Timeline image

Candela Mourelle Rey_G&H_4ºD

  • Period: 1453 to

    Modern History

    It is the third of the historical periods into which universal history is divided. The values of modernity stand out: progress, communication and reason. This period of time is characterized by the passage from theocentrism to anthropocentrism.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    It increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics and spinning machines, which significantly increased productivity.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    It began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century and spread across Europe, the USA and Japan in the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation. This Revolution led to an increase in food production and in population. It also created new machinery and energy sources for industry and new systems for financing companies and facilitating payments. Markets were bigger.
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    Enclosure Acts

    The rise in grain prices ecouraged landowners to take over common land and enclose their property. As a result, large areas of land and pastures became privately owned and a series of laws called the Enclousure Acts were passed by the British Parliament to authorise this process, which led to a concentration of land ownership. This recognation of land benefited the big landowners, who were able to produce more and increase their profits.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    James Watt adapted the steam engine to power industrial machinery. Its role in the mechanisation of the textile industry led to a rise in productivity and total production. This made it possible to lower costs and reduce the sale price of the product. Steam engines were also used in agriculture, mills, flour mills, etc. and were very important in mines, where they were used to remove water from the galleries.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith was one of the liberal British authors of the Manchester School. He wrote The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential book on market economics ever written, in which he explains his economic theories.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    It was created by Edmund Cartwright. It's a mechanized loom system driven by a transmission shaft. It dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General met in Versailles. The meeting was chaired by the king and made up of representatives of the nobility, clergy and the Third Estate. The Third Estate representatives decided to leave the meeting when the privileged classes refused to allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate rather than one per representative.
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    Contemporary History

    It is a stage in history that has suffered two World Wars and the consolidation of a capitalist system that continues to this day. It is characterized by the Enlightenment that was one of the triggers for the change of thought of a society represented mainly by the bourgeoisie class.
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    French Revolution

    It is one of the most significant events in the history of humanity, and marked the beginning of the late modern period. It started an era in which western society began the construction of a future based on respect for fundamental and basic human rights, and on the principle that all citizens had the same rights and should choose representatives to govern their nation.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    It was driven by the moderate bourgueoisie who establish a moderate liberal monarchy. They aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime, elect a parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution. The clergy and nobility opposed this monarchy and there was a financial crise. The invasion of France and the fled of the kings were the main causes of why it ended.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The members of the French Third Estate met in a pavilion in Versailles and took the Jeu de Paume, vowing "not to separate and to reassemble wherever require, until the Constitution of the kingdom is established". It was a pivotal event in the French Revolution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and they stormed the Bastille. The revolution spread to the countryside, where the nobles' homes were burnt (The Great Fear). Louis XVI was frightened by the situation and, in the autumn of 1789, accepted the National Assembly, which made France a constitutional monarchy and ended the Ancien Régime.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Women in Paris, equipped with weapons and tools, marched to Versailles where the royal family lived. They protested against the shortage of bread and demanded the king sign the decree abolishing manorialism. Their actions caused the king to abandon Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    It was based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. Census suffrage was also introduced, giving the vote to people with a certain level of wealth.
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    Social Republic

    The radical bourgeoisie, encouraged by the working classes, proclaimed the Republic and began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with universal male suffrage and social laws. The Fall of Jacobins was the main reason of why it ended.
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    Girondin Convention

    The Girondists, the more moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic. A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage. Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoniette were convicted of treason and executed in 1793. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the former privileged classes organised royalist plots.
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    War of the First Coalition

    It is a set of wars that several European powers fought against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it. They were only loosely allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt by the common people (sans-culottes). They stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.
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    Regin of Terror

    It was imposed to stop conspirators. Freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were either imprisoned or revolutionary courts ordered their execution by guillotine (Law of Suspects).
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    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power. The Revolution had now entered its most extreme phase. A new constitution that recognised popular soveregnity (universal male suffrage) and the right to social equality was enacted. The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety, which gave power to the Jacobin leader Robespierre.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    King Louis XVI was convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the reformer privileged classes organised royalists plots.
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    Conservative Republic

