300px battle of naseby

Socials - British Civil War, American Revolution, French Revolution and Industrial Revolution

  • Jun 15, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    Magna Carta (The Great Charter of the Liberties of England) was the first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects.
    - limited his powers by law and protect people's privileges.
  • Jul 29, 1567

    James VI - crowned King of Scotland

    James VI - crowned King of Scotland
  • Period: to

    Enlightened thinkers (date is from the first enlightened thinker's birth to the last enlightened thinker's death)

    Montesquieu -famous for his articulation of powers - model of a governance of a state with judiciary, legislature, executive
    Locke • Believed people had right to overthrow government if they didn't protect people's natural rights
    Rousseau: Believed people are good but are destroyed by government and modern society - wanted to get rid of all titles
    Voltaire - believed monarchy was in some ways good for society, he hated injustice
    Hobbes - social contract
  • King James VI Marries Queen Anne of Denmark

    King James VI Marries Queen Anne of Denmark
    Had 4 daughters and 3 sons
    survived: Henry Prince of Whales, Elizabeth - Queen of Bohemia, Charles - Sucessor
  • Daemonologie written by King James VI

    Daemonologie written by King James VI
    Don't know date
    - He was obsessed with witches and witch hunts after visiting Denmark
  • Charles is born (future King) - Chalres I

    Charles is born (future King) - Chalres I
    • Is short - 5ft 4inch
    • has disabilities but is determined and arrogant, great patron of the arts
  • James I (James VI of Scotland) crowned King of England

    James I (James VI of Scotland) crowned King of England
    He succeeded Elizabeth I, when she died, and became James I
  • Period: to

    King James VI/I is ruler

    • Believed in the Divine Right of Kings
    * Intelligent man but had a talent for doing the wrong thing
    • He gave incompetent advisors titles. His favourite was The Duke of Buckingham (gay friend) - insulted many nobles
    • Didn't consult parliament - always running out of money so he was always finding new sources
    • When he did call parliament they only agreede to increasing taxes if he gave more powers to parliament
    • Allied with the Church of England (disliked Puritans)
    • Encouraged games, fun
  • Discovery of Gunpowder plot to blow up King and Parliament

    Discovery of Gunpowder plot to blow up King and Parliament
    The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.
    They tried to blow up the House of Lords, as they were upset that he was Protestant and not Catholic (like them)
  • Execution of the Gunpowder Plot

    Execution of the Gunpowder Plot
  • Release of King James I Bible

    Release of King James I Bible
    • no actual date
    • called a great piece of English Literature
  • James Dissolved Parliament

    James Dissolved Parliament
    He wanted to rule without Parliament.
  • Death of King James I

    Death of King James I
    Died due to stomach problems - succeeded by son Charles
  • Charles Suceeds King James I

    Charles Suceeds King James I
  • Henrietta marries Charles

    Henrietta marries Charles
    • Henrietta married Charles by proxy on 11 May 1625, shortly after his accession to the throne.
    • They were then married in person at St. Augustine's Church, Canterbury, Kent, on 13 June 1625
  • Charles is crowned King of England

    Charles is crowned King of England
    He liked an extravagant life
    - at first he relied upon his Father's favourite the Duke of Buckingham
    - constantly needed mor emoney - imposed ship money, tunnage and poundage and the Court of Star Chamber
  • Period: to

    King Charles I rules

    • is friends with Buckingham (like Dad)
    • dismisses parliament
    • taxes in illegal ways - Lord Stafford
    • Court of Star Chamber - unfair and secret
    • needs money - parliament forces him to sign petition of rights
    * Laud suggests imposing prayer books on Presbyterians in Scotland
    • riots break out so Charles needs money for war from parliament (parliament - puritans) - marches to Scotland
    • dismisses parliament creates long parliament
    • grand remonstrance passes barely
    * tries to arrest 5MPs
  • Charles dissolve parliament

