find more information: steam engine
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    In this book, Adam Smith talks about the economic liberalism, which is a doctrine based on private ownership (capitalism), established by liberal British authors of the Manchester School.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom was invented in 1785 by Cartwright. This spinning machine meant a cheaper cost for a bigger production in the textile industry and fewer workers were needed.
    Here you will see how did it work: Power loom
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    Contemporary History

    It starts with the French Revolution and continuous till now a days.
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    French Revolution: Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the first phase of the Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly negotiated with the king and privileged classes to establish a parliamentary monarchy:
    - Abolishment of feudalism
    - The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    - Approval of the first French Constitution
    - Approval of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy It ended because of the betrayal of the betrayal of the king (Storm of Tuilleries Palace) and the military invasion of Prussia and Russia.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a political and social movement that, violently and led by the Third State, ended with the absolute monarchy and the stratified society of the Ancien Régime. The main causes were the American Revolution and the Enlightenment, the aspirations of the Third State and the two crisis: financial and subsistence. The French Revolution end with the Coup of the 18th Brumaire by the general Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The two major crisis through which France was going through: financial (debt of France) and subsistence (a series of poor harvests led to a rise of the prizes of food) led to the decision that the privileged classes should start paying taxes. They denied and the Estates-General met in Versailles in 1789. The meeting was chaired by the king and made up of the representatives of the nobility, church and Third State. However the nobility and church refused to pay and insisted in a vote per state.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    As the situation in the meeting of the Estates-General was getting more and more tense, the king Louis XIV closed the door to the Third State representatives, who decided to meet in another pavilion in Versailles (Jeu de paume). There, they proclaimed themselves the National assembly (the representatives of the nation and promised to draft a constitution that reflected the will of the majority of the French population.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    the Assembly’s proposals joined more and more supporters in Paris and the situation got more and more tense. Finally, the Third Estate stormed the Bastille, where they obtained a lot of weapons that allowed them to fight.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    This document recognised individual freedoms and equality of all citizensin law and taxation.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Thousands of women angry due to the high prices of food, marched to Versailles and forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    A constitution drew up by the National Constituent Assembly was drawn up in 1791. It was based on the separation of powers national sovereignty and equality, though the king reserved the vote of veto. It was the first French written constitution.
  • Beginning of the War of the First Coalition

    Beginning of the War of the First Coalition
    Since this date, France will be in a continuous war. There will be in total 7 Coalitions in which Europe will confront France to control the spreading of the Republicanism.
  • Storm of Tuleries Palace

    Storm of Tuleries Palace
    The betrayal of the king and the military invasion of Prussia and Russia increased republican feelings among “common people”, specially sans-culottes, so they stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family, declaring France a republic.
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    French Revolution: Social Republic

    It is the second fase of the French Revolution. It is divided into:
    - Girondin Convention (moderate bourgeisie)
    - Jacobin Convention (radical bourgeoisie) It ended with a coup in July 1974, where Robespierre and 21 of his supporters are executed.
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    Social Republic: Girondin Convention

    The most important change introduced during this convention, ruled by moderate bourgeoisie was the assassination of the king Louis XIV and the queen Marie Antoinette.
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    Social Republic: Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins seized power in June 1793 and started the most extreme phase of the revolution.
    • Neutralisation of enemies: → Mass levy → Reign of terror
    • Approval of social laws to satisfy sans-culottes
  • Execution of Louis XIV

    Execution of Louis XIV
    Scared of another betrayal from the king or the absolute monarchy's supporters, they execute the king.
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    Jacobin Convention: Reign of Terror

    The Jacobin Cobvention was the most radical part of the Social Republic. During this phase, Robespierre iniciated a process of neutralisation of the enemies and to avoid counter-revolutionary revolts and plots, through the imposition of the Reign of terror. For more details: Reign of terror
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    French Revolution: Conservative Republic

    It is the third phase of the Revolution. Moderate bourgeoisie seized again the power and cancelled Jacobin laws drafting the 1795 constitution. It ended becuose of the Coup of 18th Brumaire, organised by Napoleon.
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    The Consulate

