Global 1 (4º ESO)

Timeline created by JustACommonGuy
In History
  • Period: 1450 to

    Old Regime

    Political and social system that precedes the Age of Enlightenment. It was characterized by power-accumulating monarchs, subsistence economy based on agriculture and class society.
  • Arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers

    They were British that fled political and religious persecution. They arrived on the east coast of America (Massachusetts) on board of the Mayflower.
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    The 13 Colonies

    The British established colonies at the east coast of America.
    They had a degree of autonomy:
    -Class society and hereditary aristocracy did not exist. There was social mobility and an abundance of the wealthy middle class.
    -The governor was in charge of military matters.
    -For all other matters, they self organized in colonial assemblies.
    These were suitable conditions for the American Revolution.
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    Age of Enlightenment

    Social and cultural movement that originated in France and spread to Europe and America. It was characterized by the focus on happiness, freedom, rationalism, anthropocentrism and criticism of the Old Regime (especially absolutism and religious orthodoxy).
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    War of the Spanish Succession

    International war caused by the death of Carlos II, who had no heir. There were 2 candidates:
    -Philip d'Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, centralized model of state and supported by Castilla and France.
    -Archduke Carlos, son of Leopold I, decentralized model of state and supported by England, Holland and the Crown of Aragon.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    It ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Its main points were:
    -Felipe V being the new king of Spain, but renouncing to the French thrones (his descendants too).
    -Austria receiving Spanish Netherlands, Naples and Sardinia.
    -Kingdom of Savoy receiving Sicily.
    -England receiving Gibraltar, Menorca, Asiento de Negros and Navio de Permiso.
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    Reign of Felipe V of Spain, "El Animoso"

    First Bourbon of Spain. He followed a model of enlightened despotism and made some reforms:
    -Centralized state, where the king was the only decision-maker. To reinforce his image he built and reformed palaces: Aranjuez, Madrid, Riofrío, La Granja.
    -Replaced validos and councils with ministers and secretarios de despacho.
    -Decretos de Nueva Planta: the Crown of Aragon supported Archduke Carlos, so he suppressed all their fueros and imposed Castilian laws in all Spain.
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    Reign of Louis I, "El bien amado"

    Felipe V abdicated to Louis. However, he died of smallpox after a few months, forcing Felipe to continue with his reign.
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    Reign of Fernando VI, "El justo"

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    First Industrial Revolution

    Gradual process by which the agriculture-based economy became an industrial-based one. It started in England with the invention of the steam machine and its application in the textile, iron and steel industry.
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    Neoclassicism

    Artistic movement that made a return to a simpler, more functioning and practical forms of classical art. It was characterized by balanced forms and no ornamentation.
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    Encyclopedia

    French Enlightenment thinkers Diderot and D'Alembert summarized all the knowledge of the era in 28 volumes. Topics were alphabetically organized. It had 25000 subscribers.
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    Seven Years' War

    France and Spain (Pactos de Familia) fought England for control of America. The war affected the economies of the countries:
    -It forced England to settle a permanent army in the colonies and increase the taxes (tea, stamp and sugar act).
    -It severely affected France, that had to pay off and enormous public debt.
    It ended with the Treaty of Paris (1763).
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    Reign of Carlos III, "El mejor alcalde de Madrid"

    He was seen as one of the best of the enlightened despots. He implemented several reforms to improve the efficiency of the state and the overall quality of life of the society.
    -He gave realengo to colonists in an attempt to make them concerned about agricultural production.
    -He approved free trade in several ports, ending with the monopoly of Cádiz.
  • Invention of the Steam Engine

    By James Watt
  • Treaty of Paris

    England confirms its hegemony by making Canada a British colony and France losing its American territories
  • The Boston Tea Party

    It was created as a protest to the British acts (sugar, tea, stamp). Tea chests were dropped to the sea. Its slogan was "No taxation without representation" (because there were no representatives in England when the acts were approved).
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    American War of Independence

    Also known as the American Revolution.
    England refused to accept the Declaration of Independence, which led to a war.
    France, Spain and the Netherlands supported the colonists, fighting England.
    George Washington led the army in the colonies and won important battles, such as Saratoga and Yorktown.
    It ended with the Peace of Paris.
  • The Wealth of the Nations

    Book published by Adam Smith, who criticized the regulations and control of the state on the economy.
    It defended economic liberalism, the starting point of capitalism, which stated that the markets must be self-regulated (law of supply and demand).
  • The US Declaration of Independence

    The delegates of the colonies gathered in the Continental Congress (Philadelphia) and declared independence from the rule of George III.
    The colonies were called States and the country started to be known as the United States of America.
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    Additional Industrial Revolutions

    France, Belgium and Germany start to their Industrial Revolution.
  • Peace of Paris

    England and the delegates travelled to Paris (a "neutral zone") to end the American War of Independence. The independence of the United States was finally recognized.
  • Drafting of the US Constitution

    The delegates gathered in Philadelphia and drafted the first liberal constitution. Main points:
    -USA is a federal republic. Government functions are shared between the states & Washington DC.
    -Separation of powers: legislative by Senate & Congress, executive by President and judicial by Supreme Court.
    -The head of the state is the President, indirectly elected by the House of Representatives every 4 years.
    -Class society dissolved.
    -There is a series of amendments, which recognize more rights.
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    Reign of Carlos IV, "El cazador"

