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Spain in the 18th and 19th

  • Neoclassicism

    It s the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism.
  • Death of Charles II, king of Spain

    Death of Charles II, king of Spain
    His reign lasted from 1665 to 1700. His parents were Philip IV (King of Spain) and Maria (daughter of emperor Ferdinand III). He first got married with Maria Louisa of Orleans and when she died, in 1689, he got married with Maria Ana of Neuberg. Known as "the Bewitched" he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities—along with his consequent ineffectual rule. He died in 1700, childless and heirless, with all potential Habsburg successors having predeceased him.
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    The War of the Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession was fought between European powers, including a divided Spain, over who had the right to succeed Charles II as King of Spain. This war resulted into the Treaty of Utrecht.
    France and Castilla (under Philip) supported the Bourbons.
    Holy Roman Empire:
    Austria, Prussia, Hanover.
    England, Scotland, Great Britain, Dutch of Savoy, Kingdom of Portugal, Spain loyal to Charles.
    Supported the Hapsburg Empire.
  • Philip V First Reign

    Philip V First Reign
    Philip was born at the Palace of Versailles, on 19 December, 1683. His parents were Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria. He first got married with Maria Luisa of Savoy. When she died, in 1714, he got married with Elisabeth of Parma. In his later reign Philip helped his Bourbon relatives to make territorial gains in the War of the Polish Succession and the War of the Austrian Succession by reconquering Naples and Sicily from Austria and Oran from the Ottomans.
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    Philip V First Reign

  • Decretos de Nueva Planta

    The Decretos de Nueva Planta were a set of decrees issued by King Philip V, victor of the War of Spanish Succession, by which were abolished laws and institutions of the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Mallorca, all members of the Crown of Aragon who had opted for the Archduke Charles, ending the composite structure of the Spanish monarchy of the Habsburgs. The "New Ground" was also applied to the Crown of Castile.
  • Decrees of the Kingdom of Valencia

    The Decree of Nueva Planta of the Kingdom of Valencia was a decree issued by Philip V of Spain on June 29, 1707 during the War of Spanish Succession, in which were abolished the charters and the institutions of the Kingdom of Valencia.
  • Decrees of the Kingdom of Aragon

    Philip V declared the "abolished and repealed of all the charters, privileges, practice and custom hitherto observed in the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, being my will that they be reduced to the laws of Castile and to its form of government", This was justified based on three arguments: breaking the oath of allegiance to the king, the absolute rule of the king in all his kingdoms and states and the right of conquest that allowed him to impose his law on the territories conquered.
  • The Pragmatic Sanction

    The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 was an edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter. The Pragmatic Sanction was the first such document to be publicly announced and as such required formal acceptance by the estates of the realms it concerned. For 10 years, Charles VI labored, with the support of his closest advisor Johann Christoph von Bartenstein, to have his sanction accepted by the courts of Europe.
  • The Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht. The signers are: Louis XIV of France, Philip V of Spain, Anne of Great Britain, John V of Portugal, United Provinces.
    The treaty marked the end of French ambitions of hegemony in Europe expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on the balance of power.
  • Decrees of the Crown of Castile

    These decrees caused:
    The Council of State is deprived of all its functions passed to the Council of Castile.
    A reform is made to the Council of Castile in order to make it the superior organ of the monarchical structure and convert it into a governing council.
    Castile loses its specific territorial character.
  • Isabella Farnese of Parma First Reign

    Isabella Farnese of Parma First Reign
    She was the consort queen of Spain.
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    Isabella Farnese of Parma First Reign

    Her policy was based on recovering for the Spanish monarchy, Italian territories lost by the Treaty of Utrecht. So, she got to his son Charles, the kingdom of Naples and Sicily besides giving her other son, Philip, the Duchy of Parma.
  • Decrees of the Kingdom of Mallorca

    Decrees of the Kingdom of Mallorca
    These decrees caused:
    The insaculatorio system for the election of officers was already deleted, thereafter they would be appointed by the king or the commander in chief.
    The public law was supressed.
    Mallorca lost the right to mint its own currency.
    The Castilian system of the mayor and aldermen was imposed.
  • Decrees of the Principality of Catalonia

