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Ism's & Revolutions - 19th Century

  • The Sorrows of The Young Werther by Goethe

    The Sorrows of The Young Werther by Goethe
    It's a novel, where Werther leaves but later returns, feeling depressed and hopeless no matter where he lives. Torn by unrequited passion and his perception of the emptiness of life, he commits suicide.
  • Reflections on the Revolutions in France

    Reflections on the Revolutions in France
    Stated that the French Revolution moved too fast and that we should change through adaptation, not revolution. It also said that humans act on passions and that it took away too many traditions.
  • Essay on The Principles of Population by Malthus

    Essay on The Principles of Population by Malthus
    The book warned of future difficulties, on an interpretation of the population increasing at a geometrical ratio, while an increase in food production was limited to an arithmetic ratio, which would leave a difference resulting in the want of food and famine, unless birth rates decreased.
  • Robert Owen Opened New Lanark

    Robert Owen Opened New Lanark
    New Lanark became a successful business and an early example of a planned settlement and so an important milestone in the historical development of urban planning.
  • Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley

    Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley
    It is concerned with the torments of the Greek mythological figure Prometheus, who defies the gods and gives fire to humanity, for which he is subjected to eternal punishment and suffering at the hands of Zeus.
  • Britain's Act of Union

    Britain's Act of Union
    were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Alexander I Reigned in Russia

    Alexander I Reigned in Russia
    He was the Emperor of Russia. His greatest achievement was his victory over Napoleon, who had attacked Russia in 1812, and marched with his Grande Armée from France to Moscow, but was then expelled from Russia and later defeated by a coalition of allies, Russia among them.
  • Lora Tristan published Worker's Union

    Lora Tristan published Worker's Union
    The Workers' Union outlines the methods for organizing such a union, the goals of the union, and the reason women's rights must be emphasized in forming it.
  • Frederick William IV Reigned in Prussia

    Frederick William IV Reigned in Prussia
    He was a conservative, who initially pursued a moderate policy of easing press censorship and reconciling with the Catholic population of the kingdom. The eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    An assembly that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. It wanted to return to an "old europe" and also wanted to stop nationalism and liberalism. It also wanted to establish a lasting peace.
  • Louis XVIII Reigned In France

    Louis XVIII Reigned In France
    Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired" was King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.
  • Concert of Europe Created

    Concert of Europe Created
    It was a System of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
  • Britain's Corn Laws

    Britain's Corn Laws
    The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain and enforced in the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1846. ... They were designed to keep grain prices high to favour domestic producers, and represented British mercantilism.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

    Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
    It is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
  • "Iron Law of Wages" by Ricardo

    "Iron Law of Wages" by Ricardo
    An increase in population= more workers=lower wages=poverty=death=lower population=higher wages=better living=increase in population= cycle starts again. It believed that the government should not interfere with the natural cycle.
  • Congress of Aix-La Chapelle

    Congress of Aix-La Chapelle
    It was a high-level diplomatic meeting of France and the four allied powers Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    Cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Carlsbad Decrees
    The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation.
  • Congress of Troppau

    Congress of Troppau
    It was a conference of the Quintuple Alliance to discuss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples.
  • Congress of Laibach

    Congress of Laibach
    It was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives, held in 1821 as part of the Concert of Europe, which was the decided attempt of the Great Powers to settle international problems after the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Congress of Verona

    Congress of Verona
    the last of the meetings held by the European powers in accordance with the terms of the Quadruple Alliance between Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    It was a United States policy which opposed European colonialism in the Americas.
  • Charles X Reigned In France

    Charles X Reigned In France
    His reign dramatized the failure of the Bourbons, after their restoration, to reconcile the tradition of the monarchy by divine right with the democratic spirit produced in the wake of the French Revolution.
  • Nicholas I Reigned In Russia

    Nicholas I Reigned In Russia
    He reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He has become best known as a reactionary whose controversial reign was marked by geographical expansion, and economic growth.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    Russian army officers led about 3000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his older brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession
  • Greek Independence

    Greek Independence
    A rebellion of Greeks within the Ottoman Empire, a struggle which resulted in the establishment of an independent kingdom of Greece.
  • Bourbon Restoration

    Bourbon Restoration
    The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the first fall of Napoleon in 1814 and his final defeat in the Hundred Days in 1815, until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of the executed Louis XVI came to power and reigned in highly conservative fashion. Exiled supporters of the monarchy returned to France.
  • July Revolution

    July Revolution
    Insurrection that brought Louis-Philippe to the throne of France.Protests and demonstrations were followed by three days of fighting, the abdication of Charles X, and the proclamation of Louis-Philippe as “king of the French”
  • Second French Revolution

    Second French Revolution
    It led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon
  • Louis Philippe Reigned in France

    Louis Philippe Reigned in France
    Having based his rule on the support of the upper bourgeoisie, he ultimately fell from power because he could not win the allegiance of the new industrial classes.
  • First Belgian Revolution

    First Belgian Revolution
    The great powers of the time recognised the secession of Belgium from the Netherlands. Leopold I of Saxe-Coburg became the first King of the Belgians. In 1865 he was succeeded by his son Leopold II.
  • Young Italy Created

    Young Italy Created
    A movement founded by Giuseppe Mazzini to work for a united, republican Italian nation. It attracted many Italians to want to gain independence.
  • Britain's Reform Bill of 1832

    Britain's Reform Bill of 1832
    It was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
  • The Zollverein created

    The Zollverein created
    It was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
  • Young Germany Created

    Young Germany Created
    It was a social reform and literary movement in Germany , influenced by French revolutionary ideas, which was opposed to the extreme forms of Romanticism and nationalism then current.
  • The People's Charter

    The People's Charter
    The People's Charter called for six reforms to make the political system more democratic: A vote for every man twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for a crime.
  • Irish Potato Famine

    Irish Potato Famine
    The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period of mass starvation and disease in Ireland.
  • Second Belgian Revolution

    Second Belgian Revolution
    It was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
  • Revolution in Italy

    Revolution in Italy
    It was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy.
  • The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto
    The communist manifesto was a pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to serve as the platform of the Communist League. It became one of the principal programmatic statements of the European socialist and communist parties in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Third French Revolution

    Third French Revolution
    It was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. ... Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France.
  • Frankfurt Assembly

    Frankfurt Assembly
    A preliminary parliament met in Frankfurt am Main in March 1848 at the instigation of liberal leaders from all the German states, and it called for the election of a national assembly.
  • June Days

    June Days
    An uprising staged by French workers. It was in response to plans to close the National Workshops, created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed, albeit with pay just enough to survive.
  • On Libery By Mill

    On Libery By Mill
    It applies Mill's ethical system of utilitarianism to society and state. Mill suggests standards for the relationship between authority and liberty.
  • Louis-Napoleon Comes to Power in France

    Louis-Napoleon Comes to Power in France
    France's last king. He took power after the July Revolution, but was forced to abdicate after an uprising.
  • Das Kapital

    Das Kapital
    It is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics by Karl Marx.