Jorge Abalde Calo_G&H_4ºG

Timeline created by Jorge Abalde Calo_G&H_4ºG
In History
  • Period:
    Oct 12, 1492

    Modern History

    The Modern Age is the third of the historical periods into which world history is conventionally divided, from the 15th to the 18th century. Chronologically, it includes a period that may begin with the discovery of America (1492), and end with the French Revolution (1789).
  • John Kay´s flying shuttle

    John Kay´s flying shuttle
    In 1733, John Kay received a patent for his most revolutionary device: a "wheeled shuttle" for the hand loom. It greatly accelerated weaving, by allowing the shuttle carrying the weft to be passed through the warp threads faster and over a greater width of cloth. It was designed for the broad loom, for which it saved labour over the traditional process, needing only one operator per loom (before Kay's improvements a second worker was needed to catch the shuttle).
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    First Industrial Revolution (c. 1750- 1880)

    The first Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-18th century to about 1830 and was mostly confined to Britain. The second Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-19th century until the early 20th century and took place in Britain, continental Europe, North America, and Japan.
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    Enclosure Acts

    The Inclosure Acts, which use an old or formal spelling of the word now usually spelt "enclosure", cover enclosure of open fields and common land in England and Wales, creating legal property rights to land previously held in common. Between 1604 and 1914, over 5,200 individual enclosure acts were passed, affecting 6.8 million acres.
  • James Watt´s steam engine

    James Watt´s steam engine
    The Watt steam engine, alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine, was an early steam engine and was one of the driving forces of the Industrial Revolution. James Watt developed the design sporadically from 1763 to 1775 with support from Matthew Boulton. Watt's design saved so much more fuel compared with earlier designs that they were licensed based on the amount of fuel they would save.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    The central thesis of Smith's "The Wealth of Nations" is that our individual need to fulfill self-interest results in societal benefit, in what is known as his "invisible hand".
    It results in a web of mutual interdepencies that promotes stability and prosperity through the market mechanism.
    He rejects government interference in market activities. States governments should serve 3 functions: protect national borders; enforce civil law; and engage in public works .
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    A power loom is a mechanized loom, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. The first power loom was designed in 1787 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1787. It was refined over the next 47 years until a design by Kenworthy and Bullough made the operation completely automatic.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates General of 1789 was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, and the bourgeoisie and peasants (Third Estate). It was the last of the Estates General of the Kingdom of France. Summoned by King Louis XVI, the Estates General of 1789 ended when the Third Estate became a National Assembly and, against the wishes of the King, invited the other two estates to join. This signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Recognized the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. This culminated in the appointment of Napoleon as First Consul in November 1799, which is generally taken as its end point. Many of its principles are now considered fundamental aspects of modern Liberal democracy.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    Is the first phase of the French Revolution, led by the moderate bourgeoisie. Citizens obtained more rights, the nobles had to pay more taxes and Church lands were confiscated.
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    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary Age is the name given to the historical period between the French Revolution and the present day. It covers, if we consider its beginning in the French Revolution, a total of 231 years, between 1789 and the present. During this period, humanity experienced a demographic transition, which was completed for the most advanced societies (the so-called first world) and is still ongoing for most of them (the underdeveloped countries and the newly industrialized countries).
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    On 20 June 1789, the members of the French Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath, vowing "not to separate and to reassemble wherever require, until the Constitution of the kingdom is established". It was a pivotal event in the French Revolution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789
    The medieval armory, fortress, and political prison known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    It was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries, who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France. They ransacked the city for weapons and marched to the Palace of Versailles.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Is a set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it. They were only loosely allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement; each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.
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    Social Republlic

    The betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt by the common people (sans-culottes). On 10 August 17092, they stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family. A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began. Therre have two conventions: The Girondin Convention, the more moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic ( 1792-1793). The Jacobin Convention, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie (1793-1794).
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    Girondin Convention

    The more moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic. A new assembly, the Nation Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage. After the death of the monarch, Louis XVI, and Queen Marie Antoinette, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. And royalist, organized plots.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Was a defining event of the French Revolution, when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace. The conflict led France to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power. A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignth and the right to social equality was enacted. To atisfy the demands of the sans-culottes, a series of social laws were introduced. Many people opposed the dictatorial government, and a coup in July 1794 ended the Jacobin government.
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    Reign of Terror

    To stop conspirations, the Reign of Terror was imposed. Freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were either imprisioned or revolutionary courts ordered their execution by guillotine.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    One day after being convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers and sentenced to death by the French National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris. There, Louis was forced to accept the constitution of 1791, which reduced him to a mere figurehead.
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    Conservative Republic

    The moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution and it entered its third and final phase. Jacobin laws were cancelled and exiles from the Reign of Terror were encouraged to return. Stablished a new constitution, known as the Directory. General Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup in 1799 that ended the Directory.
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    The Consulate

    In 1799, Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate´s rule began. There is a period of autocratic and the autorithian rule; the government of France during this period.There is a period between 1799 to 1804
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution. This bloodless coup d'état overthrew the Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican calendar.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    New political system did not include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinion.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned Napoleon I, the first Frenchman to hold the title of emperor in a thousand years. Pope Pius VII handed Napoleon the crown that the 35-year-old conqueror of Europe placed on his own head.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. His large army and the use of new military tactics enabled him to defeat most European monarchies. This period occur between 1804 and 1815.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Is the military conflict fought by Spain and Portugal. In Spain, it is considered to overlap with the Spanish War of Independence. The war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807 by transiting through Spain, and it escalated in 1808 after Napoleonic France had occupied Spain, which had been its ally. Napoleon Bonaparte installed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne and promulgated the Bayonne Constitution.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Betweeen 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna. The organizer, Austrian Chancellor Metternich, wanted to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In 1815, the imperial armies were finally defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. Napoleon abdicated after the defeat and was sent into exile on the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.
  • The Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    The Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna established the ideological principles of the Restoration, such us the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national sovereignty, It also called for a balance of power between the victors through periodic meetings and the right of intervention. Th Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries. The Greeks had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs and they felt dominated by a group of people with a different religion and culture.
  • Stephenson´s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson´s Steam locomotive
    It was an early steam locomotive of 0-2-2 wheel arrangement. It was built for and won the Rainhill Trials of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR), held in October 1829 to show that improved locomotives would be more efficient than stationary steam engines.
    Rocket was designed by Robert Stephenson in 1829, and built at the Forth Street Works of his company in Newcastle upon Tyne.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The movement began in France when Charles X, the absolute monarch who succeeded Louis XVIII a few years after the fall of Napoleon, was overthrown in July 1830. Louis Philippe I became the new constitutional monarch. He was called the " Citizen King".
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    The Age of revolutions

    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles of the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples. After 1815, liberalism and nationalism became the two main opposition forces, prompting the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 that ended the restoration of absolutism.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian Revolution, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein

    There is a customs union created in Prussia in 1834, that united the majority of Germanic states.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    In 19th-century Europe, many people lived under the rule of an empire( e.g. Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states ( e.g. Germany and Italy).
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    French Second Republic

    In France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic, which adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer converter - the conversion of iron into steel - was invented and patented by Henry Bessemer in 1856. The egg-shaped converter was tilted down to pour molten pig iron in through the top, then swung back to a vertical position and a blast of air was blown through the base of the converter in a dramatic fiery ‘blow'. Spectacular but dangerous flames and fountains shot out of the top of the converter.
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    Italian Unification process

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    German Unification progress