Western Absolute Monarchies

  • Period: 1272 to

    Bourbon Family Line

    The Bourbon Family would rise from a noble protestant family to the ruling family in France, until a gradual loss of power and eventual dissolution.
  • Period: 1438 to

    Hapsburg Family Dynasty sits on Holy Roman Empires Throne

    The influential Hapsburg family would be the dominant ruling family in the Holy Roman Empire and eventually Spain during this time.
  • Jul 22, 1461

    Reign of Louis XI Begins

    Reign of Louis XI Begins
    Louis XI, also called "the spider king", would subsidize French nobles through taxation and clever spy work.
  • Period: Jul 22, 1461 to Aug 30, 1483

    Reign of Louis XI

    Louis XI, who would become known as the "Spider King", would become known for his political savvy as he reduced the powers of nobles with thorough taxation and cunning spywork.
  • Jan 22, 1479

    Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella Begins

    Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella Begins
  • Period: Jan 22, 1479 to Jan 23, 1516

    Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella

    Ferdinand and Isabella, fierce Catholics, would become known for their brutal tactics against the Moors, and their eventual conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Period: 1485 to

    Tudor Dynasty

    Henry VII would begin the Tudor Dynasty, which ended with the death of the heirless Elizabeth in 1603.
  • Aug 22, 1485

    Reign of Henry VII Begins

    Reign of Henry VII Begins
    Henry VII, the first Tudor, would end civil war in England and greatly reduce noble power with taxation and secret torture.
  • Period: Aug 22, 1485 to Nov 29, 1509

    Reign of Henry VII

    Henry VII, the first Tudor king, would become known for ending the War of the Roses and reducing the power of nobles with his intimidating Court of Star Chamber and taxation. He would also begin the age of English exploration.
  • Jun 16, 1487

    War of the Roses Ends

    War of the Roses Ends
  • Period: Jun 28, 1491 to Jan 28, 1547

    Reign of Henry VIII

    Henry VIII would inherit the throne from his father in 1491, after he came of age. Henry would become known for treating his word as law, as he executed those disloyal to his influential Anglican Church. He would reduce the power of Catholicism in England and usher in Anglican dominance in Britain.
  • 1492

    Reconquista Ends

    Reconquista Ends
    Ferdinand and Isabella seize Grenada, ending Moorish influence in Spain.
  • Jun 28, 1519

    Reign of Charles V Begins

    Reign of Charles V Begins
    Charles V of the Hapsburg empire, also known as Charles I of Spain, would take the crown of Spain, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire on June 28th, 1519.
  • Period: Jun 28, 1519 to Aug 27, 1556

    Reign of Charles V and Charles I of Spain

    During his reign, Charles, a fierce Catholic, would fight Protestantism and Ottoman Turks as he fought to keep his kingdom under relative control, a true emperor at heart. He was mostly successful in this, however, his kingdoms would be weakened when his son and brother divided his empire.
  • Mar 31, 1547

    Reign of Henry II Begins

    Reign of Henry II Begins
  • 1553

    Reign of Mary Tudor Begins

    Reign of Mary Tudor Begins
    Mary I's strong attitude against Protestantism would cause religious disarray in England, and would lead to Spain turning its attention on England.
  • Period: 1553 to Nov 17, 1558

    Reign of Mary Tudor

    Mary, a fierce Catholic, would be relentless in her Crusade against Protestant Anglicanism, as she attempted to restore an English link to Catholic Spain.
  • Dec 16, 1553

    Cromwell Military Rule Begins

    Cromwell Military Rule Begins
    Oliver Cromwell's short but harsh military rule would begin in 1653.
  • Period: Dec 16, 1553 to Sep 3, 1558

    Commonwealth of England under Cromwell

    Cromwell would rule England under a military dictatorship in which he would enforce strict Puritan doctrines and stamp out rebellion on Ireland.
  • Jan 16, 1556

    Phillip II's reign begins

    Phillip II's reign begins
    King Phillip II of Spain would take the throne left by his father, Charles, in 1556, and would soon lose control of his flourishing empire.
  • Period: Jan 16, 1556 to

    Reign of Phillip II

    Phillip II's reign would see him take part in war in the Netherlands, in which he was defeated by the United Provinces, a failed invasion of England, and inflation resulting from spoils of the New World.
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Reign of Elizabeth I Begins

    Reign of Elizabeth I Begins
    Elizabeth I's rule would be one of the most successful in English history, as she gave way to religious toleration, saw expansionist and economic successes, and repelled a large Spanish invasion.
  • Period: Nov 17, 1558 to

    Reign of Elizabeth I

  • Period: 1568 to

    Rebellion of the Netherlands

    Dutch Rebellion against the dominance of Spain, and the union of the Northern Provinces of The Netherlands against Hapsburg Rule. Led to Dutch unification and exploration.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    This massacre, following the orders of Queen Regent Catherine D'Medici, would see the organized murder of thousands of Huguenots.
  • Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    Phillip II's grand armada was embarrassingly defeated by a smaller English navy, and would be forced to retreat to Spain.
  • End of the War of the Three Henrys

    End of the War of the Three Henrys
    This French Civil War, which saw combat between the Bourbon and Valois family would end in a Bourbon-Protestant victory and Henry of Navarre's ascension to the French throne.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    Signed by Henry IV Bourbon, this granted Huguenots civil rights and was an attempt for equality among both religions.
  • Tudor Dynasty Ends

    Tudor Dynasty Ends
  • Period: to

    Stuart Dynasty

    Following the death of the heirless Elizabeth I, the Scottish Stewarts would assume England's throne.
  • Reign of Louis XIII Begins

    Reign of Louis XIII Begins
    Louis XIII would pave the way for Absolutism in France, as he and Cardinal Richelieu began the subsidizing of nobles.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIII

  • Reign of Charles I begins

    Reign of Charles I begins
    Charles's unpopular rule would begin in 1625.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles I

    The reign of Charles I would be spotted with popular disapproval and end with his beheading following the English Civil War.
  • Reign of Louis XIV

    Reign of Louis XIV
    The "Sun king" would see France at its height of militaristic, expansionist, and economic power as he, Richelieu, and his economic advisor, Sully, dominated Europe under Absolutist France.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIV

  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    Cromwell achieves victory over Charles I and his Cavaliers.
  • Reign of Charles II Begins

    Reign of Charles II Begins
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles II

    Charles II would normalize the English monarchy following the dictatorship of Cromwell.
  • Rule of James II begins

    Rule of James II begins
  • Period: to

    War of Spanish Succession

    A war fought between France and several other European powers over the idea of French Dominance of Europe.