    Charles dissolve parliament
  • Petiton of Rights is passed

    Petiton of Rights is passed
    The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing. Passed on 7 June 1628, the Petition contains restrictions on non-Parliamentary taxation, forced billeting of soldiers, imprisonment without cause, and restricts the use of martial law.
    Charles needed money, and would only recieve it if he signed the document
  • Asasination of Duke of Buckingham

    Asasination of Duke of Buckingham
  • Charles crowned King of Scotland

    Charles crowned King of Scotland
  • Period: to

    Charles I in trouble

    • has alliented English people on religious and political grounds
    • attempts to force the Scots to worship in the style of the Church of England (who are presbyterians) - gives prayer books
    • Thousands of Presbyterians sign covenant to resist his demand - results in revolt
  • King Charles I needs help

    King Charles I needs help
  • King Charles I summons the Short Parliament

    King Charles I summons the Short Parliament
    • bringing his eleven-year Personal Rule to an end.
  • Period: to

    Short Parliament

  • The King dissolves the Short Parliament

    The King dissolves the Short Parliament
    The King dissolves the Short Parliament when MPs refuse to grant him subsidies for war against Scotland.
  • The Scots defeat the English army at the battle of Newburn

    The Scots defeat the English army at the battle of Newburn
    during the Second Bishops' War between a Scottish Covenanter army led by General Alexander Leslie and English royalist forces commanded by Edward, Lord Conway.
    - Charles I had no choice but to agree to a truce, under which the Scottish army in northern England would be paid daily expenses, pending a final treaty of peace. To raise the necessary funds Charles had to call the Long Parliament (this set in motion a process that would lead to the outbreak of the English Civil War two years later)
  • The Treaty of Ripon ends the Bishops' Wars.

    The Treaty of Ripon ends the Bishops' Wars.
    The Treaty of Ripon was an agreement signed by Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Scottish Covenanters on 26 October 1640, in the aftermath of the Second Bishops' War.
  • Desperately short of money, King Charles summons the Long Parliament.

    Desperately short of money, King Charles summons the Long Parliament.
    his illeagal ways of getting money (billeting, tunnage and poundage, ship money, and selling titles)
  • Beginning of Long Parliament

    Beginning of Long Parliament
    The Long Parliament of England was established on 3 November 1640 to pass financial bills, following the Bishops' Wars.
    - deciding how much power a king has by right
    - passes Grand Remonstrance (barely)
    - not dismissed for a long time
  • The Earl of Strafford impeached by Parliament.

    The Earl of Strafford impeached by Parliament.
    Charles gave into Parliament and turned in Lord Stafford
  • The House of Commons declares ship-money to be an illegal tax.

    The House of Commons declares ship-money to be an illegal tax.
  • Impeachment of Archbishop Laud

    Impeachment of Archbishop Laud
  • Triennial Act Passed

    The Triennial Act passed, guaranteeing that Parliament will be called at least once every three years.
  • Opening of the trial of the Earl of Strafford.

    Opening of the trial of the Earl of Strafford.
    He is to be executed
  • The King reluctantly assents to the act of attainder against the Earl of Strafford.

    He gave into Parliament
  • Execution of the Earl of Strafford

    Execution of the Earl of Strafford
  • Stafford Executed

  • Parliament abolishes the courts of star chamber and many more

    Parliament abolishes the courts of star chamber and many more
    Parliament abolishes the courts of High Commission and Star Chamber; the Council of Wales and the North abolished; powers of the Privy Council suppressed.
  • The House of Commons passes a resolution for the destruction of altar rails, crucifixes and other 'innovations' introduced under the Laudian reforms.

    The House of Commons passes a resolution for the destruction of altar rails, crucifixes and other 'innovations' introduced under the Laudian reforms.
    The House of Commons passes a resolution for the destruction of altar rails, crucifixes and other 'innovations' introduced under the Laudian reforms.
  • News of the Irish Uprising reaches London

  • Parliament votes in favor of Grand Remonstrance

    Parliament votes in favor of Grand Remonstrance
  • The Grand Remonstrance presented to King Charles at Hampton Court

    Changes role of KIng in government and removes many of his powers
  • Riots at Westminster against bishops and papists.

