Lucía Noya_G&H_4ºG

Timeline created by Lucía Noya
In History
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Modern history is the period of the history that beginning after the Middle Ages, and The middle Age end when they discovered America. The modern period has been a time of many advances in science, politics, warfare, technology, and globalization. During this time, the European powers began expanding their political, economic, and cultural influences to the rest of the world.
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    Enclosure Acts

    The British Parliament authorised the Enclosure Acts due to the rise in grain prices, open field system: common lands worked by peasants (subsistence farming) and shared pastures and enclosed properties.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    He built a production tool that he developed in 1733 that allowed us to weave cotton on a greater scale and speed than by hand.
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    First Industrial evolution

    Interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain (mid-18th century). In this time increase in food production and population, new machinery, the railway and the creation of a large domestic market, new systems for financing companies and facilitating payments.The consequences were the concentration of land ownership, improvement in farming techniques and poor farmers couldn’t enclose land
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Burning coal → Boiled water → Steam → Pressure → Continuous movement transferred to machinery
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential book on market economics ever written.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    Was a new mechanisation process, and was a spinning machine. The mechanical loom was the result of the evolution of the manual loom
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates General met in Versailes in May, the Third Estate left the meeting.
    The representatives of the Thrid Estate met in a pavilon in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    Louis XVI was frightened and in the autumn of 1789 accepted the National Assembly wich made France a contitunional monarchy and ended the Ancien Régime
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    People stormed the Bastile. The revolution spread to the countryside where noble’s homes were burnt (The Great Fear).
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was aboilesh by National Constituent Assembly, that regonised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation in August in 1789.
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    Contemporary History

    The contemporary was the period after de Modern Age. Started with the French revolution and continues nowadays.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a social and political conflict, with various periods of violence, began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793. The causes were economical, social, cultural and political, and the 1789 events.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    In the first phase of the Revoution, the moderate bourgeoisie tried to reach an agreement with the king and the privileged classes to make Francce a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy. Todo this the National Constituent Assembly:
    -aboileshed feudalism and approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
    -drew up a constitution.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    The Women’s March on Versailles was a revolution that happened during the French revolution. From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to
    Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    A constitutional monarchy was established in 1791, but the royal family and the privileged classes did not accep the changes and asked absolute monarchies in Europe to help restore absolutism.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Was a set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it.
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    Social Republic

    Was the second phase of the Revolution. Start whith the Betrayal by the king and Military invasion of Prussia and Austria. New assembly elect by uniiversal male suffrage. This social republic was ruled by Girondists (moderate bourgeoisie) ana them Jacobins (most radical sector).
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    Girondin Convention

    Girondin Convention ruled the social republic. New assembly elected by universal male suffrage. Execution of Louis XVI (21st January 1793) and Queen Marie Antoinette (16th October 1793).
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Was a defining event of the French Revolution, when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace. The conflict led France to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins seized power and started the most extreme phase of the revolution. The executive power was controlled by Committee of Public Safety leaded by Robespierre. He put new laws like: Law of the Maximum, compulsory education, sale of assets of the privileged...
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    Reign of Terror

    Was a period of the French Revolution when, following the creation of the First French Republic, a series of massacres and numerous public executions took place
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris. Louis assembled the States-General, a national assembly that represented the three “estates” of the French people–the nobles, the clergy, and the commons. The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estate–the commons–used the opportunity to declare itself the National Assembly, igniting the French Revolution.
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    Conservative Republic

    The moderate bourgueoisie took back control of the Revolution and it entered its third and final phase. Jabobin laws cancelled and exiles from the Reign of Terror were encouraged to return. A new Constitution granted executive power to a collegial government, known as the Directory, and retored census suffrage. Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup in 1799 thet ended the Directory.
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    The Consulate

    In 1799, Napoleon was named consu, and Consulate's rue began . This was a period of autocratic and authoritian rule. There were a new political system, the constitution also an economic reforms.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    In this context of crisis Napoleon Bonaparte organised
    a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by a large part of the
    bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule and
    the French Revolution was over
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    The Constitution of 1800 established a legislature of three houses so was Separation of powers and declaration of rights. Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned Napoleon I, the first Frenchman to hold the title of emperor in a thousand years. Pope Pius VII handed Napoleon the crown that the 35-year-old conqueror of Europe placed on his own head.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. He defeated most European monarchies. In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Was a treaty of Spain with French. The king of Spain allowed French troops to pass trough Spain to invade Portugal.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon persuaded the Bourbons to give the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph.
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    War of Independence