    Despite the radicalisation of the French Revolution, the moderate bourgeoisie took power and implemented a new moderate liberalism. The aristocracy opposed this republic and it ended by the Coup d'état by Napoleon.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate's rule began. This was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule. Napoleon aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The general Napoleon Bonaparte organised this coup that ended the Directory in this context of crisis and war against the absolutist powers. The Directory was permanently unestable because it faced opposition from the aristocracy, which sought to re-establish the monrchy and recover its privileges, and the common people, who supported the return of the Jacobins.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    It established a form of government known as the Consulate, which had 95 articles regulating the right to universal suffrage. It didn't include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803. After France's victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz, in 1806, the French troops seemed unstoppable, so in 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brother, was made king. In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe. The invasion of Russia and the revolt in Spain against the king marked the decline of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon is crowned emperor by the Pope at Notre Dame in Paris. Napoleon centralized all power in his hands and established a new social order based on the defense of order and property.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It allowed French troops to pass through Spain to invade Portugal, an ally of the British. This happened when the king of Spain joined the international coalition against France, hoping to stop the spread of liberal ideas. However, the French armies defeated Spain and this led to a change of strategy by Manuel Godoy, who made an alliance with Napoleon against England, France's main enemy.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king . In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe.
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    War of Independence

    It was a conflict that tiggered a crisis in the Ancien Régime in Spain, which came to an end with the building of a new liberal state during the reign of Isabella II. The absence of a politically and socially influential bourgeois elite contributed to the many peculiarities of the Spanish political process: The Crown and the army intervened in the politics, the electoral system was corrupt, and caciquismo persisted.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    This was when Napoleon persuaded Charles IV and Ferdinand VII to give the Spanish crown to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. This happened during the Napoleonic invasion, when Ferdinand VII became king. The abdications of Bayonne left power in the hands of a foreign monarch. This situation simulated the formation of local Juntas composed of patriots opposed to the occupation.
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    Luddite movement

    It started in England. It consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment. The luddites were the first workers to protest against industrialisation.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    Also known as La Pepa, it established national sovereignty, the separation of powers, universal male suffrage and recognised broad individual freedoms. Since this Constitution was approved, the cry 'Viva la Pepa!' has been an acclamation of the liberal principals and ideals of the Cádiz Cortes.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    It was an agreement in which the Emperor Napoleon I offered peace and recognized Ferdinand VII as King of Spain, as a result of the defeats suffered in the War of Independence. The treaty did not enter into force in Spain since the Cortes and the Regency in Madrid did not accept it.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The Congress of Vienna established the ideological principles of the Restoration such as the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national soveregnity. It also called for a balance of power between the victors trough periodic meetings and the right of intervention. In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    His reign can be divided into three stages: six years of democracy (1814-1820), the Liberal Triennium (1820-1823) and the Ominous Decade (1823-1833). His aim was to re-establish an absolutist monarcy¡hy. However, the spread of liberal ideas during the War of Independence made the restoration of absolutism difficult.
  • Manifesto de los Persas

    Manifesto de los Persas
    It was a document signed by 69 deputies of the Spanish courts in which they asked Ferdinand VII to suppress the Constitution of 1812 as well as all the decrees approved by this.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The imperial armies were finally defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. Napoleon abdicated after the defeat and was sent into exile on the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Holy Alliance Treaty was signed at the Congress of Vienna by the crowned heads of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Its purpose was to re-establish the principle of hereditary rule and to suppress democratic and nationalist movements, which sprung up in the wake of the French Revolution.
  • Pronunciamiento of Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Rafael del Riego
    It took place during the Liberal Triennium in Cabezas de San Juan (Seville). It was successful and the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. The National Militia, made up of armed liberal volunteers, was created to defend the Constitution and oppose absolutism.
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    Greek War of Independence

    In 1822, The Greeks declared independence in Epidaurus, but it was not recognised by the Turks, and resulted in the beginning of a war. The European liberals supported the Greeks. They wanted to help the region they considered the cardle of European culture. In 1827, with the help of French and British military intervention, T¡the Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire. Greece gained its independence in 1830.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    During the Liberal Triennium, Ferdinand VII felt intimidate by the liberals and appealed to other European absolute monarchs to defend Spain against them. In 1823, a coalition of European monarchs called the Holy Alliance sent troops (the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis) that restored absolutism under the command of the Duke of Angoulême.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    The Combination Acts were English laws that first prohibited and later regulated workers' associations and strikes. These laws simplified the legal procedure for the prosecution of the Trade Unions and facilitated their complaint.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    It used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. This new transport system could carry more passangers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. This improvement boosted trade and helped create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe. It included two romantic nationalist revolutions, the Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the July Revolution in France along with revolutions in Congress Poland, Italian states, Portugal and Switzerland. Ended the restoration of absolutism.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    Liberalism and nationalism became the two main opposition forces, prompting the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 that ended de restoration of absolutism. When the insurrections were successful, absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power. This movement began in France.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian Revolution, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I. An armed conflict followed Belgium's declaration of independence. It finally endend when the Netherlands recognised Belgium's independence in 1839.
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    First Carlist War

