Chapter 16

  • Henry IV comes to power in France. He has inherited a nation plagued by civil war and poor harvests.

    Henry IV comes to power in France. He has inherited a nation plagued by civil war and poor harvests.
  • Henry IV goes to war with Savoy. This marked the only conflict France entered during the reign of Henry IV.

  • The Founding of the Dutch East India COmpany

    The company is significant because it was a joint stock company that paid investors in proportion to what they invested whenever the company amde a profit. The company helped imperialize South America and Africa. It also helped to increase the standard of living in the Netherlands because they brought great wealth to the nation.
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    Reign of James I

    James I was a strong supporter of the divine right of kings. He went so far as to lecture the House of Commons about his control of the liberties and property of all English citizens. He was bad at finances and was left a large amount of debt by Elizabeth I. His situation was made more difficult because the House of COmmons refused to use state money to aid the king.
  • Henry IV was murdered by a fanatic. The child-king Louis XIII came to power, but his mother Marie de' Medici was the de facto ruler of France until Louis XIII reached adulthood.

  • Richelieu became president of the French Council of Ministers. The event marked the decline of the Huegnots in France.

  • The Royal Council is Reshuffled

    Richelieu removes many nobles and power brokers from the royal council. This is significant because it demonstrates Richelieu's determination to centralize the French state.
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    Reign of Charles I

    Charles I is significant because he ruled without Parliament. He financed his government by a variety of taxes considered illegal by the English people. Man members of Parliament considered his rule to be an example of absolute depotism.
  • Louis VIII cut off English aid to the Protestants within France by laying siege to the city of La Rochelle. Th city's walls were destroyed and its government was supressed. Richelieu led the first Catholic mass in the formerly Huguenot controlled city.

  • Richelieu became the first minister of the French crown. He attempted to make all groups subordinate to the crown. He leveled castles and prevented conspiracies through the execution of aristocrats. The evnt demonstrated that the French government was bec

  • Charles I Dissolves Parliament

  • The French Academy was born after Richelieu gave official recognition to a group of philologists interested in standardizing the French language.

  • Revolt in Portugal

    Portugal revolted against Spanish rule. The event is significant because it shows that Spain had become so weak that it could not even maintain itself as a central state.
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    Long Parliament

    The Long Parliament was called to raise money to repel a feared Scottish invasion. It enacted legislation that limited the power of the monarch and made arbitrary government impossible. It then started to attack the king's rule even further by attacking episcopacy.
  • Triennial Act

    The act is significant because it required the king to summon Parliament every three years.
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    The English Civil War

    Charles I instigated military action against Parliament for refusing to grant him a standing army. He recruited an army consisting of mercenaries, nobles, cavalry staff and rural gentry. The civil war tested whether sovereignty was to reside in a king or Parliament. The war did not actual solve this issue, but it ended with the defeat of Charles I.
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    The Reign of Louis XIV

    Louis XIV ruled as an absolute monarch.Amongst other accomplishments, he built the palace of Versailles, revoked the Edict of Nantes and centralized the power of the French state.
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    The Fronde occurs in France. Popular rebellions led by nobles alarmed by the increase of royal power spread throughout France and into Pris. The Fronde disrupted the French economy and resulted in the king exempting nobles from taxes.

    One of the most notable impacts of the Fronde is that Louis XIVgained the belief that the sole alternative to anarchy is a strong monarchy.
  • Execution of Charles I

    Charles I was executed for high treason. The event is significant because it set the precedent in England that the king is not above the law.
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    Interregnum

    This time period seperates two period of rule by a monarch. Oliver Cromwell rulled England for most of this time span. In theory, he was the leader of a republic. In actuality, he led a military dictatorship. He declared martial law over England after multiple disagreements with Parliament.
  • Rebellion at Drogheda

    Oliver Cromwell crushed an Irish Catholic uprising. The event demonstrates that his religious toleration did not extend to Catholics. In addition, it caused Irish resentment of the English.
  • Fall of Spanish Trade

    By this date, Spanish trade with her colonies had declined by 60%. This is significant because it demonstrates that Spain was no longer a great power.
  • Navigation Acts

