Latin America Independence process timeline

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In History
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    HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO

    François Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt in the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802. He faced the Spanish, the English and the French, until his capture, exile and death in France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti.
  • THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS

    THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS
    When proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
    South American Creoles held three theses:
    The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
    America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and, the illegitimacy of both
    Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
    authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
    who no longer had any power.
  • CAUSE 1: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.

    CAUSE 1: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.
    Economic. The Bourbon reforms stifled the economy of the
    colonies that impede intraregional trade and impose
    taxes.
  • CAUSES 2: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.

    CAUSES 2: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.
    Social. There were disputes between Spaniards and Creoles for managerial positions extended to all areas.
  • CAUSES 3: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.

    CAUSES 3: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.
    Ideological. The precursors of independence realized the differences between the colonies and the metropolis, highlighted their own value and proposed the alternative of the homeland as a separate entity from Spain.
  • CAUSES 4: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.

    CAUSES 4: OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE.
    Influence of the independence of the United States. and R. F.
    In many Spanish cities Autonomous Juntas were organized that promised to rule until the return of Fernando VII to the throne, but were dissolved by the French.
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    THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    The independence of Latin America was the historical process of the rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of independent national states.Causes:
    Economic.
    Social.
    Ideological.
    Influence of US independence and the French Revolution.
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    FROM THE TABLES TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE.

    The Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a Sovereign Board. The viceroys of Lima and Bogotá immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not allow "a grain of salt" to enter. After the defeat, the armies of Lima and Bogotá occupied the city and a year later, on August 2, 1810, they murdered 300 patriots and citizens, who shook all of America.
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    ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY.

    The first Junta of Buenos Aires in 1810, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asunción in 1811, and the resulting government remained independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
    was created. In the Banda Oriental, the rural population rebelled against the Spanish authorities in Montevideo. The Oriental Republic of Uruguay, fed up with its disappointments with the centralism of Buenos Aires, and after the War with Brazil (1825-1828), established itself as an independent entity in 1828.
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    INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA

    When Fernando VII returned to the throne in 1814, patriotic military campaigns continued in Venezuela and the Río de la Plata. Fernando VII ordered the organization of the so-called "Peace Expedition" which, under the command of Marshal Pablo Morillo, set sail from Cádiz in 1815. It was the largest force that would leave Spain during the course of the war: 65 main ships, 18 battleships, a ship of the line with 74 guns, 15,000 men, supplies and provisions.
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    NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    In 1817, Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolívar defeated Morillo in Calabozo in 1818. Morillo counterattacked and defeated Bolívar in Valle de Aragua. Then Bolívar crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the Battle of the Pantano de Vargas in 1819, which sealed the independence of New Granada. A month later, the royalist army was defeated at the Battle of Carabobo, the final victory of Venezuela's independence in 1821.
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    INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE.

    San Martín decided to continue with his plans, only now he had to liberate Chile first. That is why he spent years manufacturing weapons, bullets and all kinds of equipment, and organizing the Army of the Andes. The journey was epic, the six columns met less than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious defeat in Cancha Rayada in 1818, it triumphed in the decisive battle of Maipú in 1818, ensuring the independence of Chile.
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    INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR

    How the independence of Guayaquil was proclaimed in 1820, the arrival of the patriot army commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in Pichincha in 1822, which culminated in the independence of Gran Colombia. Also, Bolívar defeated the royalist meadows at the Battle of Bomboná, and entered Quito triumphantly in 1822 and waited for the president of Peru, General José de San Martín, to discuss the strategy to end the war against the royalists.
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    PERU.

    Together with O'Higgins, and with 200,000 pesos obtained from Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to buy a naval squadron to attack the Spanish in Peru by sea. San Martín set sail from Valparaíso in 1820 with a fleet of eight warships and 16 transport ships, and 4,500 men from the armies of the Andes and Chile. He landed in Pisco in 1820 and forced the royalist army to retreat to the mountains. San Martín declared independence in 1821 and was named Protector of Peru.
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    INDEPENDENCIA MEXICANA

    The priest Miguel Hidalgo placed himself at the head of the indigenous and peasants and launched the "cry of independence" in the town of Dolores. Over three years, he won triumphs with his army and occupied several cities in Mexico, but was defeated in Guadalajara and executed by the royalist authorities in 1811. Frustrated in his desire for autonomy and free trade, a group of conservative creoles proclaimed the independence in 1821.Spain did not recognize the independence of Mexico until 1839.
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    BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE.

    In 1821, Juan VI returned to Portugal, leaving his son Pedro de Braganza as governor of Brazil, but the following year he proclaimed himself emperor of Brazil. In 1831 he abdicated and was succeeded by his son, Pedro II, who reigned until 1889 when the first republic was proclaimed.
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    SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVAR.

    At their meetings in Guayaquil 1822, Bolívar, Libertador and
    the president of Gran Colombia, and San Martín, protector of Peru, spoke about what was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last royalist stronghold in Peru. He returned to Lima, resigned the government of Peru in 1822, and returned home to Mendoza, Argentina in 1823, where he died in 1850.
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    END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.

    In 1823, Bolívar was authorized
    by the Congress of the Great
    Colombia to take command
    an expedition to Peru. In
    September of that year, he
    arrived in Lima and met with
    Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
    to plan the attack. Bolívar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army in battle. of Junín 1824.
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    END OF INDEPENDENCE.

    Then, while Bolívar had gone to Lima to raise more money and upon receiving a new contingent of troops, Sucre was forced to fight and destroyed the last stronghold of the Spanish army at the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824, which ended Spanish rule. in South America.
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    END OF INDEPENDENCE.

    Sucre went to Alto Peru in 1825, where there was no resistance, and made it independent as a sovereign state that adopted the name of Bolivia in honor of Simón Bolívar.
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    THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO.

    On September 23, 1868 there was the Lares cry for independence against Spain. Puerto Rico continues within the Spanish system until the war between the United States and Spain. After its defeat, the island of Puerto Rico becomes administered by the United States and is currently a commonwealth of that country.
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    INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA.

    José Martí organizes the Cuban Revolutionary Party and looks for the old leaders of the revolution, unifies the different currents, builds a little
    army, and disembarks in Cuba. Martí dies in one of the combat actions
    (1895), but the army continues to fight. The United States declares war on Spain. The intervention of the United States precipitated the defeat of the Spanish and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered the American occupation.