    Decrees of the Principality of Catalonia
    They abolished the Parliament and the Council of One Hundred.
    The viceroy was replaced by a commander in chief and Catalonia was divided into twelve "Corregidurías", therefore the batlled remained.
    The somatenes (armed militias in Catalonia and Aragon) are prohibited.
    Taxing the urban and rural properties and benefits of labor, trade and industry was established.
    The official language of the Court ceased to be Latin and was replaced by the Castilian.
  • Louis I Reign

    Louis I Reign
    Louis I succeeded the throne after the abdication of his father, Philip V, who also regained the throne after the death of Louis I from smallpox. He ruled 7 months and 17 days.
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    Louis I Reign

  • Philip V Second Reign

    Philip V Second Reign
    His second reign was due to the death of Louis I, his son, who his rule lasted less than a year.
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    Philip V Second Reign

    He became ill and he named his son as king but only lasted eight months.
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    Isabella Farnese of Parma Second Reign

  • The First Family Compact

    France backed Spain's right to recover possessions in Italy. Italy became an obsessive factor in its foreign policy ; this obsession coincided with the ambitions of Philip V's second wife, Isabella Farnese of Parma. In 1734, Spanish troops recovered Naples and Sicily and Isabella's older son, Charles, was crowned King of Naples.
  • The Second Family Compact

    In support of France's involvement with the Austrian War of Succession, resulted in the installation of Charles's younger brother Philip as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748.
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    Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes

    He was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker, regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. Goya was court painter to the Spanish Crown; throughout the Peninsular War he remained in Madrid, where he painted the portrait of Joseph Bonaparte, pretender to the Spanish throne, and documented the war in the masterpiece of studied ambiguity known as the Desastres de la Guerra. He was a model for painters such as Manet, Picasso and Francis Bacon.
  • Ferdinand VI Reign

    Ferdinand VI Reign
    He was born on 23 September, 1713 in Real Alcázar de Madrid. His parents were Philip V of Spain and Maria Luisa of Savoy. He got married with Barbara of Portugal. He started his reign by eliminating the influence of the widow Queen Elisabeth of Parma and her group of Italian courtiers. The most important tasks during the reign of Ferdinand VI were carried out by the Marquis of Ensenada, the Secretary of the Treasury, Navy and Indies. He suggested that the state help modernize the country.
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    Ferdinand VI Reign

  • Neoclassical Architecture

    Neoclassical Architecture
    It is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. It is a style which principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
    The photograph shows the Cathedral of Vilnius.
  • The Canal of Castile

    The main purpose of its construction was to use it as a waterway transport communication and solve the problem by insulation that was under the plateau of Castile and Leon. This is when the Marqués de la Ensenada proposes to Ferdinand VI the construction of a network of roads and canals designed to Castile navigation.
    Two years later, Antonio de Ulloa, an engineer, presents the "General Draft Navigation Channels and Irrigation to the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon".
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    The Seven Years War

    This war affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. The war was driven by the antagonism between Great Britain and the Bourbon Dynasty, and by the antagonism between the Hohenzollern Dynasty and Habsburg Dynasty. The hostilities were ended in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, which involved France's cession to Spain of Louisiana, and to Great Britain the rest of New France except for the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Charles III Reign

    Charles III Reign
    He was born on 20 January, 1716 in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid. His parents were Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. He got married with Maria Amalia of Saxony. The third Treaty of Vienna, stated he would not be able to join the Neapolitan and Sicilian territories to the Spanish throne. He was later given the title of Lord of the Two Sicilies.
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    Charles III Reign

  • Characteristics of the Neoclassical Architecure

    Characteristics of the Neoclassical Architecure
    It employed the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture. However, it tended to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes. Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade were more flat; sculptural bas-reliefs were flatter and tended to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Its clearly articulated individual features were isolated, autonomous and complete in themselves.
    The photograph shows the White hall of the Gatchina palace.
  • The Third Family Compact

