6a00d8341c562c53ef014e86b15d52970d 800wi

Social Studies Revolutions

  • Jun 15, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    The Magna Carta was the first document forced upon a King of England. It was a document forcing the King to provide certain liberties to every free man as well as basic rights and freedoms to all citizens of England. It also created the first limited monarchy.
  • Spanish Armada

    Spanish Armada
    The Spanish Armada was a Spanish Fleet that sailed against England with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth the 1st and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands and in privateering in the Atlantic and Pacific.
  • The Mayflower Lands at Plymouth Rock

    The Mayflower Lands at Plymouth Rock
    The Mayflower was a ship that transported English Pilgrims, including a core group of Separatists, to New England. Their story is one of survival in a harsh New World environment.
  • Charles the 1st Becomes King

    Charles the 1st Becomes King
    Charles the 1st was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his royal prerogative, which Charles believed was divinely ordained.
  • Petition of Right

    Petition of Right
    The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing. The Petition restricts taxation, forced billeting of soldiers, imprisonment without cause, and the use of martial law.
  • Short Parliament was Called

    Short Parliament was Called
    The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that sat for three weeks, that is why it is called the Short Parliament. King Charles was forced to call the Short Parliament primarily to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland in the Bishops' Wars. This is a photo of the Speaker, Named Sir John Glanville
  • Long Parliament

    Long Parliament
    The Long Parliament of England was established to pass financial bills, following the Bishops' Wars. Notably the Long Parliament could be dissolved only with the agreement of the members, and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War.
  • Start of the English Civil War

    Start of the English Civil War
    The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political disputes between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers).
  • Creation of the new model army

    Creation of the new model army
    The New Model Army was created in February of 1645 by Parliament. Parliament believed a professional army could defeat the king's army. This new military unit was support to transform the outcome of the Civil War. The commander in chief was General Fairfax. Oliver Cromwell was in charge of the cavalry. This army was based on your ability, not your position in society. The king's army had positions based on nobility.
  • Pride's Purge

    Pride's Purge
    Pride’s Purge was an event that took place in December 1648, during the Second English Civil War, when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the New Model Army.
  • Rump Parliament

    Rump Parliament
    When Oliver Cromwell orginized Pride's Purge, the remaining free Parlimentary members then became the Rump Parliament
  • Execution of Charles the 1st

    Execution of Charles the 1st
    King Charles the 1st was recaptured and sent to Windsor Castle. Charles was then charged with treason and was sentenced to death. On January 30th, 1649, King Charles I was excuted by being beheaded in Whitehall Palace, London England.
  • Blue Laws

    Blue Laws
    England was subject to a set of laws called “Blue Laws.” These laws dictated morality, social behavior, and many minute aspects of life as an Englishman. Based off puritan codes of morality, these laws were later carried over to the America by the puritans.
  • Oliver Cromwell Dies

    Oliver Cromwell Dies
    Oliver Cromwell died miserably becuase in his mind, he had failed to replace the absolute monarch with a different form of government. Instead he thought of himself as another version of the king. He died
  • House of Lords invites Charles the 2nd to become King

    House of Lords invites Charles the 2nd to become King
    Cromwell died in 1658, and Charles II took over the throne. Charles II agreed to give up all feudal dues that were owed by his father. In return, the Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government.
  • London Fire

    London Fire
    The Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner on Pudding Lane, shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, and spread rapidly west across the City of London.
  • Public Hanging of Witches

    Public Hanging of Witches
    This book, called the "mallus maleficarum" of the witches hammer was responsible for the widespread terror and the public hanging of witches throughout the entire country. The main purpose of the Malleus was to attempt to systematically refute arguments claiming that witchcraft does not exist, discredit those who expressed skepticism about its reality, to claim that witches were more often women than men, and to educate magistrates on the procedures that could find them out and convict them.
  • James the 2nd Becomes King

    James the 2nd Becomes King
    Charles died in 1685 after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed. Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. There was little initial opposition to his succession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    This revolution is called "glorious" because there wasn't any bloodshed. James wanted to rule despotically and to re-establish the Roman Catholic religion. The people of England did not like this and revolted. This struggle ended with the people winning. A constitutional monarchy was now established; all the power rested in the hands of the people. The people of England had finally achieved their freedom.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England passed on 16 December 1689.It was a restatement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1689, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. It lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement for regular elections to Parliament.
  • Richard Awkright

    Richard Awkright
    Sir Richard Arkwright, was an Englishman who, although the patents were eventually overturned, is often credited with inventing the spinning frame, later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. He also patented a carding engine that could convert raw cotton into yarn. A self made man, he was a leading entrepreneur of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Seven Years War Ends