    It began in the Basque Country and, despite having experienced commanders like Zumalacárregui, the Carlists were defeated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara (1839).
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    Reign of Isabella II

    We can divide it into 5 stages: the regency of Mria Christina (1833-1840), the regency of Espartero (1840-1843), the Moderate Decade (1843-1854), the Progressive Biennium (1854-1856) and the system in decline (1856-1868). It was characterized by an attempt to modernizate Spain, that was contained by the internal tensions of the liberals, the governments totally influenced by the military establishment and the final failure of economic difficulties and the decline of the Liberal Union.
  • Zollverein

    It was a customs union created by Prussia that united the majority of Germanic states. In 1848, Germany's first freely elected parliament met and offered the crown of Germay to the king of Prussia, who refused it because its parliament was liberal.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    It brought together different types of workers. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    It was drafted during the regency of Maria Christina. It recognised national sovereignty with census suffrage, the separation of powers and the two chambers (the Congress of Diputies and the Senate), and it granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    It was drafted during the Moderate Decade. The new Cortes adopted a moderate Constitution, in which suffrage was highly restricted, civil liberties were limited and sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown. State and municipal administration was reorganised, and only the Basque Country and Navarre held on to their statuory laws.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    The revolutions of 1848 were characterized by the importance of nationalist demonstrations and by the beginning of the first organized demonstrations of the labor movement. Initiated in France, they spread rapidly throughout almost all of central Europe and Italy. Ended the restoration of absolutism and represented democratic ideas and the political importance of workers.
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    French Second Republic

    In France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic, which adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    It made possible to manufacture steel. This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works. The key principle is the removal of impurities from the iron through oxidation produced by blowing air into the cast iron. Oxidation causes the temperature of the mass of iron to rise and keeps it molten.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859, Piedmont started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. At the same time, a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866, Austria left Venetia, and in 1870, the Papal States were anexed by Italy. The newly unified state established its capital in Rome.
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    German Unification process

    In 1861, the first moves towards a united Germany were made as Wilhelm I became king of `Prussia and made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war on Denmark in 1864, on Austria in 1866, and on France in 1870. Prussia was victorious in all three wars, making the unification of Germany possible: in 1871, Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser (emperor) of the Second German Empire (Reich).
  • First International

    First International
    Marxists and anarchists were involved in the labour conflicts of their time and advocated the need for workers around the world to unite in order to achive social emancipation. At the initiative of Karl Marx, the First International was created. Marxists, anarchists and trade unions joined, but the ideological differences between them made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Das Kapital is a book written by Karl Marx.
    It is a fundamental theoretical text in the philosophy, economics and politics of Karl Marx. It is also a critical treatise on political economy, and at the same time, it has also been read as a work of philosophy.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo I of Savoy
    Amadeo of Savoy was from a liberal monarchy that had contributed to the unification of Italy. He was supported by progressives, unionists and democrats, and the government introduced new measures to help economic recovery and Spain's democratisation process. However, he had two strong opponents: the moderates and some representatives of the Church who remained loyal to the Burbons. Many problems, which culminated in a war on the island of Cuba, forced Amadeo I to abdicate and leave the country.
  • Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic

    Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic
    When Amadeo I abdicated, the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchists and didn't support the new form of government. The elections were won by the federal republicans. The Cortes drafted a federal constitution that divided the legislative powers between the central government and the federal republics, but this never took effect. The Republic had four presidents: Figueras, Pi y Margall, Salmerón y Castelar, but its proper establishment was impossible.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    During his reign, Spain experienced several problems that would end the liberal monarchy: the lack of a true political representation of broad social groups, the terrible situation of the popular classes, especially the peasant classes, and the problems derived from the war.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Marxists founded the Second International to coordinate the various socialists parties. The Second International established some identity symbols of the labour movement, such as the anthem 'The Internationale' and the 1 May holiday (International Workers' Day).