The London Stone (AD 43)The London Stone is one of the most ancient
landmarks of London from the Anglo-Saxon period. There is a proverb link to it: “So long as the stone of Brutus is safe, so long shall London flourish”
Period: 43 to 410
The romans (43-410)They participated to the construction of Londinum. Their vestiges are: The London stone The London wall ,despite being destroyed there are still some remains visible. The 1st London Bridge, built in the 9th century. Temple and bathhouses. 61AD: Romans suppresed the uprising of the native people, the Iceni tribe ,who killed 30 000 Londoners. 140AD: There were 50 000 inhabitants. 190AD: Invasion by the Picts from the north. 288AD: Declaration of the Brittanic Empire
Queen BoudiccaAD 61. The Natives tribe (British Celtic) Iceni led by Queen
Boudicca rose up against the Roman, burnt Londinium and killed 30.000 Londoners.After the Romans took Londinium back.
The London WallBuilt between AD 190 and AD 225. One of vestiges of Romans. It
defined the boundaries of Londinium. There are seven gates on the wall: Ludgate,
Newgate, Cripplegate, Bishopsgate, Aldgate, Aldersgate and Moorgate.
It is about 10 feet wide and 20 feet high: enclosed an area of about 330 acres. Trinity
Place: the north of the Tower of London
Period: 410 to 1066
Anglo Saxon invasion of BritainThe Anglo-Saxons were descendants of three different Germanic people: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes. They inhabited and ruled territories that are today part of England and Wales. 5th century : Migration from Northern Germany to Britain in order to provide help to Vortigern in Britain defense against north invaders. 790's : Differents battle against their new ennemies: the Vikings 850 : They made seven kingdoms out of the conquered territories: 1066 : End of Anglo Saons period
Period: 793 to 878
The Vikings’ InvasionsVikings were from Nordic Countries 793: Vikings began to attack monasteries. They stole treasures, stock and provisions and also murdered the monks. 865: They decided to settle permanently because the Danish Vikings army invaded England and seized a lot of the land for their own farms
867:Vikings sailed to Northern and Western Scotland.
871: Alfred the Great became king and took over Wessex after many battles 878: Vikings were defeated by Alfred the Great and lost lands they had conquered
Period: 850 to 1154
The Anglo-Saxon ChroniclesA collection of chronicles written in Old English and
relating the history of the Anglo-Saxons. It was first written in the 9th century during the reign of Alfred the Great. The chronicles were updated until 1154. Today, nine manuscripts have survived but none of them are original versions.
Alfred the Great (849 - 899 )871-899: King of wessex. 875-876: Danes attack Wessex. 6-12 May 878: Battle of Edington (Alfred defeated the Danish army and forced the Danish leader Guthrum to accept baptism and peace terms ). 886: Alfred took London.
Period: 911 to 1066
The Norman Conquest911: By a treaty, Normandy is gained by Viking leader (Rollo) 1016: Cnut becomes king of England 1042: Harthacnut becomes king, when he died, Edward the Confessor became king 1066:
- Death of Edward the Confessor;
- 3 contestants to the throne:
Harold Godwinson, Harald Hardrada and William, in the end
Harold Godwinson becomes king
- Battle of Hastings, Harold dies and William becomes king,
It's the end of English aristocracy and the birth of Norman
Ethelred the Unready (968-1016)Named like that because he was ill advice, lose battles and had
a disastrous reign. He was King twice: 1 st during the fourth wave (of Vikings raids in England between 978-1013) 2 nd 1014-1016. He became king because his mother ordered the murder of his half-brother King Edward I.
Edward the confessor (1004-1066) Reign --> 1042-1066He was the son of Ethelred the unready and of Emma of Normandy. He fled his country and came to Emma's cousin in Normandy
Emma married Cnut and had a son, named Hartacnut. They agreed that Emma's family wont take throne. When his father died Hartacnut refused to inherit the kingdom of England. Harthacnut’s step brother took the crown, when he died Hartacnut became king . Edward became king during Scandinavians' raid while Hartacnut was fighting. At Hartacnut death he became king.
William the Conqueror (1027-1087)1 st king of England (1066-1087) He won the Battle of Hasting
The chronicles of William of Poitiers and William of Jumieges: Edward the Confessor wanted William as his successor because they were brought up together in Normandy and they hated the Godwins.
The Bayeux Tapestry1070 made in England and rediscovered in 1729 in the Bayeux
Long of 70 meters and Large of half a meter.
Depict the events of the Norman Conquest of England by William, Duke of Normandy and Harold, Earl of Wessex. It ends with the battle of Hastings (about Normans’ pointof view).
King Stephen :(aka Stephen of Blois) (1092-1154)He was the nephew of Henry I King of England -> 1135 - 1154
Matilda of Boulogne (1103-1152)Daughter of Henry 1 (cousin of King Stephen) Mother of Henry II Married Geoffroy of Plantagenet 1128 Queen consort of England -> 1135-1141 / 1141-1152
Mary Tudor / Bloody MaryAt power from 1153 to 1158
Bloody Mary because she executed many Protestants. She intended to restore Catholicism in England. Her father Henry VIII made the Acts in 1535 and 1536 that excluded her from the line of Succession.
She gathered troops to enter London ->success -> the end of Lady Jane Grey’sreign.
King John/John Lackland (1166-1216)Crowned in 1199 after the death of his brother Richard I. Famous for having signed the Magna Carta in 1215 (limited monarch’s powers and restated English laws)
Magna CartaMagna Carta is known for being called The Great Charter. It was issued by King John of England in 1215. It is a document which limits the power of everybody including the king. The king John was facing a crisis against the barons of england in 1215 and this why It was a peace solution during this crisis. It has 63 clauses.