  • King Charles can't arrest 5 MPs

    King Charles can't arrest 5 MPs
    The King fails in his attempt to arrest the Five Members regarded as his leading opponents in Parliament.
  • Royal Family leaves London

    Popular support for Parliament forces the King and royal family to leave London.
  • The King refuses to surrender control of the militia to Parliament.

  • King Declares War on Parliament

    Civil War Begins
  • Parliament passes the Militia Ordinance, despite the King's objection

    Parliament passes the Militia Ordinance, despite the King's objection
    Parliament passes the Militia Ordinance, despite the King's objection
    The Militia Ordinance was a piece of legislation passed by the Long Parliament of England in March 1642, which was a major step towards the Civil War between the King and Parliament of England
  • King Charles sets up his court at York.

    King Charles sets up his court at York.
    April 1642: When the London mob made life too dangerous for King Charles I in the capital, he moved to York, bringing his family and court with him
  • King stopped from entering Hull

    King stopped from entering Hull
    Sir John Hotham prevents the King and his entourage from entering Hull, the site of England's main northern arsenal.
  • Nineteen Prepositions passed by Parliament

    Nineteen Prepositions passed by Parliament
    The Nineteen Propositions passed by Parliament, requiring the King to give up control of the militia and the right to appoint ministers.
  • The King rejects the Nineteen Propositions

    The King rejects the Nineteen Propositions
  • Earl of Warwivk as Admiral of fleet

    The fleet declares for Parliament and accepts the Earl of Warwick as its Admiral.
  • First Military Action of Civil War

    The first military action of the English Civil War takes place when a Royalist raiding party approaches Hull to burn down buildings outside the town walls, but is driven away by gunfire from the defenders.
  • Parliament resolves to raise an army. The Earl of Essex commissioned Captain-General.

  • King and Parliament now at war

    King Charles raises the royal standard at Nottingham Castle. King and Parliament now at war.
  • King's army withdraws to Oxford

    The King's army withdraws to Oxford which remains the Royalist capital for the rest of the war.
  • Battle of Marston Moor

    Battle of Marston Moor
    New Model army defeats the Royalist army
  • Execution of Archbishop Laud

  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    New model army defeats royalist army
  • Charles I Trial

    Charles I Trial
    Accused of treason (accused of treasonoverthrowing against/overthrowinghimself)
  • Pride's purge

    Pride's purge
    Cromwell and Parliament remove 143 Presbyterian members leaving only 60 members (Rump Parliament).
  • Charles beheaded (dies)

  • Charles II becomes the King of the Scots

    Charles II becomes the King of the Scots
  • The Rump Parliament had a vote on whether to Abolish the Monarchy

  • Cromwell visits Ireland

    Cromwell visits Ireland
    There he secured Leinster, Ulster and munster for the commonwealth before he leaves
  • Charles II runs away to Normandy

    Charles II runs away to Normandy
  • Cromwell splits up his Rump Parliament

    Cromwell splits up his Rump Parliament
  • Cromwell becomes "Lord Protector"

    Cromwell becomes "Lord Protector"
    Denior military officers name Cromwell Lord Protector
    - he divided country up into districts ruled by major generals
  • Oliver Cromwell dies - Son is succesor

    Oliver Cromwell dies - Son is succesor
    Richard Cromwell is successor (decided by Srmy and Council)
  • Charles II dies

  • Richard Cromwell Resigns

    Richard Cromwell Resigns
  • The Test Act is passed

    The Test Act is passed
    It doesn't allow annyone who is not part of the Church to be in political office (no catholics)
  • William of Orange and mary given the throne

    William of Orange and mary given the throne
    Parliament chooses monarchy (first time ever). They are chosen as they are protestant (Mary is James's daughter though). They must agree to the bill of rights.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    Mary and William of orange sign the bill of Rights
    - ensured Parliament was the true government
    - people can petiton the King
    - elections of members of parliament are free
    freedom of speech
  • Enclosures being used

    Enclosures being used
    People really starting to adopt enclosure, and are consolidating land into larger more productive firleds
  • Seed Drill invented - by Jethro Tull