    He started implementing reforms, but as soon as the French Revolution took place, his government panicked and suppressed all revolutionary thoughts via the Inquisition.
    His government was led by Manuel Godoy, who allied with Napoleon Bonaparte, helping to implement the Continental Blockade, which blocked British ships from European ports, affecting the economy of Great Britain.
    His son Fernando was against him and led the Motín de Aranjuez, forcing him to abdicate to him, becoming Fernando VI.
  • Estates-General

    Because of the crisis, Louis XVI called a consulative assembly with the representatives of each estate to discuss if the nobility should pay taxes.
    There was political unrest in France. Pamphlets and books (<25000) criticizing the Old Regime were spread.
    The 3rd estate demanded the vote by head (instead of by estate). The other estates denied. The 3rd estate left the assembly and created the National Assembly, declaring themselves the true representatives of the nation.
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    The French Revolution

    Causes:
    -Liberal ideas that became widespread, such as separation of powers and equality before the law. Absolutism started to be criticized.
    -The example of the US, as many french soldiers fought in the American Revolution. Franklin and Jefferson also visited France frequently.
    -Inequality before the law, as the 1st & 2nd estate did not pay taxes, so they did not generate any economic benefit.
    -Economic crisis, because of the 7 Years' War and bad harvests. Money was till spent on luxuries.
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    National Contituent Assembly

    With the creation of the National Assembly and the fear of its dissolution by the king, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille prison (symbol of absolutism) to obtain weapons.
    The National Assembly took important decisions:
    -The Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens.
    -The abolishing of feudal estates.
    -The French Constitution of 1791.
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    Legislative Assembly

    The king was made prisoner, forcing Austria and Prussia to declare the war to France.
    The National Assembly took power of the legislative branch and was divided in:
    -Jacobins: radicals who wanted a republic.
    -Girondins: moderates who wanted a constitutional monarchy.
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    The First French Republic

    Jacobins took power of the legislative branch and declared the republic.
    The king was tried for treason and executed by guillotine.
    The Comitee of Public Safety held the executive power, and led by Roberspierre, protected the republic by executing anyone suspected of being anti-revolutionary. This created the reign of Terror.
  • Peace of Basilea

    When Louis XVI, the cousin of Carlos IV, was executed, Spain sent troops to fight the National Assembly, but they were defeated and forced to sign a peace.
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    The Directory

    Roberspierre was executed by moderates, and a directory formed of 5 directors was formed. Abroad, France won important battles over absolutist powers, led by the military general Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    France and Spain allied against Great Britain after the Peace of Basilea.
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    The Consulate

    Bonaparte led a coup and took power, creating a consulate, appointing himself as first consul (formed of 3 consuls, but Bonaparte concentrated most of the power)
    Finally, Bonaparte proclaimed himself as emperor.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    The British destroyed Spanish and French ships at this battle.
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Napoleon won against Austria
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Godoy and Napoleon signed a treaty to allow French troops to cross Spain to attack Portugal (allied of England). However, Napoleon's plan was to invade Spain.
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    Peninsular War

    The uprising spread to the rest of Spain. Juntas de defensa were created in the main provinces to organize the war. The Junta Central was created as the government.
    The French army was invincible for the Spanish, so they had to rely on guerrillas to weaken the enemy and creating an alliance with the British.
    The French finally left Spain in 1814.
  • Motín de Aranjuez

    Fernando was against Godoy, and organized a coup against his father. Godoy almost lost his life and Carlos IV was forced to abdicate to Fernando VI.
  • Uprising in Madrid

    The people in Madrid rebelled against the troops in France. It was defeated and led to the Fusilamientos del 3 de mayo.
  • Fusilamientos del 3 de mayo

    Made to the people of Madrid as a punishment for organizing the uprising.
  • Abdicaciones de Bayonna

    Napoleon made Fernando and Carlos prisoners in Bayonna, forcing them to abdicate in his favour. He abdicated in favour of his brother Joseph Bonaparte, making him José I of Spain.
  • Estatuto de Bayonna

    Napoleon tried to legitimize the reign of his brother by giving them some of the rights of his civil code.
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    Cortes de Cádiz

    The Junta Central organized in Sevilla (1809) and hold elections for the representatives of the first Parliament (Cortes Generales).
    The Junta Central was forced to retreat to Cádiz because of the French army and started to draft a liberal Constitution.
    They approved a series of laws:
    -Suppression of the Inquisition, guilds and jurisdictional feudal estates (led to state authorities).
    -Freedom of expression, the press and commerce.
  • Napoleon's defeat against Russia.

    Because of the arrival of winter
  • La Pepa

    First Constitution of Spain:
    -National sovereignty. Monarchy is not questioned but its powers are limited.
    -Separation of powers: legislative by Parliament (Cortes), executive by king and his ministers, judicial by courts established by law.
    -Fiscal progressive system, equality before the law, universal manhood suffrage.
    -Catholicism is the only permitted religion.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Napoleon recognized Fernando VI as the king of Spain, ending with the Peninsular War.
  • Return of Fernando VI

    He received a warm welcome because he was seen as a symbol of restored freedom.
    However, he was supporter of absolutism. He looked for support of the army and the conservative elite (Manifiesto de los persas) and suppressed the Constitution and the reforms made by the Cortes de Cádiz.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    England and its allies defeated definitely Napoleon.
  • Fist steam locomotive

    By the engineer George Stephenson
  • Fist modern railways

    Coal-powered locomotives were used to transport people and goods between Liverpool and Manchester
  • Inauguration of the Suez Canal

    It allowed England to sail to Asia without having to fight the Ottoman Empire or circumnavigating Africa. Steamboats became widespread.