    It starts with the Coup of the 18th Brumaire, organised by the General Napoleon who was named consul. Its objectives were:
    1. Political stability.
    2. Consolidation of the revolutionary principles.
    3. Economic recovery. He made many reforms to reach those objectives:
    - Approval of the 1800 constitution.
    - Economic reforms.
    - Civil code for all citizens.
    - Creation of lycées.
    - Allowed exiles to return.
    - Concordat (agreement) with the Church.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The general Napoleon Bonaparte, organized a coup supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule in France.
    This event marks the final of the French Revolution and the beginning of the Consulate.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    New political system imposed by Napoleon during the Consulate:
    - No separation of powers and declaration of rights.
    - Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
    - States organized in departments, run by prefects.
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    Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. He defeated most european monarchies thanks to his large army and military tactics.
    In 1811 Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith: France controlled most of Europe.
    But the reaction of the other countries occupied by French wasn't good.
    In 1985, Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena, after his defeat in Waterloo.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. Here it starts the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    This treaty allowed the French trooops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal, a Brithish ally, but the Spanish people weren't happy with the presence of French troops and with the intrigues of Ferdinand VII, so there was a popular uprising: the Mutiny of Aranjuez (1808)
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, Spain was invaded by Napoleon and Joseph Bonaparte, his brother was made king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    In 1808, Napoleon persuade the Bourbons to give his brother, Joseph I, the Spanish crown, this is called the Abdications of Bayonne.
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    War of Independence

    The War of Independence starts with the popular uprising, 2nd May 1808, that spreaded through the country.
    The War of Independence has three phases:
    - Popular resistance (1808): Gerrilla warfare and the Battle of Bailén.
    - French offensive(1808-12): Napoleon commands the army and recovers the country.
    - Anglo-Spanish victories(1812-14): French send too much troops to Russia and Wellington attacks from Portugal and defeats French in the Battle of Los Arapiles.
    Ends with the Treaty of Valençay.
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    Luddite movement

    The Luddite movement was formed by the first workers to protest in England.
    They thought the machines were the responsables of low wages and unemployement so a violent destruction of the machinery was produced.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    In 1812, the Cortes drafted the First Spanish Constitution: La Pepa, stablishing separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights. Although the Cortes were creating a liberal reegime in Spain, the war didn't permitted the implementation and consolidation of the new laws.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    This treaty, puts an end to the War of Independence. Ferdinand VII becames the king again and the French troops withdraw from Spain after their defeat at the Battle of Los Arapiles (1812).
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    It was a document, signed by the absolutist representatives of the cortes, who requested an absolute monarch.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    In 1814, he returned to Spain. With the support of absolutist, he re-established an absolutist monarchy, however liberal ideas had spreaded during the War of Independence and as a result of the struggle between absolutist and liberals, there are 3 phases during his reign:
    - Six years of absolutism (1814-20)
    - Liberal Triennium (1820-23)
    - Ominous Decade (1823-33)
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The organizer was the Austrian Chancellor Metternich and its objectives were:
    - Stop the spread of liberal ideas
    - Restore absolutism
    It defended the principles of the Restoration:
    - Legitimacy of absolute monarchs
    - Denial of national sovereignty
    - Balance of power
    - Right of intervention As a consequence, Absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia + Prussia + Austria) in the Holy Alliance Treaty.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Imperial armies are defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia → Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    After the defeat of Napoleon, the great four powers reshaped the European map to their advantage, France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire was divided among the victors.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael Diego
    It was the unique successful pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael Diego in Sevilla. They forced the king to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece formed part of the Ottoman Empire for
    centuries, but they didn't have good life conditions. Greeks had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state
    administration jobs and were dominated by people with a different religion and culture.
    In 1822 Greeks declared independence, but the Turks didn't recognized it
    In 1827, the Greeks won against the Ottoman Empire thanks to French and British military intervention help.
    Finally, in 1830, the Ottoman Empire recognized their independence.
  • Holly Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousans Sons of Saint Louis

    Holly Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousans Sons of Saint Louis
    After Rafael Diego's pronunciamiento, Ferdinand VII appealed to the Holy Allianceto send troops to defend absolutism in Spain. They sent the Hundred Thousans Sons of Saint Louis, leaded by Duke of Angoulême, and they restored absolutism, in 1823.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    The Combination Acts were a series of laws that prohibited the union between workers and that regulated the strikes. Aldough workers could not associate, there were relief societies that were resistance groups who helped ill or unemployed workers and organised the first strikes. In 1824, the Combination Acts were finally abolished and unions of workers of the same field appeared for the first time in England. (trade unions)
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    This invention meant a great improve in transport because:
    - More passengers and goods could be transport.
    - It took less time to reach the destinations.
    - It was cheaper (lower cost) All those improvements led to the development of trade:
    - Large domestic market
    - Faster transatlantic crossing Here you will find how the Stephenson's Steam locomotive changed the world: Stephenson's Steam locomotive
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples and that led to the first revolutionary wave in 1830.
    (Nationalism and Liberalism were the main opposition forces)
    The movement started in France and insurrections spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support.
    In some places, it was successful and absolutism was replaced by a liberal political systems.
    But if it was unsuccessful, they went back to Absolutism
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The movement began in France and insurrections spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support.
    • In some places it was succesful, like France, where Charles X (absolute monarch) was overthrown and substituted by the constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I.
    • But in other places it wasn't succesful, like in Poland, where a revolt broke out against the autocratic Russian rule but it was harshly suppressed.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Thanks to the Congress of Vienna, Belgium, which was a catholic and liberal territory, started to form part of the Kingdom of Holland, which was protestant and absolutist. They both were known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    From 1830 till 1839, there was an armed conflict between them after Belgium's declaration of independence.
    It ens with , in 1839 the recognition of their independence by the Kingdom of Holland.
    Belgium starts on his own a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
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    Reign of Isabela II

