Revolutions, Wars, and World Relations of Latin America in the 19th and Early 20th Century

By 32luke
  • Successful Slave Revolt in Saint Domingue

    Successful Slave Revolt in Saint Domingue
    The first successful slave revolt took place in Saint-Domingue. The rebellion began on August 22, 1791. It became widely successful when Toussaint L'Ouverture, a former slave of Saint-Domingue, began leading the forces in 1793. At this time, the rebellion also joined invading Spanish forces from Hispainola. War with Britain prevents France from sending more soldiers. Although Toussaint was captured before the war was over, the revolt ended on Jan 1,1804 and the free state of Haiti was found.
  • Venezuela's First Attempt at Independence

    Venezuela's First Attempt at Independence
    On February 2, 1806, a voyage led by Venezuelan exile Francisco de Miranda set out from New York carrying 500 men to Venezuela. The goal of this force was to gain Venezuelan independence. It was funded and manned by Americans whom Miranda convinced to help him in his fight. The invading force was small, but Miranda hoped that Venezuelan patriots would join in the fight. However, the revolt was a failure and after about two weeks, Miranda and his men were driven from the continent.
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    El Libertador: Simon Bolivar

    Proclamation of 1813 At some time in 1807, Bolivar returned to Venezuela after a trip to Europe and began his Admirable Campaign. This was an attempt to free Venezuela from Spain and it was eventually successful. Bolivar also played a key military role in the liberation of other countries such as Colombia, Peru, Panama, and Ecuador. The state of Gran Colombia was made under Bolivar and encompassed areas of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. The Republic of Bolivia, which was named for Bolivar, was formed in 1825.
  • "Memorial de Agravios" (Pleading of Offenses)

    "Memorial de Agravios" (Pleading of Offenses)
    Memorial de Agravios
    (Exact date unknown)
    This was a letter written by Camilo Torres Tenorio to the Spanish Monarchy. It described the outrage at the mistreatment of the Creoles in the Americas. Although it was uneffective, this letter foreshadowed the mass independence movements which would follow in 1810. (Camilo Torres Tenorito was later hung in 1816.)
  • Venezuelan Independence

    Venezuelan Independence
    Venezuela was the first Latin American country to formally break away from Spain. This revolution was inspired by French rule in Spain which was established by Napoleon who put his brother Joseph Bonaparte in power there. The revolutionary feeling was further spurred by unpopular taxes. On April 19, 1810, Creole patriots overthrew Captain-General Vicente Emparan in Caracas (the capital of Venezuela) and demanded self-rule until Ferdinand VII and the Spanish Crown would be restored.
  • The May Revolution (Argentina Independence)

    The May Revolution (Argentina Independence)
    This break for independence was one of the many spurred by the French conquering Spain. An original ruling junta was point place in Buenos Aires after discussion from May 22-24. However, it contained the old Spanish viceroy and was replaced by another on May 25 in order to please the masses.
    This junta claimed it would only rule until Ferdinand VII regained the Spanish throne, however, by that time, Argentina was not not going to give up its independence.
  • Colombian Independence

    Colombian Independence
    In New Granada (now Colombia) the same discontent with Joseph Bonaparte which was seen in Venezuela was also present. Creoles had also experienced discrimination which only added to the tension. On July 20, 1810, Colombian patriots, also feeling pressure from independence movements from the surrounding areas, began street riots in Bogota. This was the home of the viceroy who was left with no choice but to grant limited independence which later became permanent.
  • Grito de Dolores (The Cry of Dolores)

    Grito de Dolores (The Cry of Dolores)
    On the fifteenth of September 1810, word reached Miguel Hidalgo, a key leader in the Mexican Revolution, that the conspiracy for Mexican Independence was discovered.
    Father Miguel Hidalgo was in the city of Dorlores at this time. He rang the church bells on the morning of the sixteenth announcing his plans for revolution and pleading for help from the people. Within in minutes he had an army of 600 men. This was the beginning of the Mexican Revolution.
  • The Siege of Guanajuato

    The Siege of Guanajuato
    After the Cry of Dolores, Father Hidalgo began massing a huge mob those dissatisfied with Spanish rule. Together with Ignacio Allende, Hidalgo and this rebel army marched to Guanajuato. Here, the resident Spanish royalists organized their stand at the Alhóndiga de Granaditas (a large granary). Although they were better equipped than the peasants, they were vastly outnumbered and eventually fell to the vengeful Mexican revolutionary forces after a misunderstood attempt at surrender.
  • Indpendence in Chile

    Indpendence in Chile
    Chile saw Indpendence for a number of reasons. First, a very unpopular governor would make them unhappy with Spanish rule. Chile also had a desire for Independence like so many other colonies did. This was particularly true in Chile when Argentina, also ruled by the same governor gained independenc in May. The Chileans finally broke away on September 18, 1810. They used the French takeover in Spain as their excuse like so many others did.
  • The Battle of Monte de las Cruces