    England and France sought Spanish support in the Seven Years War. The pact, which dealt with political and commercial relations and with the entry of Spain into the war, also included the Bourbon ruler of the Two Sicilies and the Infant Philip, duke of Parma. Spain entered the war (1762) but was of small use to France; the economic and political provisions of the pact proved to be more enduring than the military ones.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Peace of Paris and the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February, 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.The signing of the treaty formally ended the Seven Years' War. Otherwise known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre, which marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe.
  • The Treaty of Hubertusburg

    It was signed on 15 February, 1763 at Hubertusburg by Prussia, and Austria. Together with the Treaty of Paris, it marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years' War. The treaty ended the continental conflict with no significant changes in prewar borders. Silesia remained Prussian, and Prussia clearly stood among the ranks of the great powers. Austria's resolve to repossess the rich province of Silesia, which had been lost to Prussia in 1748.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    They occurred during the rule of Charles III of Spain. It was caused by many different reasons, for example: The constant rise of the price of staples or the suspicion of the Spaniards in the foreign ministers brought by Carlos III. However, the most important cause was that traditional long capes and white-brimmed hats were prohibited because they allowed criminals to conceal their faces. All these was caused by the Marquis of Esquilache.
  • Expulsion of the Jesuits

    Expulsion of the Jesuits
    The Jesuits are a male religious order belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in 1540 in Rome (Italy) by Ignatius of Loyola. With the Bourbon succession of 1700 began the fight in Spain, to establish national sovereignty as the basis for a reversal of the economic devastation which brought the theocratic imperial reign of the Inquisition. In addition to poverty, chastity and obedience, Jesuits have a special fourth vow: obedience to the pope whatever it is.
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos wrote the Honest Offender

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos wrote the Honest Offender
    He was an ilustrated Spanish writer, lawyer and politician. Jovellanos's prose works, especially those on political and legislative economy, constitute his real claim to literary fame. In them, depth of thought and clear-sighted sagacity are couched in a certain Ciceronian elegance and classical purity of style. Besides the Ley Agraria, he wrote Elogios, and an interesting set of diaries or travel journals (1790–1801, first published in 1915) reflecting his trips across Northern Spain.
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    Royal Tapestry

  • Floridablanca Count was Secretary of the State

    Floridablanca Count was Secretary of the State
    José Moñino y Redondo was a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV. He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca.
  • Goya became painter of Charles III

    In 1786 he became the King's painter. The King promoted Goya to Painter of the Chamber and sat for a portrait. The King was very pleased with the result. He started the portrait in 1786 and he finished it in 1788.
  • Charles IV Reign

    Charles IV Reign
    He was born on 11 November, 1748. His parents were Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony. He got married with Maria Luisa of Parma. He intended to maintain the policies of his father and maintained his prime minister,the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Riots and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on 19 March, in favour of his son. Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon.
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    Charles IV Reign

  • Tomás Zumalacárregui

     Tomás Zumalacárregui
    He was a Basque Carlist general. The proclamation of the king's daughter Isabel as heiress was almost the occasion of an armed conflict between him and the naval authorities at Ferrol. He gradually obtained full possession of Navarre and organized the forces known as aduaneros and the Guías de Navarra. He won the battles of Alsasua, Alegría de Álava, and Venta de Echavarri. He died on 24 June, 1835.
  • El Baile de San Antonio de la Florida

    El Baile de San Antonio de la Florida
    El Baile de San Antonio de la Florida or dancing on the banks of the Manzanares is a cardboard painted by Francisco Goya for the dining room of the Prince of Asturias in the Brown Skin. In this work you can still see the imprint of Mengs and Bayeu, still supervising Goya cartons. The Aragonese describes the picture as «dos majos y dos majas que bailan seguidillas». In a second term musicians, a military and a pestle is observed. In the background, appears the church of San Francisco el Grande.
  • Goya was Deaf

