1648-1815

  • Period: Nov 3, 1200 to

    Commercial Revolution

    The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the late 13th century until the early 18th century. It was succeeded in the mid-18th century by the Industrial Revolution
  • Nov 3, 1529

    Ottoman siege of Vienna

    Ottoman siege of Vienna
    The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.
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    Consumer Revolution

    The term Consumer revolution refers to the period from approximately 1600 to 1750 in England in which there was a marked increase in the consumption and variety of "luxury" goods and products by individuals from different economic and social backgrounds
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    The Trial of Galileo

    The Galileo affair was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism. Galileo was kept under house arrest until his death in 1642.
  • Height of Mercantilism in Europe

    Height of Mercantilism in Europe
    Mercantilism has had a "good press" in recent decades, in contrast to 19th-century opinion. In the days of Adam Smith and the classical economists, mercantilism was properly regarded as a blend of economic fallacy and state creation of special privilege
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    The English Civil War

    The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government.
  • Reign of Louis XIV

    Reign of Louis XIV
    Louis XIV known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715
  • Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War

    Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War
    Peace of Westphalia, European settlements of 1648, which brought to an end the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the Thirty Years' War. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, 1648
  • The “Golden Age” of the Netherlands

    The “Golden Age” of the Netherlands
    Was a period in Dutch history where in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the best in the world.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes The Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes publishes The Leviathan
    Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes and published in 1651. Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan
  • The English Monarchy Restored

    The English Monarchy Restored
    King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
  • Oliver Cromwell’s Navigation Acts

    Oliver Cromwell’s Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between every country except England.[clarification needed] They were first enacted in 1381,[1] and were repealed in 1849. They reflected the policy of mercantilism, which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside the Empire, and to minimise the loss of gold and silver to foreigners. They prohibited the colonies from trading directly with the Netherlands, Spain, France, and their colonies.
  • Test Act in England

    Test Act in England
    The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists
  • Reign of Peter the Great

    Reign of Peter the Great
    Peter the Great was born Pyotr Alekseyevich on June 9, 1672 in Moscow, Russia. Peter the Great was the 14th child of Czar Alexis by his second wife, Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina. Having ruled jointly with his brother Ivan V from 1682, when Ivan died in 1696, Peter was officially declared Sovereign of all Russia.
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The Edict of Nantes (1598) had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state.
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    The Enlightenment

    European politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented during the course of the “long 18th century” (1685-1815) as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or simply the Enlightenment.
  • Newton’s publication of the Principia Mathematica

    Newton’s publication of the Principia Mathematica
    Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687
  • The “Glorious Revolution”

    The “Glorious Revolution”
    The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau
  • John Locke published Two Treatises of Government

    John Locke published Two Treatises of Government
    Two Treatises of Government is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
  • The Agricultural Revolution

    The Agricultural Revolution
    The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production.
  • Enclosure Movement

    Enclosure Movement
    In the early 1700s, there was an "enclosure movement" that was a cause of the industrial revolution in England. The enclosure movement was this: wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) was the first world war of modern times with theatres of war in Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, and at sea. Charles II, king of Spain, died in 1700 without an heir. In his will he gave the crown to the French prince Philip of Anjou
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    Reign of Maria Theresa of Austria

    Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria. Maria Theresa (1717-1780), archduchess of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, began her rule in 1740. She was the only woman ruler in the 650 history of the Habsburg dynasty
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    War of Austrian Succession

    The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg
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    Reign of Frederick the Great of Prussia

    Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, was Prussia's king from 1740 to 1786. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power.
  • The Baroque Period in art and music

    The Baroque Period in art and music
    The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau publishes The Social Contract

    Jean Jacques Rousseau publishes The Social Contract
    A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences, also known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts and commonly referred to as The First Discourse, is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques
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    Seven Years War

    The Seven Years' War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763. It involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire, spanning five continents, and affected Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions.
  • Diplomatic Revolution

    Diplomatic Revolution
    The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War
  • The Rococo Period in art and music

    The Rococo Period  in art and music
    Rococo, in music, 18th-century reaction against the baroque style. Less formal and grandiose in structure, it was a graceful rather than a profound style, more hedonistic than venturesome
  • Reign of Catherine the Great of Prussia

    Reign of Catherine the Great of Prussia
    Catherine II, often called Catherine the Great, was born on May 2, 1729, in Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland), and became the Russian empress in 1762. Under her reign, Russia expanded its territories and modernized, following the lead of Western Europe
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    American Revolution

    Image result for American Revolution
    The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America
  • First Partition of Poland

    First Partition of Poland
    The First Partition of Poland took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795. Growth in the Russian Empire's power, threatening the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Austrian Empire, was the primary motive behind this first partition
  • Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith published  The Wealth of Nations
    An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution is a period in the History of France, covering the years 1789-1799, in which the monarchy was overthrown and radical restructing was forced upon the Roman Catholic Church
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    Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte

    Born on the island of Corsica, Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution (1789-1799). After seizing political power in France in a 1799 coup d'état, he crowned himself emperor in 1804
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    Slave Revolt in Haiti

    Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) The Haitian Revolution has often been described as the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony
  • Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication on the Rights of Women

    Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication on the Rights of Women
    A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy
  • Edward Jenner’s Smallpox Vaccination

    Edward Jenner’s Smallpox Vaccination
    The invention of the vaccination for smallpox, helped the epidemic.
  • The Classical Period in art and music

    The Classical Period in art and music
    Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic—a clear melody above a subordinate chordal accompaniment.
  • Last appearance of Bubonic plague in Western Europe

    Last appearance of Bubonic plague in Western Europe
    The Black Death or Black Plague was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–1353. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, probably causing several forms of plague
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    Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna (German: Wiener Kongress) was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814