Civil War & Restoration

  • Puritanism

    Puritanism
    The Puritans were a group of English-speaking Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries. Puritans thought that the English Reformation had not gone far enough. They also did not agree with some of the things the Church of England did. They thought that the Church of England was too much like the Catholic Church in some ways.A Puritan was any person who tried to become more pure through worship and doctrine.
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    Cavalier poets

    Cavalier Poets is a broad description of a school of English poets of the 17th century, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. The Cavalier poets' existence was because King Charles was a connoisseur of the fine arts and therefore demanded their creation, i.e. masques, poetry, and drama.[1] Charles needed these poets to create that which he craved, fine art. These poets in turn grouped themselves with the King and his service.
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    Metaphysical poets

  • Charles I becomes King

    Charles I becomes King
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    Civil War & Restoration

  • Charles I marries

    Charles I marries
    King Charles I married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France at St Augustine's Church, Canterbury, Kent. The marriage was not popular because she was a Catholic.
  • Parliament recalled

    Charles needed money to finance the war with France and Spain and reluctantly recalled Parliament.
  • Parliament dismissed

    Parliament were unhappy with the activities of Charles' chief minister, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham had led a failed mission to Cadiz and it appeared that he was planning to help the French to put down the Protestant Huguenot uprising. Parliament moved to have Buckingham dismissed from office. Charles retaliated by dismissing parliament.
  • Petition of Right

    Parliament formed a committee of grievances and prepared a Petition of Right which was presented to the King. The Petition was designed to protect subjects from any further taxation unauthorised by Parliament.
    Charles signed the document reluctantly.
  • Buckingham assassinated

    George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, was stabbed to death by naval lieutenant John Felton.
  • John Donne dies

  • John Dryden is born

    John Dryden (9 August 1631 – 1 May 1700) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made Poet Laureate in 1668. He is seen as dominating the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott called him "Glorious John."[1]
  • Charles I King of Scotland

    Charles was crowned King of Scotland at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh.
  • National Covenant and Book of Common Prayer

    National Covenant and Book of Common Prayer
    Charles demanded that the Book of Common Prayer be used in the Scottish Kirk. The Calvinist-dominated Scottish church resisted the move. There were riots and a National Covenant was formed which protested against any religious interference in Scotland by England. The Scottish Kirk was so incensed that it expelled the Bishops installed in Scotland by James I.
  • Oliver Cromwell in Parliament

    Oliver Cromwell in Parliament
    Oliver Cromwell was elected to Parliament for the second time. He openly criticised Charles taxes and the level of corruption in the Church of England.
  • Short Parliament

    Short Parliament
    The new Parliament refused to authorise any new taxes until the King agreed to abandon 'ship money'. The King said that he would only abandon ship money if Parliament would grant him enough money to re-open the war with Scotland. Parliament refused and was dismissed after three weeks.
  • Long Parliament

    Long Parliament
    Charles had to have money to pay for an efficient army with which to defeat the Scots. However, he couldn't have the money until he agreed to Parliament's demands which included an Act which stated that parliament should meet once every five years and the arrest for treason of Strafford. Charles had no choice but to comply.
  • Catholic rebellions

    Catholic rebellions
    A Catholic rebellion broke out in Ulster and quickly spread across the country. Many Protestant settlers were driven from their homes and the rebellion became war.
  • The Civil War Begins

    The Civil War Begins
    After a few years of quarrelling, the members of Parliament raised an army to fight against the King. The King moved out of London and took the royal court to Oxford, where he had more loyal followers than in London. The first war was fought between King Charles's army and the army of Parliament. King Charles's army were sometimes called "Cavaliers", and the army of Parliament were sometimes called "Roundheads". Parliament won the first war, and King Charles was put in prison, but he escaped and
  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    The Parliamentarians broke their siege on Oxford and forced the Royalists into battle. Initially the Royalists took up a defensive stance but later the order to attack was given. The battle lasted just three hours and saw the death of most of the Royalist foot soldiers. It was a decisive victory for Parliament. Charles fled the battlefield as soon as it was apparent that he had lost both the battle and the war.
  • Charles I surrenders

    Charles I surrenders
    Charles I surrendered to the Scots.
  • Charles I imprisoned

    Charles I imprisoned
    The Scots handed Charles over to parliament. He was imprisoned in Holdenby House, Northamptonshire
  • Rump Parliament

    The Rump Parliament began. All members of Parliament who were in favour of negotiating with the King had been expelled. The Rump Parliament gave parliament the right to make new Acts of Parliament without the king's approval
  • Charles I executed

    Charles I executed
    The King was declared guilty at a public session on Saturday 27 January 1649 and sentenced to death. Fifty-nine of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant.
    Charles Stuart, as his death warrant states, was beheaded on Tuesday, 30 January 1649. It was reported that before the execution he wore warmer clothing to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness.
  • Paradise Lost by John Milton

  • The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan

  • Charles II dissolves Parliament

    Exclusion Bill was passed.
  • The Ashmolean Museum

    In Oxford, opened as the first University Museum.
  • Rye House Plot

    The plot to assassinate Charles II was discovered.
  • Coronation of King James II

    at Westminster Abbey
  • James II disregards Test Act.

    James II disregards Test Act.
    Roman Catholics appointed to public office
  • Declaration of Indulgence

    King James II issues the Declaration of Indulgence (or Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience), suspending laws against Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
  • First Jacobite rising

    First Jacobite rising: Scottish Covenanter supporters of William and Mary (under Hugh Mackay) are defeated by Jacobite supporters of James at the Battle of Killiecrankie but the latter's leader, John Graham, Viscount Dundee, is killed.
  • William III becomes King

  • Corroupt Practices Act

    LinkParliament passes the Corrupt Practices Act to tackle bribery in general elections
  • Window Tax

  • Steam Pump introduced

    by Thomas Savery
  • Act of Settlement

    Act of Settlement
    The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns and thrones on the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James I) and her non-Roman Catholic heirs.
  • The Treaty of Grand Alliance

    Signed between England, Austria and the Dutch Republic. The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, the Dutch Republic, England, the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Scotland, Spain and Sweden. The organization, which was founded in 1686 as the League of Augsburg, was known as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined the League (in 1689). It was originally formed in an attempt to ha
  • Anne Stewart, Princess of Denmark, becomes Queen Anne of England

    Anne Stewart, Princess of Denmark, becomes Queen Anne of England
    Queen Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714[1]) ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Act of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, were united as a single sovereign state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.
  • The first regular English language national newspaper

    The first regular English language national newspaper
    The Daily Courant, is published for the first time