    Goya's position was secured with Charles III, but at the age of 46 years he suddenly collapsed. He suffered a grave and mysterious illness and was blind, paralysed and closed to madness. He was stone deaf after he recovered. In spite of all his ill health, Goya gained two more sponsors, Duke and Duchess of Alba. It was said that Goya and the Duchess of Alba were lovers and that she inspired two of his most famous paintings: The Naked Maja and The Clothed Maja.
  • War of Pyrenees

    The Great War, also known as the War of Pyrenees, faced The the Kingdom of Spain against the revolutionary France, between 1793 and 1795. Spain lost Roussillon and Cerdanya.Peace between Spain and France was signed on November 7, 1659.
  • The Execution of Louis XVI

    The Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place at the Place de la Révolution. It was a major event of the French Revolution. After events on the 10 August 1792, which saw the fall of the monarchy after the attack on the Tuileries by insurgents, Louis was arrested, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, found guilty by almost all, and condemned to death by a slight majority.
  • Capricho "Tal para cual"

    Capricho "Tal para cual"
    Goya produced his first etchings, los Caprichos in which he showed the folly of humans. They are full with monsters, witches and goblins. The central image is called 'The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters' and shows the nightmare which Goya fears when reason 'sleeps'. One of his Caprichos is called "Tal para cual" and he painted it in 1799.
  • Charles IV's Family Painting by Goya

    Charles IV's Family Painting by Goya
    Charles IV of Spain and his family is an oil on canvas painting by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya who began to work on this painting in 1800 and completed it in the summer of 1801.The royal family is apparently paying a visit to the artist's studio, while Goya can be seen to the left looking outwards towards the view.
  • The Spanish Defeat at Trafalgar

    The Spanish Defeat at Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve. The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle.
  • Napoleonic Troops in Spain

  • Tretay of Fountainebleau

    Tretay of Fountainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a political agreement that was signed between Napoleon Bonaparte of France and Charles IV of Spain on October 27, 1807, in Fontainebleau, France. It was agreed that Portugal and all Portuguese dominions were to be divided between the signatories; by this accord Napoleon wanted to secure and ensure the Continental Blockade he had imposed on Britain in 1806 by capturing the Portuguese ports.
    The photograph shows the partition of Portugal, proposed by Napoleon.
  • Abdication of Bayonne

    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council.
  • Ferdinand VII First Reign

    Ferdinand VII First Reign
    When his father's abdication was extorted by a popular riot at Aranjuez in March 1808, he ascended the throne but turned again to Napoleon, in the hope that the emperor would support him.
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    Ferdinand VII Reign

  • Events of 2 May 1808

    Outbreak of the Peninsular War: The people of Madrid rise up in rebellion against French occupation. Francisco de Goya later memorializes this event in his painting "The Second of May" in 1808.
  • Joseph I Reign

    Joseph I Reign
    He was born on 7 January, 1768. His parents were Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. He was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily and later King of Spain. His arrival sparked the Spanish revolt against French rule, and the beginning of the Peninsular War. During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition. King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after the defeat of the main French forces to the British at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.
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    Joseph I Reign

  • Independence War by Goya

    Independence War by Goya
    He represents equally, through the chosen scenes, the excesses and enormous violence done by the respective protagonists, which appear many times anonymously, but radically and emotionally committed to denouncing all of the suffering and barbarity provoked by wars and violence, committed with total impunity and for those in which there is no justification.
  • The Constitution of 1812

    It was enacted by the Parliament of Spain, gathered extraordinarily in Cádiz on March 19, 1812. It has been given a great historical importance as it was the first constitution promulgated in Spain, in addition to being one of the most liberal of that time.
  • Ferdinand VII Second Reign

    Ferdinand VII Second Reign
    During his first reign he was imprisoned by Napoleon, then he returned to govern.
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    Ferdinand VII Second Reign