    There were phases: POPULAR RESISTANCE (1808), FRENCH OFFENSIVE (1808-12) and ANGLO-SPANISH
    VICTORIES (1812-14). This war started the 2 May 1808 when popular uprising against French began in Madrid and spread
    across the country. And ended whith the Treaty of Valençay (December 1813).
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    Luddite movement

    This term describe people who dislike new technologyFirst workers to protest in England (early C.19th)
    Violent destruction of machinery (responsible
    for low wages and unemployment). Video: https://youtu.be/xu-uTjk95fo
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    The Cortes drafted the first Spanish Constitution, La Pepa, establishing:
    Separation of powers
    Universal male suffrage
    Individual freedoms and rights
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The Treaty of Valençay is an agreement signed in December 1813 at the castle of Valençay. Where the Emperor Napoleon I offered peace and recognized Ferdinand VII as King of Spain.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    With the Manifiesto de los Persas star the Six years of absolutism 1814-20
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    The reign of Ferdinand hadve three etaps: Six years of absolutism 1814-20, Liberal Triennium 1820-23, Ominous Decade 1823-33
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    It was a combat that took place on June 18, 1815 in the vicinity of Waterloo, a town in present-day Belgium located about twenty kilometers south of Brussels, between the French army, commanded by the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, against the British troops , Dutch and German
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Organizer by Austrian Chancellor Metternich. They try to: stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism. The consequences were the Holy Alliance Treaty (1815), absolute
    monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia + Prussia + Austria) and change of borders and political powers in
    Europe.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The powers thet defead Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna. After reinstating monarchs on their thrones, the four great powers reshaped the Europena map. And the Congress of Vienna estabilished the ideological principes of the Restoration, such as the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national sovereignty.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    The Liberals called for the return of Fernando VII, called "the Desire." They asked him to sign the Constitution of 1812. This was the start of the second part of the FERDINAND VII.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Part of the Ottoman Empire for centurie, Greeks had to pay high taxes, excluded from state administration jobs, dominated by people with religion and culture.
    In 1822,Greeks declared independence (not recognized by the Turks)
    In 1827, Greek victory thanks to French and British military intervention help.
    1830. Recognized independence.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Combination Acts forbade workers to organize for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions. The acts were repealed in 1824 as the result of a campaign
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    A new transport that have more passengers and goods, less time, lower cost and the development of trade.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Stephenson's Rocket was one of the first steam locomotives with a 0-2-2 wheel arrangement
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples. And two main opposition forces appeared: liberalism and nationalism. The movement began in France and insurrections spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The movement began in France and insurrections
    spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support. Successful: Absolutism replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power. Unsuccessful: back to Absolutism. In France, Charles X (absolute monarch) was overthrown and substituted by the constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I. In 1831, a revolt broke out in Poland
    against the autocratic Russian rule but was harshly suppressed
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, wich then became Kingdoms of the Netherlands.
    1830 -39: Armed conflict after Belgium’s declaration of independence
    1839: Recognition of independence. Liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein

    Zollverein
    In 1834, Prussia created a customs uniion (Zollverein) that united the majority of Germanis states.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    Unions of workers from the same field, appear after the repeal of laws prohibiting worker’s associations in 1824 in England.
    In 1834, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union brought
    together different types of workers to:
    - Defend the right of association
    - Improve wages
    - Regulate child labour
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy). So the rise of liberalism + expansion of nationalism = pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
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    French Second Republic

    Rise of liberalism + expansion of nationalism = pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In France, popular uprising proclaimed the
    Second Republic
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer process was the first chemical manufacturing process to produce good quality, inexpensive, cast iron steel from pig iron.
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    Italian Unification process

    Divided into several states C. of Vienna: Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia.
    1859. Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification.
    Declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy.
    1861. Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed king of
    Italy.
    1866. Austria left Venetia.
    1870. The Papal states were annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    Divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    1834. Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein)
    1848. 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia.
    1861. New political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. War on Denmark (1864), on Austria (1866) and on France (1870).
    1871. Proclamation of the Second German Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser
  • First International

    First International
    First International of International Workingmen’s
    Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864.
    The First International was founded under the name of International Working Men’s Association at a mass meeting in London on Sept. 28, 1864. Its founders were among the most powerful British and French trade-union leaders of the time.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Written in the middle of the 19th Century by German philosopher and economist Karl Marx, Das Kapital is essentially a description of how the capitalist system works and how, Marx claims, it will destroy itself.
  • Second International

    Second International
    Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to
    coordinate the various socialist parties.
    The Second International was founded at a congress in Paris in 1889. Unlike the First International, it was based on the membership of national parties and trade unions only.
    Established symbols of the labour movement:
    - Anthem “The Internationale”
    - International Workers’ Day