    Seven Years War Ends
    The Seven Years' War was a world war that took place between 1754 and 1763 with the main conflict being in the seven year period 1756-1763. It involved most of the great powers of the time and affected Europe and North America.
  • Sugar Act

    This was the first of the taxes that Brittan forced onto the colonies. This tax increased the price of sugar. The colonists rebelled, and the tax was repealed.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The second tax that Brittan forced onto the colonists. This required a stamp to be put onto any paper products. This was also repealed.
  • Father of the Industrial Revolution

    Father of the Industrial Revolution
    Samuel Slater was an early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution", the "Father of the American Factory System". He brought British textile technology to America. He learned textile machinery as an apprentice to a pioneer in the British industry. He brought the knowledge to America where he designed the first textile mills, went into buisness and grew wealthy.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Here, the colonists decided to provoke some Brittish sentries into firing their guns. This was blown out of proportion, and was used to cast the Brittish in a bad light.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    In response to the Tea Act, a few of the Sons Of Liberty members, a radical colonial liberation group, boarded some Brittish ships and destroyed all of the tea there. This caused the tea act to be repealed.
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    This was a string of new laws that the colonists absolutely despised. This closed Boston Harbor, canceled Massachusetts's charter, sent royal officials to Brittan too try them, forced colonists to house British soldiers, gave land to Quebec, and made a military officer the governor of Massachusetts.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    James Watt's revolutionary steam engine powers the industrial revolution forward. James Watt from Scotland designs a more efficient steam engine. One of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution, steam engines power the first trains, steamboats, and factories.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    During this battle, the Brittish tried to take Bunker Hill. They did it, but their death toll was huge. This battle showed that the Americans were willing to stand up to the Brittish for freedom.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    This was the final attempt of the colonists to reconcile with the Brittish. The Brittish basically responded by sending more troops.
  • Lexington and Concord

    The colonists had weapons stored in Lexington and Concord, so the Brittish decided to go there and sieze the weapons from the Colonists. However, Paul Revere decided to ride to Lexington and Concord to warn the colonists that the Brittish were coming. The colonists sucessfully drove the Brittish out.
  • Common Sense

    This was a pamphlet published by Tohmas Paine. This pamphlet gave reasons as to why they should break away and pushed America closer to rebellion.
  • American Declatation Of Independace

    American Declatation Of Independace
    The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they now formed a new nation,the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved in July.
  • Declaration of Independance

    Declaration of Independance
    The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they now formed a new nation,the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved in July.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    During this battle, the Americans were able to sucessfully stop the Brittish plans of dividing and conquering. This battle caused the French to join the American cause.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    This treaty ended the American Revolution. Brittan now had to accept that the Colonies were now an independant country, the United States of America.
  • The Estates General Summoned

    The Estates General Summoned
    The French economy was in chaos by the late 1780s. The decades of war had drained the treasury, and the country was nearly bankrupt. To raise maoney, Louis XVI decided that the people, including the French aristocrats, should pay more taxes. But the aristocrats blocked Louis XVI's plan. In desperation, Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General to address the economic crisis. In fact, when Louis called the meeting, the Estates General had not gathered in more than 170 years.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Third Estate and some clergy who had joined them went to their meeting hall. But the door was locked. Suspecting a plot, they rushed to a nearby indoor tennis court. There, they swore the Tennis Court Oath, vowing to stay put until they had created a constitution that placed power in the hands of the people. This signified the first time that French citizens formally stood in opposition to Louis XVI. It also inspired a wide variety of revolutionary activity in the months afterwards.
  • Fall of the Bastille

    Fall of the Bastille
    Hindreds of angry Parisians successfully attacked the Bastille and took control of this symbol of tyranny. This event inspired other French people to take up arms against the king and the nobility. Storming of Bastille became a nationlist symbol, because they helped share a sense of belonging to a nation. It became a central part of their national myth because it said, "We are a nation. We can govern ourselves." It showed how the actions of ordinary citizens can lead to great change.
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    This declaration abolished traditional privileges enjoyed by the monarch, the clergy, and the aristocracy, sparked a bloody struggle that eventually led to the creation of a French nation based on new principles. It established France as a secular republic. The articles of the declaration set out these principles and became the basis of the new French constitution. It defined the individual and collective rights of all people.The declaration became the catechism of the Revolution in France.
  • National Convention Meets

    National Convention Meets
    The National Convention decreed assistance to "all peoples wishing to recover their liberty." It also ordered that French generals, in the occupied areas, should dissolve the old governments, confiscate government and church property, abolish tithes, hunting rights, and seigneurial dues, and set up provisional administrations. Thus revolution spread in the wake of the successful French armies. Prominent members included Robespierre of the Jacobin Club, Marat, and Danton of the Cordeliers.
  • Louis XVI Executed