  • Black Paintings by Goya

    Black Paintings by Goya
    The Black Paintings is the name given to a group of fourteen paintings by Francisco Goya from the later years of his life, likely between 1819 and 1823. They portray intense, haunting themes, reflective of both his fear of insanity and by then, his bleak outlook on humanity.
    The photograph shows one of his Black Paintings, called "Duel with cudgels".
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    The so-called Statement of Irrigation, was a coup of a progressive military commander, Riego, made ​​by the January 1, 1820 in Cabezas de San Juan. In a brilliant act of solemn, irrigation issued a proclamation that promulgates the hitherto repealed Liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812.
  • Isabella II Reign

    Isabella II Reign
    She was born on 10 October, 1830. His parents were Ferdinand VII of Spain and Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the Cortes Generales to help him set aside the Salic Law. Isabella's reign was maintained only through the support of the army.
  • First Carlist War

    First Carlist War
    The photograph represents the Battle of Mendigorría on 16 July, 1835.
    The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1839, fought between Carlists, supported by Miguel I, and Liberals, supported by France, United Kingdom and Maria II.
  • Carlist Wars

    Carlist Wars
    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. The characteristics of the Carlists are: traditionalism, catholicism, patriotism, monarchism, nationalism, local fueros, counterrevolution and legitimism.
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    Isabella II Reign

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    First Carlist War

  • Lord Eliot Convention

    Lord Eliot Convention
    The photograph represents how the Lord Eliot Convention sought to end indiscriminate executions by firing squad during the First Carlist War, such as those committed at Heredia. This was the agreement of the Convention, which was signed by Edward Eliot, Secretary of Legation at Madrid on 21 November, 1821.
  • Convention of Vergara

    Convention of Vergara
    The Convention of Vergara, also known as the Embrace of Vergara, was a treaty successfully ending the major fighting in Spain's First Carlist War. It was signed by Baldomero Espartero for the Isabelines (or "Constitutionalists") and Rafael Maroto for the Carlists.
    The photograph represents a text of the Vergara Agreement.
  • Constitution of 1845

    At that time the form of government was a Constitutional Monarchy. The Parliament was elected by censitary suffrage and it was repealed because Isabella II and her Government overthrown in the Glorious Revolution of 1868.
  • Second Carlist War

    Second Carlist War
    The photograph represents the Battle of Pasteral in 1849.
    The Second Carlist War was a short civil war fought primarily in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera against the forces of the government of Isabella II. The war was fought to facilitate the marriage of Isabella II with the Carlist pretender, Carlos de Borbón, which was supported by the moderate party and by the Carlists.
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    Second Carlist War

  • Constitution of 1856

    At that time the government was a Constitutional Monarchy. The Parliament elected by censitary suffrage. It was scrapped by the new government and passed by the Parliament but not enacted by Isabella II as moderate liberals returned to power.
  • Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders in 1875 proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration.
  • Constitution of 1869

    At that time the government was a Constitutional Monarchy. The Parliament was elected by universal male suffrage and it was repealed because of the Republic declared by the Cortes after the abdication of Amadeus I.
  • Juan Prim

    Juan Prim
    Count of Reus, Marquis of Castillejos and Viscount of the Bruch, was a Spanish military and political liberal nineteenth century who became President of the Council of Ministers of Spain. After the Revolution of 1868, he became one of the most influential men in Spain at the time, sponsoring the inauguration of the House of Savoy in the person of Amadeus I. He was killed shortly after.
  • Third Carlist War

    Third Carlist War
    The photograph represents the Battle of Treviño on 7 July, 1875.
    During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain, the most important ones being La Seu d'Urgell and Estella in Navarre. Isabella II was in exile, and Amadeus I, proclaimed king in 1870, was not very popular. The Carlist pretender, "Carlos VII", grandson of "Carlos V" tried to earn the support of those areas with more region-specific customs and former laws.
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    Third Carlist War

  • Constitution of 1873

    At that time the government was a Federal Republic. The Unicameral Parliament was elected by universal male suffrage. It was repealed because Arsenio Martínez Campos led a successful pronunciamiento restoring the Bourbon monarchy. The Republic collapsed before even passing the Constitution, mainly due to wide disagreement over the federalism vs centralism issue.
  • First President of the First Republic