    Cromwell orders that goods brought into England had to be imported on British ships. The act was a form of economic warfare against the Dutch. In addition, it boosted the development of the British merchant marine.
  • The Dutch Found Cape Town

    Cape Town is in Southern Africa. It was founded as a fueling station for for ships crossing the Pacific. This demonstrates that Dutch trade sometimes led to imperialism.
  • The French Army Theoretically has 250,000 Soldiers In It

    This demonstrates that the military might of France was heavily increased during the rule of Louis XIV.
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    Reign of Charles II

    Charles II was more interested in getting along with Parliament than previous monarchs. He created a council to act as a liason between Parliament and the king.
  • The Invasion of Flanders

    Louis XIV invades Flanders. He captured twelve towns, including the economic centers of Lille and Tournai. This demonstrates the power of the French army.
  • Charles II's Secret Agreement with Louis XIV

    Charles II agrred to relax laws against Catholics, re-catholicize England, support French policy against the Dutch and eventually convert to Catholicism. In return, Charles II would recieve 200,000 pounds annually. The secret agreement leaked out and hysteria resulted.
  • Invasion of Holland

    Louis XIV leads an army of 100,000 soldiers into Holland. The Dutch save themselves by breaking their dikes and flooding the countryside.
  • Test Act

    The act prevented anyone who did not recognize the Eucharist of the Church of England from voting, holding office, preaching, assembling for meetings or even attending a university. It is significant because it was a concession to Parliament, which whiched to impose religious conformity.
  • Colbert Improves the French Merchant Marine

    By this date, the French merchant marine had over 276 frigates, galleys and ships of the line. This is significant because it demonstrates COlbert's support of mercantilism. According to the policy, a country should sell more goods that it bought.
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    Reign of James II

    James II succesfully succeded his brother despite challenges from Parliament. He violated the Test Act by appointing Catholics to government positions and granted religious freedom for all English people. In June 1688, his wife produced a male heir. The English people thought that a Catholic dynasty was at-hand.
  • Mass Peasant Defections

    Taxes are increased on French peasants at the same time that they are suffering from poor harvests and a deflated currency. As a result, many peasants emigrated from France. Due to the loss of such a large number of taxable people, the financial resources of France greatly decreased.
  • The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes and denied Huegnots the right to worship. The edict was never ment to be permanent. Rather, it was supposed to be a temporary solution to the religious wars in France. It was also politically unpopular. Louis XIV disliked it because he felt that he needed a religiously unified kingdom to rule effectively. The results of the revocation were minor. Protestant dislike for Louis XIV increased in the North and many Huegenot craftsmen and soldiers emigrated.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    Parliament urged Jame's Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, Prince William of Orange, to take the crown of England. They succesfully invaded and were crowned king and queen early in 1689. The event is significant because Mary and William, both of whom were Dutch, agreed to share power with Parliament. They also passed the English Bill of Rights, which protected many freedoms such as free speech and freedom of worship. It also protected judges from arbitrary removal.
  • Confiscation of French Silver

    To continue France's war effort, Louis XIV order's that all of France's silverware be turned over to the mint. Louis XIV actually sent all of the silver furniture from Versailles to the mint to be melted down. The collections did little good and the peasants were forced to pay even more taxes.
  • Second Treatise of Civil Government

    John Locke wrote this work as a defense of the Glorious Revolution. He argued that all people have unalienable rights such as the rights to life, liberty and property. Governments that violated these rights should be overthrown in a popular uprising. Locke also linked economic freedom with individual freedom.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The war started after Louis XIV attempted to give his grandson both the French and Spanish crown. He was defeated by a coalition consisting of the English, Dutch, Austrians and Prussians after twelve years of fighting. The war was partially fought because many of the members of the Grand Alliance feared France's growing economic powers.
  • The Peace of Utrecht

    Louis XIV was forced to cede Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Hudson Bay to Britain. The peace signified the failure of the French effort to join the French and Spanish crowns. The peace also marked the decline of Spain, maintained the balance of power in Europe and gave Europe experiance in international cooperation.