    The Battle of Monte de las Cruces
    After the Seige of Guanajuato, the rebels attempted to gain some control of the vast mob and reorganize. They set their sights on under-defended capital, Mexico City (most of the Spanish forces were at San Luis Potosi). The officials of the city hastily made a defense at Monte de las Cruces (the Mount of the Crosses; where bandits were crucified). Despite some success, the rebel forces eventually overcame the defense. However, Hidalgo refused to capture the city and retreated back to Guanajuato.
  • Independence in Paraguay

    Independence in Paraguay
    Paraguay was unique because it had to gain independence not only from Spain, but also Argentina. Argentina urged Paraguay to break away from Spain in 1810 and join Argentina. Paraguay followed their advice, breaking away from Spain, but they then refused to submit to leadership by Argentina. In the fighting that ensued, Paraguay defeated Argentina's forces and, after removing a few last royal governors, gained independece on May 14, 1811.
  • The First Venezuelan Republic

    The First Venezuelan Republic
    After the original break from Spain, young radicals such as Simon Bolivar gained influence. They pushed for complete independence from Spain. On July 5, 1811, the junta (a governing body or committee, usually of the military) voted in favor of complete independence from Spain, regardless of whoever was the current ruler. This formed the First Venezuelan Republic which fell in 1812 after a catastrophic earthquake and continual pressure from royalist forces, who still supported the Spanish Crown.
  • Battle of Carabobo

    Battle of Carabobo
    This was the final battle for Venezuelan Independence by Simon Bolivar. Although Venezuela had broken free years earlier, they were still plagued by royalist forces like so many other newly independent countries. Bolivar led a successful attack, and with help from his "British Legions," Bolivar defeated the royalist commander Miguel de la Torre, securing Venezuela's independence.
  • Treaty of Cordoba

    Treaty of Cordoba
    This marked the end of the Mexican movement for Independence. Mexico had successfully broken away from Spain and had gained independence. This treaty further developed the Plan of Iguala, which had three main points. It called for the establishment of Roman Catholicism, Mexican Independence, and social equality for all social and ethnic groups in Mexico. Under this treaty, Mexico became a constitutional monarchy with Agustin de Iturbide as its ruler.
  • The Battle of Pichincha

    The Battle of Pichincha
    By this point, much of South America controlled Spain had already been liberated. After losing so much territory, Spanish forces were desperately massing together at Qutio. After two failed attempts in 1820 and 1821, the rebels were finally successful. General Antonio José de Sucre, of the rebels, and Spanish forces led by Melchor Aymerich fought on the side of Pichincha Volcano, not far from the city of Quito, Ecuador. With this victory, rebels removed Spanish power from Quito once and for all.
  • Brazil Breaks from Portugal

    Brazil Breaks from Portugal
    The same discontent that spread through Spanish colonies over the French rule was seen in Portuguese colonies. Unlike Spanish rulers, the Portuguese royal family fled in exile to Brazil. This was when Brazil became the capital of Portugal and the Brazilian people experienced self-rule. For this reason, Brazil didn't favor a return to their old monarch system like the Spanish colonies did. On September 7, 1822, Brazil split from Portugal forming a monarchy under previous Portuguese rulers.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Monroe Docturine This document was America's own claim to the right to "intervene" in Latin American countries. It demanded that European nations remain out of the Western Hemisphere. The Monroe Doctrine was one of America's first steps toward Imperialism and was enacted by President James Monroe in 1823.
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    The End of The Liberator

    The Life of Simon Bolivar Beginning in the mid-1820s, Bolivar began experiencing problems in Gran Colombia. He was not only facing uprising in his own state, but there was also tension with neighboring New Granada. To try and save the dream of ruling over an American-like government, Bolivar attempted to draft a constitution and congress. When this failed, Bolivar seized power as a dictator in order to implement his policies. However, this also fell short. Bolivar finally died in 1830 after contracting tuberculosis.
  • The Pastry War

    The Pastry War
    This was a short war fought between France and Mexico. It started for two main reasons. First, many Frenchmen living in Mexico claimed that the government owed them reparations, which it refused to pay. (It was called a pastry war because a French pastry chef was one of the original complainers) Second, Mexico also had a long-standing debt with France. Mexico was greatly outmatched and agreed to pay reparations only after a few months of fighting. The war ended on March 9, 1839.
  • United States Annexation of Texas