    The Convention put Louis XVI on trial for treason, and unanimously pronounced him guilty. As the revolution took hold in France, the ruling elites in other countries watched with growing fear. They were afraid that the events in France might inspire people in their own country to take similar actions. As a result, created threats. In response to outside threats and to ensure that the gains made during the revolution would not be lost, they executed Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette in 1793.
  • Reign of Terron Begins

    Reign of Terron Begins
    Not everyone in France agreed with the way the revolution was being carried out. Many people were horrified by some brutal acts that were taking place and by the execution of the king and the queen. Fearing opposition within the country, revolutionary leaders began a crackdown that became known as the Reign of Terror. The constitution was suspended and anyone who critized the revolution was targeted. About 17,000 people were sentenced to death.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which made the separation of cotton seeds from fiber much faster. The South increased its cotton supply sending raw cotton north to be used in the manufacture of cloth. Francis C. Lowell increased the efficiency in the manufacture of cloth by bringing spinning and weaving processes together into one factory. This led to the development of the textile industry throughout New England.
  • Fall of Robespierre Thermidor Pediod Begins

    Fall of Robespierre Thermidor Pediod Begins
    Robespierre arrested, guillotined without trial, along with other members of the Committee of Public Safety. End of the Reign of Terror. Also called The Thermidorian Reaction. Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety. Thermidor were "bourgeois". The Convention closed the Jacobin club, the most radical group. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
  • Directory Meets

    The first formally constituted French Republic, known as the Directory, lasted only four years. Its weakness was that it rested on an extremely narrow social base, and that it presupposed certain military conquests. Directory was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. With the establishment of the Directory, the Revolution might seem closed. The nation only desired rest and the healing of its many wounds.
  • Napoleon Overthrows Directory

    Napoleon overthrows the Directory by coup d'état, trickery, and force. Directory and the French Revolution itself came to an end with the coup d'état in which Napoléon overthrew the Directory and replaced it with the Consulate. Coup d'état is the sudden unconstitutional deposition of a legitimate government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment typically the military, to replace the deposed government with another, either civil or military.
  • Napoleonic Code

    The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified. The Code, with its stress on clearly written and accessible law, was a major step in establishing the rule of law. Napoleon set out to reform the French legal system in accordance with the ideas of the French Revolution because the old feudal and royal laws seemed to be confusing and contradictory to the people. Code established important provisions regard the law
  • Naploleon Crowns himslef emporer

    Naploleon Crowns himslef emporer
    Napoleon crowns himself Emperor, in the company of the Pope. Napoleon used the plot to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor. Napoleon put on the crown himself, shows that he is higher in rank and authority than the Pope. Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope during the ceremony to avoid his subjugation to the authority. Beethoven a long-time admirer, was disappointed at this turn towards imperialism.
  • Samuel Morris invents the telegraph

    Samuel Morris invents the telegraph
    Samuel Morse invents the telegraph, which allows messages to be sent quickly over a wire. By 1860, telegraph wires stretch from the east coast of the United States west of the Mississippi River.
  • Sewing Machine

    Sewing Machine
    At a time when people had to make their own clothes at home or pay someone else to sew them by hand, Elias Howe invents the sewing machine. Now clothes can be made in large factories.
  • Alfred Nobel creates dynamite

    Alfred Nobel creates dynamite
    Alfred Nobel invents dynamite, which is a safer way to blast holes in mountains or the ground than simply lighting black powder. Dynamite is important in clearing paths to build things such as roads and railroad tracks.
  • Louis Pasteur develops vaccines for diseases.

    Louis Pasteur develops vaccines for diseases.
    A chemist named Louis Pasteur believed that germs caused disease. Using this information, he created vaccines that helped prevent many common diseases, which helped people live longer.
  • Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.

    Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
    He may not have invented the telephone, but Alexander Graham Bell was the first to get a patent for it. Being able to speak to people over a telephone wire greatly changes the way the world communicates.
  • Thomas Edison uses a light bulb to light a lamp.

    Thomas Edison uses a light bulb to light a lamp.
    Not the first man to create a light bulb, Thomas Edison created a light bulb that lasted longer than other designs and showed it off by lighting a lamp. Edison's light bulbs allow people to do many things at night, such as work, that used to only happen during the day.
  • Orville Wright makes the first powered airplane flight

    Orville Wright makes the first powered airplane flight
    Using an engine that they invented, Orville and Wilbur Wright invent the first plane that is not powered by wind. Orville flies the plane for twelve seconds over a beach in North Carolina.
  • Henry Ford creates the Model T.

    Henry Ford creates the Model T.
    Henry Ford creates a type of car called the Model T. It is much cheaper than other cars because it is made on an assembly line, allowing many more people to buy cars.