    First President of the First Republic
    In February 1873 he was elected president of the First Republic, serving until June of the same year. In which the economic crisis as well as the internal division within his own party and the proclamation of Estat Català, prompted its replacement by Pi and his flight to France, from where he returned later in the year to try,unsuccessfully, to recompose the fragmented Federal Party. Thereafter, out of Pi and his party, he founded in 1880, with Ruiz Zorrilla,the Federal Organic Republican Party.
  • Amadeus I Abdication/ First Spanish Republic

    Amadeus I Abdication/ First Spanish Republic
    Completely disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy, where he resumed the title of Duke of Aosta. The First Spanish Republic lasted less than one year, and in November 1874 Alfonso XII, the son of Isabella II, was proclaimed King, with Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish intermittent prime minister from 1873 until his assassination in 1893, briefly serving as regent.
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    First President of the First republic

    Estanislao Figueras
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    Second President of the First Republic

    Francisco Pi y Margall
  • Second President of the First Republic

    Second President of the First Republic
    On Figueras's resignation on 11 June, Pi was named president. Pi presented to the Cortes an ambitious plan of reform, the reorganization of the army, reduction of the working day to eight hours, regulation of child labor...etc. Pi was unable to rein in the instability of the Republic; on the 1 July, the more radical elements of the Republican party and federalists broke off and declared the government illegitimate. Pi resigned the presidency on 18 July.
  • Third President of the First Republic

    Third President of the First Republic
    on 18 July 1873, president of the Executive Power of the Republic, in succession to Pi y Margall. He became president at a time when the Federalist Party had thrown all the south of Spain into anarchy.Salmerón was compelled to use the troops to restore order. When, however, he found that the generals insisted on executing rebels taken in arms, he resigned on the ground that he was opposed to capital punishment. He was again elected president of the Cortes on September 9.
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    Third President of the First Republic.

    Nicolás Salmerón.
  • Fourth President of the First Republic

    Fourth President of the First Republic
    The presidency passed from hand to hand until reaching Castelar in September. To try to save the regime dissolved the Parliament and acted with the diligence of a dictator, but of dubious loyalty to the Republic.
    When Cortes sessions resumed in early 1874, Castelar resigned after losing a parliamentary vote. The first Republic finish with Castelar.
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    Fourth President of the First Republic

    Emilio Castelar
  • The Restoration of the Monarchy

    The Restoration was the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 after the First Spanish Republic ended with the restoration of the monarchy under Alfonso XII after a coup d'état by Martinez Campos, and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
  • Constitution of 1876

    At that time the government was a Constitutional Monarchy. The Parliament was elected, first by censitary, then universal male suffrage. It was repealed because the Republic instated after Alphonse XIII fled Spain.
  • Constitution of 1931

    At that time the government was a Parliamentary Republic. The Unicameral Parliament was elected first, with universal male suffrage, then female suffrage from 1933. It was repealed because the Civil War was lost by the Republican side. During the Civil War (1936–1939) it was abolished by the Nationalists and widely disregarded in the Republican zone.
  • Fundamental Laws of the Realm

    At that time the government was an Authoritarian Dictatorship. Partially elected unicameral parliament with little powers of its own. It was repealed when the Parliament adopted the Constitution of 1978. They are a set of laws enacted by the dictator Francisco Franco in order to shape his political regime and adapt it to changes.
  • Constitution of 1978

    At that time the government was a Constitutional Monarchy. There was parliamentary democracy with bicameral, elective parliament. It is the firs constitution in Spanish constitutional history not to grant any emergency power to the Head of State.
  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    Perpetual Regidor of Badajoz and mayor of Santa Hermandad, he also was coronel of the army of Badajoz. He received many titles including Prince of the Peace. He came to power very young as the favorite of the king and queen. Despite disaster after disaster he used corruption to maintain power. Many Spaniards blamed Godoy for the disastrous war with Britain that cut off Spain's Empire and ruined its finances.
  • Carlist War

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists rallied to the cry of "God, Country, and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day.