Queen Margaret of Anjou (1430-1482)Cousin of French king Louis XI, she had to deal with a arranged marriage with the king Henry VI in 1445. 1454 :She fought for the throne with the duke of York who proclamed himself leader of the country but she lost and had to fled the country 1471 :Battle of Bourgogne ,Edward IV took back the throne by force.
She got imprisoned at the Tower with her husband. Henry died in prison the same day their son was beheaded. 1476 : Her cousin paid a ransom so she cameback in France.
Period: 1455 to 1485
The War of the Roses (1455-1485)Two royal families fought to reach the throne : the House of Lancaster and the House of York. A Rose were the emblem of both houses. 1455 : Battle of St Albans; Richard of York lost and fled to Ireland. He had an ally : Warwick.
1461 :Edward of York is crowned king.
1470 : Edward IV(1442-1483) took Burgundian as allies and became king again. Henry VI is assassinated in the Tower and Margaret ends her life in Anjou.
1485 : Battle of Bosworth ; Henry Tudor became king after Richard III death
Jul 6, 1483
Richard III: last king of the House of York (1452-1485)July 6th 1483 :Richard Duke of Gloucester is crowned King Richard III at the Westminster Abbey. Reigned as King of England: 26 June 1483 - 22 Aug,1485. 22 August 1485: King Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry Tudor ended the Plantagenet dynasty and the War of Roses and heralded the Tudor dynasty.
Henry VIII (1491-1547)Reign : 21 April 1509 / 28 January 1547 He broke away from the Catholic Church in Rome and closed the monasteries in 1534. To help him in his struggle with the Catholic Church, Henry needed help from Protestants despite never being protestant himself. Wife’s : Catherine of Aragon (marriage annulled), Anne Boleyn (executed), Jane Seymour (died), Anne of Cleves (marriage annulled), Katherine Howard (executed), Katherine Parr Children : Mary I, Elizabeth I, Edward VI
Henry VII (1457 – 1509)King of England and Lord of Ireland. He is the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Henry VII won the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. He married Elizabeth of York. Henry VII manages to bring stability and power after
the civil war.
Thomas More (1478-1535)
- He was the Lord Chancellor (1529-1532) of Henry VIII and refused to cancel Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
- He was considered as a traitor and his head was put on a spike on the London Bridge.
Jul 10, 1553
Lady Jane Grey (1537- 1554)Known also as Lady Jane Dudley and as "the Nine Days' Queen"
was an English noblewoman and Queen of England and Ireland
from July the 10th until July the 19th 1553. Chosed by Edward VI (protestant) in order to carry on his church reforms. Jane lost all her supports and Mary Tudor will be choose as new
queen nine day later. Jane was held as a prisoner at the Tower and sentenced to death,
both Jane and her husband were executed on February the 12th 1554.
Elizabeth I (1533-1603)Elizabeth I was the last Tudor monarch. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She was known for being in favor of Protestantism in England but also allowed some old catholic traditions to continue. This is why she was seen as a threat to Queen Mary ( her older half-sister) in 1553. 1558 : She became queen after the death of Mary I, Elizabeth I became queen. She was known for being a virgin queen and never provided an heir to the throne.
The first playhousesThe Reign of Queen Elizabeth I is characterized by the
emergence of Drama. In 1576-1577 the first theatre is built "The Theater"; in Shoreditch, by James Burbage. Other theatres were built in Southwark such as TheCurtain, The Rose, The Hope, The Swan, The Globe. Theatres were the constant attacks of authorities, regulation and censorship.
Guy Fawkes (1570-1606)Famous for taking part of the “Gunpowder Plot” in 1605. The aim of this plot was to blow up the House of Lords on the 5th, November 1605 but also to kill King James I in order to re-establish the Catholic church in England. It was a failure after Fawks was caught preparing the plot. 1606 : Guy Fawkes was arrested and executed with the other conspirators .He was first tortured, and quartered in the Old Palace Yard.
He inspired the famous “Bonfire Night”,celebrated every year in Great Britain
Charles I (1600-1649)Charles I is the only English king to be executed. 1626 : Charles I was crowned King of England. 1642 : Civil war in England officially began as Charles I declared war on Parliament from Nottingham. He went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on, no monarch was allowed entry. 1649 : Charles I is executed at Whitehall, London.
The long Parliament (1640-1660)1640: after the bishops' Wars, the kingdoms is in bankruptcy so the king call a new parliament to pass new bill: the long Parliament It lasted from 1640 until 1660 1649: the king is killed, it's a republic and the parliament is now called the rumpt parliament In 1653: it is recall the long Parliament.
Civil War (1642-1646)2 sides : the supporters of King Charles I: the Royalists and the supporters of the rights and privileges of Parliament: the Parliamentarians.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)Political function : 1653-1658
He was a military and a puritans. The 1 st protector of the Commonwealth f England, Scotland and Ireland. Under King’s Charles I monarchy.
Charles II (1630-1685)King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1660 to 1685.
Abolition of the monarchy by the Commonwealth. He lost the Worcester battle against Oliver Cromwell. 1658: He was invited to come back to England and to be the King after Cromwell’s death.
The Great fire of London (2 sept - 5 sept 1666)It took place through the Central parts of the English city of London. Destruction of:
-87 Parish Churches
-St Paul Cathedral Out of 70,000 of the 80,000 inhabitants’ houses were destroyed. 6 verified deaths were recorded, but we can easily imagine a lot of homeless and poor people were not looked for. Origins of the fire:
Thomas Farriner’s Bakery on Pudding Lane. Firefighting techniques at that time were to create firebreaks by means of demolition.