    As absolutist refused to recognise Isabela II as their queen, they started supporting Ferdinand's VII brother: Infante Charles.
    This situation forced Isabela to look for the support of the liberals. However, the differences between moderate and progressive liberals will turn her reign into an unstable system with different phases:
    - Regency of Maria Christina
    - Regency of Espartero
    - The Moderate Decade
    - The Porgressive Biennium
    - The system in decline
  • Unification of Germany: Zollverein

    Unification of Germany: Zollverein
    Prussia creates a customs union, called Zollverein
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    In 1834, he Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought together different types of workers to :
    - Defend the right of association
    - Improve wages
    - Regulate child labour
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    This was a progressive constitution drafted during the Regency of Maria Christina, but with Mendizábal in power. The 1837 Constitution stablished:
    - National sovereignity with ccensus suffrage
    - Separation of powers
    - Two chambers: Congress of Deputies and Senate
    - Granted many rights and individual liberties
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    This moderate constitution was drafted during the Moderate Decade with Narváez in power. It established:
    - Highly restricted sufragge.
    - Civil liberties were restricted.
    - Sovereignity shared between the Cortes and the Crown.
    - Reorgnisation of State and municipal administration.
    - Centralisation of taxes
    - Creation of the Guardia Civil
    - Creation of a Penal code
    - Development of national education system
    - Concordat with the Holy See
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    In 1848, people lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy)
    The rise of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism led people to the pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In France there was a popular uprising and the Second Republic was proclaimed.
    In the Austrian Empire there was a revolt based on liberal principles in Vienna and Nationalistic uprisings in several territories
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    French Second Republic

    A popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic. During this republic:
    - Adoption of democratic measures
    - Universal male suffrage
    - Press freedom
    - Abolition of the death penalty
    - Certain rights for workers
  • Invention of the Bessemer Converter

    Invention of the Bessemer Converter
    Thanks to the new techniques in the Iron industry, Steel was easier obtained through the Bessemer Converter.
    This invention, melt the iron ore and the coal in a blast furnace allowing to obtain liquid steel.
    This meant:
    - An improvement in productivity
    - Better quality of the material
    - Reduce the price of production Here you will find more information: Bessemer converter
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    Italian Unification process

    Italy was divided into several states and in the C. of Vienna, Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia.
    In 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification.
    They declared the war on Austria, annexed Lombardy and a popular uprising lead by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies.
    In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy
    In 1866, Austria left Venetia and in 1870 The Papal states were
    annexed and Rome.
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    German Unification process

    Germany was divided into 36 states where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    In 1834, Prussia created a customs union: Zollverein
    In 1848, the 1 freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it.
    In 1861, appear new political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. Prussia declared the war to Denmark, Austria and France and in 1871 it was the proclamation of the Second German Reich.
  • First International

    First International
    Marxist and anarchists advocated the need for workers of all the world to unite to achieve social emancipation. The First International of International Workingmen's Association was created at the iniciative of Marx in 1864.
  • Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"

    Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"
    After "The communist manifesto", plublished in 1848, by Engels and Marx.
    Karl publishes in 1867 "Das Kapital" in which he criticizes the capitalism.
    Here you wil find the first tomo of "Das Kapital: Das Kapital
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo I was chosen to take the throne, supported by progressives, unionists and democrats.
    He took measures to help economic recovery and democratissation proccess, but he finally abdicated in 1873. Why?
    - Afew days before its arrival, General Prim (his main supporter) was assasinated.
    - There was a strong opposition from moderates, some representatives of the Church (supported Bourbons) and republicans (didn't wanted a monarchy)
    - The outbreak of the Second Carlist War
    - War of Cuba
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    Amadeo de Saboya abdicated and the Cortes voted to form a republic, so Spain called elections in 1873 that were won by the federal republicans.
    Also in 1873, htey drafted the 1873 Constitution that established:
    - Federal principles
    - Legislative powers divided between central govenrment and the federal republics.
  • Second International

    Second International
    After the split of the First International due to the differences between trade unions, Marxists and anarchists, in 1876. The Second International was founded by Marxists in 1889 to coordinate the various socialist parties.