The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
Was the age of reason in all of Europe. Philosophy, Science, and Reason was in style. The Greek and Roman ideas, architecture, and government style were popular in the Enlightenment. The rich wore wigs and had controlled gardens with people even trying to control where their moles would be and how they would look.
Gunpowder plotGunpowder plot
The Gunpowder Plot was a failed attempt to blow up King James I and the Parliament on November 5, 1605. The plot was organized by Robert Catesby who hoped to replace the country’s Protestant government with Catholic leadership. Around midnight on November 4, 1605, one of the conspirators, Guy Fawkes, was found in the cellar of the Parliament with 36 barrels of gunpowder. Fawkes and other conspirators in the plot were executed for treason.
Charles I became kingCharles I became king
Charles I became the king after his father’s death. Like his father, he had massive fights with parliament over money. He didn’t call Parliament into session for 11 years, and when he did, he asked for more money and parliament rebelled.
Commonwealth beginsCommonwealth begins
The commonwealth was a period when Oliver Cromwell ruled over England. He made reforms that were unpopular with the people. When he died in 1658, Parliament asked Charles II to be king. After Cromwell died, he was dug up and put on trial and hanged.
Glorious revolutionGlorious revolution
James II was king of England, and often fought with Parliament. Parliament then asked Mary (James II's daughter, who was prodestant) and her husband William to come and try to overthrow James II. James II fled to France and Mary and William moved in. Parliament made them the rulers, and they made the Crown and Parliament equal in power.
Montesquieu writes spirits of lawsMontesquieu writes spirits of laws
Montesquieu’s primary book, "Spirit of the Laws," focused on separation of powers. He believed that no part of the government should have too much power over the rest of the state. His ideas were very popular with the American founding fathers.
Adam smith writes the wealth of nationsAdam smith writes the wealth of nations
Adam Smith was one of the first men to advocate free market capitalism. He outlined this in his book, "The Wealth of Nations." This said that if markets were kept free from government regulation, the people participating in them would be richer, and to a further extent the government. He invented the term Laissez-faire.
The Estates GeneralMay 5, 1789
The Estates General was a meeting of the three estates in time of France's great need. The Estates General hadn’t been called in 11 years, but rising anger in the population forced Louis XVI to call a session. Unfairness in the system caused the third estate to swear the tennis court oath.
The Storming of the BastilleJuly 14, 1789
The bastille was a converted prison, with only 7 prisoners. The main use was for storing gunpowder. The French people attacked the bastille and took the gunpowder being stored there.
Louis XVI’s DeathJanuary 21, 1793
After trying to flee the country, the people weren’t sure what to do with the royal family. Some wanted to use the king as a figurehead. Some thought it wiser to kill him. So on January 21, 1793 they executed him with the guillotine.
The terror intensifiesSeptember 17, 1793
After the death of the king, a law was made so if people showed any doubts about the revolution they would be arrested and most likely be guillotined.
Marie Antoinette’s DeathOctober 16, 1793
Marie Antoinette was hated by most of the French people for her excessive spending. She was innocent of most of her crimes, but she was ruled guilty. Marie Antoinette was executed by the guillotine on October 16, 1793.
The Battle of LeipzigOctober 16-17, 1813
The battle of Leipzig was a defeat for Napoleon and France. The Coalition forced him to abdicate the throne and exiled him to an island called Elba. He stayed in Elba for 10 months before escaping back to France.
The hundred daysMarch 20- June 22, 1815
Napoleon returned to France and assembled an army. The French people welcomed him back but England, Russia, Austria, and other countries united and formed the 7th coalition. Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Waterloo and sent to the island of St. Helena.
Napoleon's deathMay 5, 1821, Napoleon died on st. Helena from stomach cancer. He was buried in St. Helena but was moved to France in 1840. His burial site is in Les Invalides.