    Seed Drill invented - by Jethro Tull
    Jethro Tull created the Seed Drill which helped culitvate the land faster and more efficently.This invention helped begin the Agriculture Revolution, which helped with the food supply for the Industrial Revolution.
  • Steam Engine - Thomas Newcomen

    Steam Engine - Thomas Newcomen
    Thomas Newcomen created the first steam engine which was used to pump water out of the mines. He helped begin the Industrial Revolution with this invention of steam power. It harnessed the power of compressed steam. It provided a solution for the problem of a lack of power in the factoories.
  • Period: to

    Turnip Townshend

  • Flying Shuttle

    Flying Shuttle
    The "flying shuttle" was invented by John Kay. It made weaving much faster and allowed large looms to be operated only by one person. Used springs and levers to pull the shuttle back after it had crossed the threads.
  • Abraham Darby invenetd a process for makong better cast iron

    Abraham Darby invenetd a process for makong better cast iron
    This soon allowed cast iron products to be available everywhere. It could be used from pots to bridge supports. England became the world's leading cast iron producer. Coal industry grew with the cast iron industry (as coal is used in its manufacture).
  • King Louis XVI born

    King Louis XVI born
  • Fall of Quebec - surrendered to British - 1759

    Fall of Quebec - surrendered to British - 1759
  • First Canal Built

    Important as it improved transportation, which was a key component of the Industrial Revolution (producing items and transporting them to other areas)
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    George announces that land west of the Appalachian Mountains (Ohio Valley and West) were not open for speculation, those who were there are ordered out.
    Natives stay on their land, but Colonists feel like second-class citizens
  • Spinning Jenny

    Spinning Jenny
    James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny, which revolutionized the textile industry. His improvements to his machine by the late 1700s allowed 80 threads to be working at a time. It was a device, driven by a hand-cranked wheel, which allowed a spinner to spin multiple threads at a time. This spinner could to the work of multiple spinners. His invention definitely pushed and improved the Industrial Revolution
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    A small tax, like a Good and Services Tax on many goods and some government services. Tax was in the form of a stamp that people had to buy and stick on everything. It was supposed to pay for the cost of defending the American colonies. Officers sent to enforce the tax were often attacked, tarred and feathered. Houses of government officials were destroyed. Protests and lawlessness scared English Parliament. Many politicians and English people, sided with the Americans. - Removed in 1766
  • Sons of liberty

    Sons of liberty
    Inter-colonial organization that had public demontrations (mostly upper and middle class, but wanted all classes to participate)
    The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to take to the streets against the taxes by the British government. They are best known for undertaking the Boston Tea Party in 1773, which led to the Intolerable Acts
  • Stamp Act Removed

    Stamp Act Removed
  • Samuel Slater Born

    Samuel Slater Born
  • Water Frame

    Water Frame
    This invention improved the spinning. Richard Arkwright developed the Water Frame. It was a way of of spinning yarn using rollers. Improved the strength of the yarn being spun.
    Later, Samuel Compton created the "mule", which combined the best features of the spinning Jenny and the Water Frame.
  • Napolean Born

    Napolean Born
    August 15: Napoleon Bonaparte born in Ajaccio, Corsica
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Britain was making more moves that angered the Colonists.A mob of protesters gathered on King Street. Boston, in front of a sentry who stood on guard at the customs house.Initially it was a small group that grew to over 400 people The Americans taunted the soldiers and clubbed Montgomery The soldiers then fired and 11 men were killed (plus 2 later due to injury)
  • The Tea Act

    The Tea Act
    In May of 1773 the British Parliament gave the struggling East India Company a monopoly on the importation of tea to America. Parliament also reduced the duty the colonies would have to pay for the imported tea. It was cheaper than other tea, but if the colonies paid the duty tax on the imported tea they would be acknowledging Parliament's right to tax them.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    In reaction to the Tea Act some members of the Sons of Liberty , lead by Samuel Adams, disguised themselves as Native Americans (Mohawks). They then climbed on to 3 ships and dumped 45 tons of tea into the harbor. They said it was a principled protest and the only remaining option that people had, to defend their constitutional rights
  • Quebec Act changes Quebec to a British Colony