    United States Annexation of Texas
    On December 29, 1845 Texas was formally annexed by the United States through a joint resolution after two previous failed attempts. However, this causes dispute with Mexico. When Texas was annexed, the Rio Grande was considered its border and everything to that point was controlled by the US. Mexico claimed that the real border of Texas was the Nuceus River and they refused to accept Texan Independence. This leads to the Mexican-American War.
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    Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War (Part 1) This was a war between Mexico and the US which erupted over border disputes after the annexation of Texas by the US. During the fighting, the Mexico faced desertion and governmental turmoil and the US won the war in 1848. The Treaty of Gaudalupe granted the US Mexican territory which today makes up states such as New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and California. However, despite the US's success, the Mexican-American War plays a role in creating tensions which lead to the Civil War.
  • Cinco de Mayo

    Cinco de Mayo
    Cinco de Mayo Contrary to popular belief, this is not Mexican Independence Day. This is the day that Mexico overcame France in the battle of Puebla. French forces were in Mexico along with the British and Spanish in an attempt to try and force the Mexicans to pay their debt. The Mexicans who were outnumbered and less equipped than the French drove them back and forced them to retreat. This day is a celebration of Mexican determination and resolve which allowed them to seize and impressive victory.
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    The War of the Triple Alliance (The Paraguayan War)

    This war was fought between Paraguay and the alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Originally, Argentina was a foe of both Brazil and Paraguay, and Brazil and Uruguay were allies with Paraguay. However, Uruguay was a problem for Brazil, whom invaded. Argentina also wanted a change in Uruguay and joined with Brazil. Paraguay went to help Uruguay, but the power-shift was complete and Paraguay was now against three powers. Paraguay lost the war, one of the worst in South American history.
  • Brazil Abolishes Monarchy

    Brazil Abolishes Monarchy
    Golden Law of 1888 finally freed the slaves after many previous civil reforms. This emancipation by Pedro II led to an Independence movement in Brazil. It caused turmoil in the north where the slave-based economy failed. The elites began favoring an oligarchic republic where leaders controlled their individual areas. Republicans planned a conspiracy to replace the cabinet after the cabinet crises in 1888 and 1889 and. This led to a coup which disposed of Pedro II and ended the Empire of Brazil.
  • Spanish-American War (Spanish-Cuban-American War)

    Spanish-American War (Spanish-Cuban-American War)
    This war was nicknamed the "Splendid Little War" by John Hay since it lasted only ten weeks and ended in decisive US victory. It was provoked by Spanish atrocities in Cuba and the mysterious sinking of the US battleship the Maine, which was blamed on the Spanish. The Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898 gave the US control over the Phillipines, Puerto Rico, Guam, and even Cuba for a short time before Cuba was granted independence, which was the main purpose of the war in the first place.
  • The Thousand Days' War (beginning)

    The Thousand Days' War (beginning)
    The Thousand Days' War was a civil war between liberals and conservatives which took place in Colombia. It began on October 17, 1899 when liberals led an attack against the conservatives after what the liberals believed had been a rigged election. Despite their initial defeat, the liberals had new hope after General Rafael Uribe Uribe gained a victory at Peralonso.
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    Venezuelan Affair

    The Venezuelan Affair was marked by contact from Britain and Germany to Venezuela. They demanded that Venezuela pay their debt and certain reparations.. Shortly thereafter, Britain and Germany sent fleets to Venezuela and created a blockade around the country. This was a breach of the Monroe Doctrine, so Roosevelt mobilized the US navy at Puerto Rico to ensure that Germany and England would respect the US's claims. After two, long months on edge, the British and Germans pulled out.
  • The Thousand Days' War (ending)

    The Thousand Days' War (ending)
    The Battle at Palonegro was the decisive battle of the war. Conservatives and liberals met here for a long, bloody, draining battle of trench warfare. Both sides suffered great losses, but it was clear that this left the liberal army broken. In the end, the people of Colombia grew tired of the fighting and a cease fire was signed on October 24, 1902, disarming the liberals. The formal end of the war was with a second treaty on November 21, 1902 on the deck of the US warship Wisconsin.
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Roosevelt Corollary
    Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary was an expansion to the Monroe Doctrine. It was initiated by President Roosevelt in response to the Venezuelan Affair. The corollary stated that the United States had the right to intervene in Latin American countries which could not pay their debt. It also gave the United State the right to mediate anywhere that domestic affairs in the Western Hemisphere threatened US interests.
  • Panama Canal Opens

    Panama Canal Opens
    (Jan 1? 1914)
    The Panama Canal was a French Project which began in the late 1800s. However, the US gained rights to the unfinished canal in 1903 under Roosevelt. The US gained control with the signing of the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty after the US helped Panama gain its Independence from Colombia earlier that year. Construction itself was dangerous and many died. The death toll was raised to 27,500 by diseases like Yellow Fever and Malaria. The Panama Canal was finally finished and opened in 1914.