    Quebec Act changes Quebec to a British Colony
    Quebec Act changes Quebec to a British Colony - not just land under military rule
    *not actual date
  • Boston Port Act - Intolerable Act

    Boston Port Act - Intolerable Act
  • King Louis XVI crowned

    King Louis XVI crowned
    19 years old
    He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment to 'despotic' monarchy was on the rise. Louis also felt woefully unqualified for the job.
  • Administartion of Justice Act - Intolerable Acts

    Administartion of Justice Act - Intolerable Acts
  • Massachusetts Government Act - Intolerable Act

    Massachusetts Government Act - Intolerable Act
    It altered the government of Massachusetts, as almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointed by the governor or the king. It also limited the activities of town meetings in Massachusetts to one meeting a year (unless the Governor calls for one).
  • Quartering Act - Intolerable Act

    Quartering Act - Intolerable Act
  • Period: to

    First Continental Congress

  • Steam Engine - improved by James Watt

    Steam Engine - improved by James Watt
    James Watt improved Newcomen's steam engine. He figured out a way to get the maximum use out of the steam being produced form the engine. His new engine was much more practical and efficent, producing realitively little waste. Watt adapted the engie so it could be used to drive machines. He solved the problem of powering the factory age.
  • Battle of Lexingon and Concord

    Battle of Lexingon and Concord
  • The Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia

    The Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    British won
    - Americans didn't shoot until they saw the whites of the britishe's eyes (depleated British)
  • Period: to

    Congress debates and revises the Declaration of Independence

  • Battle of Brooklyn

    First real battle in the American Revolution
    - first of many Washinfton escapes
  • Battle at Princeton

    Battle at Princeton
    famous american victory
    - Washington crooses the Delaware
    - after Christmas
    - surprised druken hessians
    - got 900 prisonersbattle was 45 minutes
  • Battle at Saratoga

    Battle at Saratoga
    Burgoyne's 3 pronged plan failed - so he surrendered
    This convinced French to help Americans - gave them money, ships, ammunition
  • Battle at Yorktown

    Battle at Yorktown
    General cornwallis was defeate by George Washington
    - last major battle in the American Revolution
    - American forces pursued Cornwallis by land while French ships surrounded the bay of Yorktown
  • Steam- powered Mills

    Steam- powered Mills
    Steam powered mills put into the factories
  • Napolean Graduates

    Napolean Graduates
    Graduates from Ecole Militaire with the rank of second lieutenant in the artillery.
  • Louis XVI calls meeting of the Estates-General

    Louis XVI calls meeting of the Estates-General
  • The Third Estate declares itself the "National Assembly"

    The Third Estate declares itself the "National Assembly"
    A few liberal nobles and many clergy join the movement of the Third Estate.
    - Tennis Court Oath: After being locked out of their meeting room, deputies of the Third Estate assembled on a tennis court and swore not to separate until a constitutional regime was established.
  • The National Assembly proclaims itself the constituent National Assembly

    The National Assembly proclaims itself the constituent National Assembly
    The National Assembly proclaims itself the Constituent National Assembly, with full authority and power to decree laws; their primary task is to draw up and adopt a constitution.
  • The Storming of the Bastille

    Third Estate storms the Bastille to get the guns, and destroy the building
    - flashpoint to the Fench Revolution
  • End of Feudalism and serfdom in France - announced by National Assembly

    Eliminated duties of lower class peasants called serfs (people are basically saying no more feudal systems)
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man was issued by the National Assembly

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man was issued by the National Assembly
    it is a fundamental document of the French Revolution
    - defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal.
    - the rights of man are held to be universal
  • The Women of Paris invaded Versailles

    The Women of Paris invaded Versailles
    Parisians, led by a large number of women, march upon Versailles and force the royal family back to Paris, where they take up residence at the Tuileries.
  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was passed.

    The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was passed.
  • Period: to

    The Constitution of 1791 was adopted

    The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty, following the steps of the United States of America.
  • Louis XVI and his family were arrested while trying to flee from France but were arrested

    Louis XVI and his family were arrested while trying to flee from France but were arrested
  • France declared war on Austria

  • The First meeting of the National Convention was held.

  • Commencement of the trial of Louis XVI

    He has 33 charges
    (26 deputies away but remaining 693 vote d"yes" to guilty)
    - Was then executed
  • King Louis XVI Executed

    King Louis XVI Executed
    By guillotine
  • Louis XVI sentenced to the guillotine

    Louis XVI sentenced to the guillotine
    Took place at Place de la Révolution (Revolution Square)
    - found guilty
    - first victim of the Reign of Terror
  • Start of the Reign of Terror.

    Start of the Reign of Terror.
    Fearing opposition within the country, revolutionary leaders began a crackdown that became known as the Reign of Terror. This period lasted for 11 months in 1793 and 1794. The constitution was suspended and anyone who critized the revolution was targeted. About 17,00 were sentenced to Death.
  • A National Draft was issued calling for all able-bodied men to enlist in the army

  • Period: to

    The Reign of Terror court sentenced 20,000 to 40,000 people to death

  • The National Convention arrested Robespierre.

    The National Convention arrested Robespierre.
  • Robespierre beheaded

    Robespierre beheaded
  • Napolean imprisoned

    Napolean imprisoned
    August 9–20: Napoleon is imprisoned under suspicion of being a Jacobin and a supporter of Robespierre.
  • A new Constitution was adopted

  • Napoleon is given command of the French army in Italy

    Napoleon is given command of the French army in Italy
    Begins his journey of being a great leader
  • November 17: Napoleon wins the Battle of Arcole

    November 17: Napoleon wins the Battle of Arcole
    November 17: Napoleon wins the Battle of Arcole
    The Battle of Arcole or Battle of Arcola (15–17 November 1796) saw a bold manoeuvre by Napoleon Bonaparte's French Army of Italy to outflank the Austrian army under József Alvinczi and cut its line of retreat.
  • Napolean wins battle of Rivoli

    Napolean wins battle of Rivoli
    January 14: Napoleon wins the Battle of Rivoli
    October 17: Treaty of Campo-Formio with Austria.
    December 5: Napoleon returns to Paris as a hero
  • Napoleon begins his Egyptian campaign with an army of 38,000

    Napoleon begins his Egyptian campaign with an army of 38,000
  • The fall of the Directory heralds the end of the French Revolution.

  • English Factories Act (Health and Morals of Apprentices Act)

  • Civil Code imposed

    Civil Code imposed
    Introduction of the Civil Code (also known as Code Napoleon)
    Also in May, Napoleon proclaimed Emperor by the Senate.
  • Napolean Bonaparte becomes Emperor

    Napolean Bonaparte becomes Emperor
    Crowns himself (takes crown from pope)
  • Napoleon crowns himself Emperor, in the company of the Pope.

  • Napolean Escapes from Elba

    Napolean Escapes from Elba
    Napoleon escapes from Elba - was exiled there by other leaders in Europe. Returns to Paris on March 20th
    - he hears he is needed again
  • Napolean exiled to Saint Helena

    Napolean exiled to Saint Helena
    Napoleon is exiled to Saint Helena (second time to an island in the middle of nowhere)
  • Napoleon dies

    Napoleon dies
    Napolean dies due to stomach cancer
  • Locomotive

    Locomotive
    In 1829, George and Robert Stephenson built a locomotive called the rocket that could pull a small train at a speed of 39km/hour. Nothing built by humans had ever travelled so fast.
  • Liver Pool - Manchester Railway opened

    Liver Pool - Manchester Railway opened
    major in transportaion in England
  • Fcatory Act

    Fcatory Act
    In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows:
    No child workers under nine years of age
    Employers must have an age certificate for their child workers
    Children of:
    9-13 years to work no more than nine hours a day
    13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day
    Children are not to work at night
    2 hours of school / day
  • Poor Law - Reformed